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k.mcr> Walker CulMyiKT 



. De-i^A' 





lucludiHii the History j/iit MjiLiiitnuiit of 

Toy SpJ}iicls, Pekingese, Jjpjiiese 
• .iiiii Ponierjuijiis 




N E W Y () K K 1 M I I 

Copyright, 191 i , bv 

I'lililishiil .hull . I'.ni 




"What has become of your doj;, Sir John?" 
" Gone to Heaven." 

"Then. Sir John, he lias often followeil you 
and 1 hope now you will follow him." 

Souf/ity's Commonplace Book. 



1. — Introduction 

II. — Origin and History 

III. — Till. KiNC; ClIARLKS AND PyRAME . . . . 

IV. — Type and Standards 

V\— Toy Spaniels of To-day and Famous Dogs of 

THE Past 

VI.— How TO Breed the Best Type of Short-nosed 

Toy Spaniel 
VII. — Showing. 
VIII.— Kennel Management 
IX. — Japanese 
X. — Pekingese 
XI. — Pomeranians 

XII. — Judges, Exhibitors, Cluhs and Reporters 
XIII. — Pitfalls for Novices 
XIV. — The Cares of a Champion 
XV. — House Pets . 









3 -'4 




GodB type of Rcd-and-whitc Toy Spaniel. From a diuuvituj by 

Xcrillc Lyttou. Collotype Froutispiece 

Crabl)et Park, from the north-east 

Crabbet Park, from the cast 

Type of Woodstock Blenheim of 1880 . 

Butterfly, Mrs. Lytton's first Bleiiluim 

The Author with her first dog 

Lady Washing Her Hands. G". Tcr Borcli 

Miss Annie Todd. From a dnnciiig hy Xct-illc Lytttm 

Chinese Dogs, 1700. Slii'n Chen- Lin . 

Venus. Titian 

Philip and Mary. Antonio Moro 
Red-and-white Italian Toy Spaniel. Paul I'eronese 
Red-and-white Italian Toy Spaniel. Paul I'eronese 
Portrait of the Hon. Mrs. Lytton. Photogravure 
Louis XI \'. and Family. Largilliere 

Young man <>ut walking with his Maltese dog, early 

tury B.C 

Late Fourth Century B.C. 

Nineteenth-Century water-colour . 

From an Italian painting by Jacopo da Empoli, 1575 

Elizabeth LangstafFe. Sir G. Kneller 

Metsys, «5io-i575 .... 

Palma Vecchio, al>out 1500 

Bewick's Comforter of 1824 

Petit Barbel (miniature Poodle) . 

Mieris, 1635-1681 

Black-and-white Toy Spaniel . 
Children of Charles I. I'an Dyck 
Chinese mirror, I-'ightecnth Century 
Dutch picture, about 1660 . 
Picture bv Mieris .... 




I J 







Field Spaniel. Stubbs 46 

Mrs. Rouse's Ch. Clareholni Opal, l-icld Spaniel 46 

Blenheim Spaniel of about 1750 48 

Black-and-white Spaniel. Watlcau 50 

La Consolation dc 1' Absence. .V. Dchntiujy 52 

Henrietta of Orleans. Migmird 54 

Henrietta of Orleans. Miynard 56 

Detail of Mignard's Henrietta of Orleans 58 

IVom Watteau's Bal Champetre 58 

F. van Mieris and His Wife 60 

Picture at Crabbet Park 62 

Mrs. Lytton's Buiithornc 64 

Curly Black King Charles and Black-and-tan Pyrame of 1809 64 

Truffle Dog 64 

Head of Bunthorne O4 

Head of Mignard's Spaniel 64 

Assemblee dans un Salon 66 

Marie de Bourbon. Mignard 68 

La Rcine Anne. Franc Pourbiis Ic Jcuiic 70 

Incognita. I'croucse 72 

From Der Cavalier im Verkaufsladen. Franz van Mieris ... 74 

From Netscher's Maternal Instruction 74 

Lady at her Toilet. Xetschcr 76 

Louis XV., Grand Dauphin de France, et sa I'aniillc. Mignard 78 

Detail of picture by Mignard 80 

Edward Walters 1^2 

Picture in the Coral Room, Blenheim Palace 84 

Field Spaniel. Stubbs 84 

Chinese Dogs, Seventeenth Century. CoUotyfc 86 

Heads of newly-born Toy Spaniel puppies 88 

Pattern for flannel coat in cases of illness 88 

Spratt's terrier travelling bo.x 88 

Noseless Toy Spaniel, with wrongly carried ears and had expression go 

Mrs. J. Davies's Bulldog Good Lion qo 

" A fairy among dogs " 90 

Monkey-faced type of Blenheim, with twisted jaw and wrong ex- 
pression 90 

A good type of brood bitch go 

A tiny lap dog 90 

Miss Fan 92 

Early type of Marlborough gj 

The Duke of MarIl)on>ugh's present type of Blenheim .... 92 



Woodstock lUiiiluiin of 1S40 

A common type of early Marll)or(nigh Spaniel. T. Cmiushnrouijli 

Miss Fan and pups (Tricolour) 

Tricolour Spaniel, with Red-an<l-\viiite puppy, early nineteenth 


Tricolour Toy Spaniel, early nineteenth century 

Kennell's Shock and Comforter of 1843 

Tricolour Toy Spaniel, early nineteenth century 

Portrait of a Lady. F. Haayc 


Billy, the celebrated rat-killer, killing 100 rats in five minutes 

a half on the Jjd .\pril, iS_'3 

Fancy dog show of 1S51 at the Fiyht Bells .... 

Cocker and Springer 

Curly King Charles Spaniel of ai)out 1800 .... 

Setter and Cocker, i8jo 

Woolmingfton's Jumbo. Slonehoigc 

Henrietta of Orleans. Miginird 

Type of Cocking Spaniel 

Dorothy, Lady Temple, with Tricolour Spaniel. Sir Peter Lcl 
Cocking Spaniels of the eighteenth century .... 
Group of Dogs. From a drazviug by Xcvillc I.ylton. Collotyp 

Ch. Highland Lad 

Mrs. Hope Paterson's Ch. Macduff 

Miss H. G. Parlett's Ch. Rosemary Calvert .... 

Mrs. Senn's Ch. Square Face ( U. S. .\. ) 

Mrs. Larkings's LWmbassadeur 

Mrs. Matheson's Rosie 

Mr. Cummings's Tric<ilour Toy Spaniel Ch. The Dragon My 

Ch. The Troubadour 

Blenheim Ch. Rollo 

Miss Witt's Blenheim Dunrol)in Flossie 

Mr. Phillips's Ch. King Leopold and Lady .Maud 

Ch. The Cherub and Queen of the May 

Mrs. Weston's Rose of the East 

Mrs. Privett's Ch. Rococo .... 

Mrs. Pinto Lertes's Nina .Advocate 

Miss .\. Todd's I'rederick the Great 

Blenheim Spaniel in motion, showing perfect feathering and mark 


Cinematographs of Blenheim Spaniel in motion 
Blenheim Spaniel in motion, showing prancing movement 





1 10 




Bad and good shoulder. Diiu/rain 

Mrs. Lytton's Ch. The Seraph and Lady Huhon's Ch 



Miss Young's Tricolour Toy Spaniel Ch. Lord Viv 
Right and wrong types of muzzle and eyes 
Noseless atrocity bred by the author 

Cottage Flyer, U. S. A 

Perfect Blenheim '" spot " .... 

Toy Spaniel Marvel 

Different shapes of skull 

Various positions of the eyes of a Toy Spaniel when shut 
Outlines from photographs of a Bulldog and a noseless Ruby Spanie 

of the Bulldog type, showing likeness in formation of s 

Wind Fairy 

Ch. The Bandolero . . 

St. Anthony's Wee Dot 

Fairy Windfall 

Puppy, 2 months old 

Xorthampton Wonder 

Mrs. Barber's The Microbes' Atom 
Miss Hall's Ruby Spaniel Ch. Royal Rip 
Wife of Philippe le Roy. J 'an Dyck 

Different types of head 

Chinese Bowl, Taokwang Period, 1820 

Heads to avoid, with the defects purposely emphasized 

Ch. Windfall 

Blenheim Spaniel .Ace of Hearts, 3 months old 


Tricolour Toy Spaniel Equinox, 2'/- months old 

Drying pen 

Mrs. Hope Paterson's King Charles Ch. Royal Clyde 

Mrs. Sonneborns Sneider's Ruby Toy Spaniel Ch. Red Clov 

Blenheim fishing in a pool 

Good modern Marlborough 

Blenheim pu|)pies 

Small Black-and-tan Sporting Spaniel 

King Charles immediately after the first introdu 


Blenheim playing with ball 

Modern example of old curly King Charles 

Toy Trawler puppies 

Italian Greyhounds Saltarello and .\sta 

Miss Armitagc's Toy Poodle Puncli of W'inkfield 





Mnic. I^ilvillf's Papillon Cybillo . 

Mine. Dclvillo's I'apilloii Mignonnc 

Mrs. I'"rancis's Papillon Yvette 

White Tuy Spaniel. From tlic picture by licujauiui \\ 

Mr. Grtgury's HUnlu-ini Ch. Captain Kt-ttk" 

Mrs. Brigiit's Bk-nhcini Caris 

Mrs. Lytton's Blenheim St. Anthony's Klying C1()U( 
Mrs. Percy's Tricolunr Ch. Casino Girl 
Mrs. Lytton's Tricolour Rose Petal 
Mrs. Potter's Tricohnir Ch. Zana 

Ch. Speckled W ren. U. S. A 

Ch. Little Tommy 

Mrs. Lytton's Red .Admiral 

-Modern example of old type of curly King Charle 

Blenheim puppy, lO months old .... 

Mrs. Bright's Blenheim Ch. Cara 

Miss Spofforth's Ch. The Cherul) 

The American King Charles Clivedeti Mascot . 

Mrs. Hope Paterson's Ch. Royal Clyde 

Mrs. V. L. Schubert's American King Charles Ch. Sonny Bruce 

Mr. Aistrop's King Charles 

Miss Bessie Fife's Cupid ( U. S. A.) . 

Mrs. Pinto Lertes's King Charles Ch. The Advocat 

Cherul) Junior (Blenheim) 

Mrs. Jenkins's Ch. Clevedon Magnet (Tricolour) 
Mrs. W. Hopknis's Haeremai Cyclone (Tricolour 
Ch. 1-eather Wing, U. S. A. (Blenheim) 
Mrs. Lytton's Tricolour Little Sambo . 
Lady dc Gex's Blenheim Little Wonder 
Miss Dillon's Blenheim Spaniel rran«;oi>-e 


Mi^s Gilpin's Seraphina 

Mrs. Phillips's Ch. King Leopold . 
Miss Carter's Tricolour Mimosa . 
A perfect head and expression 

Colour chart 

Picture by Morland 

Mrs. Lytton's Tricolour Si. Anthony's Sha<lo\v 

Mrs. Doig's Ch. VValkley Vic ( U. S. A.) . 

Mrs. Inirnival's Blenheim Ch. Little Tonnny 

The Misses Clarkson and (irantlian's Blenheim Doncaster Comet 

Mrs. Hill's Blenheim, the late Little .Mafeking . . . . 



1(1 J 


■ 78 



Laily de Gcx's Blenheim Ch. St. Anthony's Featherweight 

Miss Green's Hiawatha Odahmin 

Miss Ives's Pomeranian Ch. and Pr. Boy Bhie . 

Miss Burton's Pomeranian Ch. The Sal)le Mite 

Miss H. G. Parlett's Rul)y Toy Spaniel Ch. Rosemary Red Riva 

Mrs. Pinto Lertes's Toy Spaniel Ch. Hilliken .Xdvocate . 

Groups of Toy Dogs 

Mrs. Russell Lloyd's Blenheim Stuart King 

Mrs. Mitchell's Tricolour Pandora 

Blenheim Spaniel in motion 

Mrs. Lloyd's Ruby Spaniel Midget 

Mrs. \\ . Hopkins's Black-and-tan Toy Spaniel Pinner Snni 

Mrs. Matthews's Blenheim Spaniel Ro.scoe 

Mrs. Lytton's Blenheim Ch. The Bandolero at i8 months 

Training a dog to stand for show 

Covent Garden Charlie, Berrie's Bawbee, Shepperl, Conrad 

How to show 

Mr. Cummings's Speculation of St. Anthony 

Showing a level back 

The Duchess of Urbino. Titian 

Red-and-white Spaniel. Trotii {portrait of an Old Lady. 

Pourbus (the Old) 

Paul Veronese, 1 528-1 588 

Dash. Landsccr 

Wife of Admiral van Baakn. Tonf^cl .... 

Italian Plate, 200 B.C 

Terra-cotta model in the Louvre, Paris: '" Cliien ile Malte. 
I'-ighteenth-Century English needlework tapestry worked by 

wives of Thomas Foley 

Early Victorian type of Toy Spaniel. Landsccr 
Tricolour Toy Spaniel, early X'ictorian Period 
Diagrams showing structure of kennels .... 

Another diagram of kennels 

Two good kennels made by Boulton & Paul. Xorwich . 

Daughter of Rol)erto Strozzi. Titian .... 

Marlborough Blenheims of about 1750-1800 

The best way of docking puppies' tails .... 

Bird's-eye view of kitten and puppies asleep on a cushion 

Mrs. Lytton wilii Ch. W indfali. Troin a (tainting by Xeville L} 


Mrs. Solomon's Dara 

Miss Serena's Fugi of Kobe and \ii)i)nn of Kobe 







Mrs. M'Laron Mdrrisoii's Japanoso puppies 
Mrs. H. Aiulrcwss Aka of Toddiiigttm 

Mrs. Lloyd's Japanese 

IVkingcsc Dog. C'hii Ty of AKkTixnirne 

Lady Saimielson's Japanese Marquis Cluno and Ikeda id Itrav 

Sleeping i)en 

I'uppy lionse and run 

l-'airy Windfall ( Tricnhnir ), ,< months 

Kantail of St. Anthony ( Hleidieiin ), .? months . 

Ace of Hearts ( Mlenheini ), _• montiis . 

Checkmate (Tricolour), .^ months 

Whirlwind (Tricolour), _' months 

Miss Dawson's Japanese pnpi)y \'ezo 

Hlenheini puppy, 6 weeks old .... 

Mrs. Lytton's Tricolour puppy Heiress, .^ months lA 

Mrs. Pickcrsgill's red Japanese puiti)> 

Miss Tempest, Japanese puppy .... 

Toy Trawler puppies 

Mrs. Kingdon's Japanese Spaniel Denka . 

Mrs. Senn's Ch. Koma 

Mrs. Senn's Ch. Senn Senn 

The White Queen 

Miss Serena's Japanese Marquis Ito . 

Mrs. Lloyd's Japanese Tama of St. Omer 

Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, with one of her Japanese dogs 

Mrs. Lloyd's Ch. Royal Yama Hito 

Mrs. Addis's Ch. Dai Butzu H 

Mrs. Parsonage's Japanese puppies 

Lady Samucl.son's Japanese General Koroki of Hray 

Japanese puppy (long face) 

Chinese Spaniel of the hest type. .S7/(*» Clu-ini 
Lady Decies's Ch. I'ekin I'oppy .... 
Mrs. Weaver's Sutherland Chu Chi 

Mrs. Catlcy's Adderly Lola 

Mrs. A. Cross's Ch. Chuerh of .Mderliourne 

Mrs. Fry's Hi Yang 

Mrs. I'leydel (loddard's Tan-Kwei Chu of Westlecotl 

Chinese Spaniel (coarse type), 1700. Slicii Li . 

Black-and-white Chinese Dog, about 1700. .S7/i*); Clint- 1. lit 

Model of Maltese dog, .^00 to 600 B.C. 

Model of " Pomeranian " dog, ,^00 to 600 B.C. 

Model of Pomeranian dog, .Archaic Period (beyond 800 B.C.) 

2 wii 












Greek kadcn ti)y, alxnit 200 H.C 

Greek \'ase, 400 H.C 

Greek Vase, 400 B.C. Apliroilite and .Apdllo 

Greek Design, 400 B.C 

Greek Vase. 400 R.C 

Tanagra I'igure. loo-.^oo B.C 

Greek Vase, 500 B.C. Boy playing on chelys 

Portrait of Mnie. Adelaide. Wittier 

Mr. Carr's Ch. Offley Floney Dew (orange ronieranian ) 

Mrs. Robinson (Perdita). Guiiisborouijli .... 

Mr. Brown's Orange B03' (Pomeranian) .... 

Miss Bland's Ch. Marland King (l)lack Pomeranian) 

Mrs. Parker's Ch. Mars (orange Pomeranian) 

Miss Ives's Ch. Dragon Fly (sal)le Pomeranian) 

Mrs. Pope's Little Polar Star (white Pomeranian) 

Miss llawley's W'olvey Mite ( sable Pomeranian) 

Mr. Richardson Carr's Ch. Xanky Poo (Pomeranian) . 

Mrs. \'ale Xicolas's Shelton Mercury (sable Pomeranian) 

Mrs. W. I'owler's Ch. May Duchess (sable Pomeranian) 

Mrs. Pope's Little Twinkling Star (white Pomeranian) 

Miss Chell's Belpcr Racer (white Pomeranian) 

Mr. Vale Xicolas's Ch. Shelton .Xtom (sable Pomeranian) 

A Perfect Type of Pomeranian 

Miss Burton's Ch. The Sable Mite (sable Pomeranian) 
Mrs. Langton Dennis's Ch. Kew Mario (black Pomeranian 
Mrs. Parkinson's Gold (orange Pomeranian) 
Miss Ilorsfall's Brocklyn Gold S|)eck (orange Pomeranian 

Meeting of the United Fanciers' Club 

Cheerful meeting of a Show I'.xecutive Committee 
Dog shows as they would be in an anarchical state 

Chinese Puppies. Afarsiiyama Ohio 

F'omeranian Type of Dog. Muo I 

Mrs. I'Vy's Sei Mei 

.\Ir I-. Carnegie's Ciiinese llai)pa Dog .... 

II. II. Princess Tousson's Pekingese Puck of .Mderliourn 

Mrs. I'inlayson's Pekingese Celestial Toto 

Mrs. M. Andrews's Pekingese Chu Chu of Toddington 

Mrs. I-'reeman's Pekingese Orange Boy .... 

Mrs. Torrens's Pekingese Ch. Goodwood Chun 

Mrs. Stainthorpe's Pekingese Pekin Count. 

Miss Barrv'> Pekingese Princess Wee Wee 

Picture l)y Barth. van der ilelst ... 





A jiuIkc's life is not a happy oiu- 294 

Lady Saimu'lson's Sam of liraywick 296 

Mrs. Cdlin l"!vans's Mititsliim 296 

l.a<ly Saimu'ls<>n's Tokiniasa 296 

Mr. WcIUts Maltose L'h. Oiillichnry Masher 296 

-Mrs. KiiiKtlon's Rcd-and-white Japanese Cho C'ho .... 296 

Mrs. S|)ink's Geisha of Willoughy 296 

The ri^ht type of HIack-and-tan Toy Spaniel 298 

Miss Nicholson's I'ekin^e^e I'upi)ies 2<^ 

Oraiyje l-rills. I'lmii u drawiiii] by Seville Lyllmi. Cotlnlytt' ■ 300 

l.ady Samuelson's Jaiianesc dogs playing with a raMiit 302 

rhe Painter's l-"amily. Rubens 304 

.Mrs. rky<lel (luddard's Pekingese puppy 306 

.Miss Nicholson's Pekingese Meadowcroft Lo Vu 306 

Miss Nicholson's Pekingese puppies 306 

Lady Ebury's Pekingese Canopus 306 

Mrs. Farrar's Pekingese puppies 306 

After the judging 310 

P.eware of these in buying a dog 314 

Miss J. Johnstone's Griffon Bruxellois Sparklets 310 

Miss Daniel's Hlack Pug Ch. Bougi 316 

Mr. 11. P.eddington's Miniature I'.ull Terrier Di.lly .316 

Mr. Chris, lloulker's l-'awn Pug Ch. Loris ... 316 

Mrs. \\ haley's Hlack-and-tan Terrier Ch. (denartncy Hoy 316 

Mrs. l'". W. Cousen's Yorkshire Terrier 316 

The Young Princess. Afurelse 320 

Mrs. Lytton's Ch. Windfall 324 

Ch. Wiinlfall. Fro;;/ a dr(rn.-iiuf by Xerillc Lyttun .... 326 

Nelly (/Brien. Sir Jusliuti Hcyiiotds 330 

P.unthorne 336 

Ben 336 



ciiaiti:r 1 


1 ii.WK made up my mind tn write a l^ook on Toy 
I)o!l;s. hccausc no unc seems to know mncli about them 
or their history, and e\ en their points are a constant suh- 
jcct of speculation. 

Historians have Ijeen contented to re])eat tlie errors 
of their ])redecessors until these have become estab- 
lished, while, unfortunately, in modern criticism the fear 
of otfendinii^ is so j^reat that most articles on the sub- 
ject are noncommittal, and i)ractically all rei)orts arc 
master])ieces of damnini;^ with faint ])raise. Unfavour- 
able criticism has come to be almost synonymous with 
wliat is called a " spit of hate "; and it is j^enerally cor- 
rectly considered a siL;n that the critic and the do|L2^- 
owner have quarrelled. Xot lonjL( a,i^o a critic voiced 
the whole modern attitu<le by sayin.i^ that he should en- 
deavour to " wreathe the rod of criticism with roses." 

I liave no belief in this rosc-wrcath theory. A crit- 
ic's work is to criticise and compare, not to make 
elcLi^ant i)hrases ; and, to carry on the metaphor, the 
w reathinj^ of rods in this manner often ends in the critic 
runninj^ the thorns into his own lint^ers. 

If critics are really competent, there is no need for 



tlu'iii to wrap tlicir words in insincere llattery. and a 
strong jud.^e who knows liis business should not conde- 
scend to shield himself behind what is merely a device 
for concealing];" personal weakness. In my own experi- 
ence T find that peo])le seldom seriously resent just crit- 
icism, however frank, so Ioul^ as the critic can point out 
the cause of his disapproval in detail. Too often, how- 
ever, the critic does not know his subject, and tries to 
avoid laying himself open to inconvenient cross-ciues- 

One of these drawing-room critics tells me that 
"comparisons are odious," but comi)etition is essentially 
com])arison, and dog shows in this respect arc inconceiv- 
ably odious. If a reporter is conscientious and writes 
sensible reports without regard to the adxertisers of his 
em])loyer, the editors are so busy with their l)luc pencils 
that the reports again become too insipid to be of the 
slightest use to anybody, lulitorial offices are generally 
hotbeds of suppression. However, this is not always 
the case, and there are a few intrei)id exceptions. Of 
course, there is no need to go out of our way to insult 
a dog's owner unnecessarily, but bad defects should not 
be suppressed so that the report is misleading. 

The fear of giving ofifence from which editors suffer 
led once to an amusing incident. 1 wrote a comjiarative 
criticism for one of the newspapers. The editor had 
previously undertaken to publish my report in full with- 
out alteration, that being the condition on which I wrote 
it. 1 compared two dogs carefully, one to the disadvan- 
tage of the other. This criticism was omitted from the 
report in spite of the editor's undertaking, and some 
stereotyped journalistic i)raise substituted (all over my 
name), and 1 received a reproving letter from the editor 




saviiii^ that those comparisons were considered in bad 
taste and very likely to j^ive nnnecessary offence, that 
the\ showed personal animosity to the owner, etc., etc. 

This lectme on i^'ood manners would have been more 
impressive, doubtless, but for the fact that the doi:;' so 
severely criticised was my (K*.'h, and that the " personal 
animosity" was therefore directed aijainst myself! I 
realK had not the heart to enlii;hlen the editor, but it 
was exceedingly entertainini;' to me when the fanciers 
who read the substituted article said it was scandalous 
{h'tiX 'III <nvner should praise her own doi^s ! 

I do not complain of the inevitable printer's errors, 
thoiiL^h these are often a source of embarrassment to the 
writer, who sees his carefully composed sentences turned 
by the printer's devil into mere twaddle. There was 
once an old c^cneral who saw himself referred to in a 
Xew ^'ork pa])er as "the battle-scared veteran." lie 
marched round to the editor in a state of unexampled 
fury and was received with etTusive ai)olojL^ies. " L'n- 
fortunate printer's error — so sorry — a thousand ai)olo- 
ij^ies — no rctlcction whatever intended on the i^allant 
officer — error should be instantly corrected." Some- 
what ]iacified, the general returned home, only to read of 
himself next day as " the bottle-scarred veteran." What 
he said to the editor this time is not on record, but the 
followinc^ mornin^e^ a panegyric was at last safely printed, 
and he went forth to the world as " the battle-scarred 
veteran," which the editor protested was what he had 
always meant him to be. 

lulitors are, alas, a lawless lot! They promise one 
proofs which they do not send. Thev make hav of one's 
jT^rammar and mince j)ies of one's paraj^raphs — but they 
are nothimr to editresses! An editress who did not 

TOY u(h;s a\u tiikik ancestors 

ai;"rcc with iiic once publislicd a IcUcr <>f mine after 
havint^' supprcssctl tlic negatives all the way ihroni^h it, 
niakini;" nie tluis appear to say the contrary of what I 
had actually said — to the consternation of my readers, 
who to this day do not understand what happened. 

1 also sent an article to a pai)er edited by a woman. 
It was never acknowledj^ed, hut live months later a lari^e 
portion of it was ])ul)lished as an editorial article! 

This kind of literary hii^hway robbery ap|)ears to be 
common with editresses, and the mention of hij^hway- 
men reminds me of a pirate who took the plKitos^raph of 
mv doi:^ Champion Windfall and published it in an 
American paper under another name as the said pirate's 
own doi^. 1 had to write to the English F.mbassy before 
I could i^et an apology published, (^n another occasion 
1 wrote an article for a lady's journal and got an enthu- 
siastic letter from the editress, saying- she had been nuich 
interested and (juite agreed with every word I said ; but 
that as unfortunately humour was not a strong jxiint 
with ladies, would I be kind enough to delete everything 
that could possibly be interpreted as a joke, play upon 
words, or witticism of any description. This T (obedi- 
ently did (under protest), stiimlating, however, that the 
word " fiascos " should not be journaleesed into " fiasci," 
and sent in the amended version. Tn a week's time T got 
another letter from the editress full of apologies. She 
said she had never realised till it was in " cold jirint " 
what a very serious article it was, and she had therefore 
taken the liberty of cutting out everything serious and 
had published " the rest." 1 leave my readers to imagine 
what sort of literary composition it was when it ap- 
peared mimis both blade and handle, so to sjKMk. and T 
am willing for the honour of my sex to believe that this 



amiable cditrt'ss judj^ed her readers l)v a standard of 
limitations which they wonid repndiate with scorn. I 
ventnre to think thai they wonid have ])referred niv 
orij^inai letter even at tlie cost of an occasional jest ! 

1 do not intend to make this a hook t»f jokes, but I 
mean to say just what I think and to record a few of the 
observations 1 have made on the breeds of doj^s which 
have sj)ecially come under my notice. 

I trust that no one will take offence at anvthiuL;' 1 
may say alxnit individual doi^s. 1 am writiniLi;' this book 
forthe jn;ood of the breeds and not for the advancement 
of my own dojq;s or to dis])arai;"e others, but T am tired 
of the milk-and-water criticisms of those who are too 
timid or too polite to i^ive an outspoken opinion. I shall, 
therefore, be as frank in my criticism of modern do<^s as 
if they were stutTed specimens in a museum, otherwise 
no jn^ood can be done. \\ hat 1 sav cannot be all praise 
for each indi\idual, and I hope that the owners of doi^s 
criticised by nic will take it in i^ood part, as it is not my 
wish to hurt their feelim^s. 

We are told that one of the greatest secrets of suc- 
cess in disseminatinin^ one's o])inions is in makini:;' other 
people think they have orii^inated one's ideas. In this I 
have l)een so sins^ularly successt'ul that 1 have seen \y.\vt 
of my articles reprinted bodily with other jieople's names 
attached, and to these ])eoi)le I can only recommend a 
study of the fable respectinc;- the jackdaw who put on 
other people's feathers and i^ot lau.i;he<l at for his pains. 
For this and other reasons 1 have determined to write 
a book of my own. 

T have dealt only with Japanese. IV'kincrese, Pome- 
ranians, and Toy S])aniels. Of some of the otiur Tov 
breeds I know nothini!'. and of the Tov I'oodlc, N'ork- 


shire Terrier, .'iiid Mallcsc I can only say thai tlu-y liavc 
been " improved " (?) oul of all beauty, and there does 
not appear to l)e enough of the old material left to make 
it worth while recapitulalini;" the points which ihev have 
lon^" ceased to possess. The Pull doL;' or Shock doi;', as 
the Maltese was called, has lost his puffed-out coat, hi,ii:h 
set ears, and sliort back; the Tov Poodle has lost his 
l^retty face, deep stop, and lari^e black eyes, in common 
with most other show breeds, .and as for the unfortunate 
show N'orkshire Terrier, with his unnatural existence 
as a " clothes jieii^'," the less said the belter. 

My chief study has, of course, been the Toy Spaniel. 
The difficulty of collectin;"^ material has been very i^reat, 
and I ha\e had some anuisini^- experiences in the course 
of my researches. 

At the start I advertised for some ]")ictures of Toy 
Spaniels. What q^ot into the wording: nf my advertise- 
ment T do not know. I fancy it must have been the 
printer's devil a.q'ain — but by return of ]>ost 1 received a 
special brand of Borneo cii^^ar, and an anonymous volume 
entitled " Memoirs of Tcthiosauri and IMesiosauri," con- 
taining^, sure enough, diaqr.ams of the Tcthiosaurus Chi- 
rostroni^ulnstinus and the Plesiosaurus Tessarestarsos- 
tinus! T do not know if this was a delicate hint that the 
modern Toy Spaniel is as _G^rotes{iue as an antediluvian 
monster, or whether T c^ot a parcel intended for some- 
one else, but the Icthiosaurus Chirostron^ulostinus still 
adorns my library. r)y a succeedini;' post I received 
three crocodile skins, four prints of a rhinoceros, and a 
new kind of incubator, and when the evenincr post 
broucrht me an almost life-sized em^ravinj:;' of Canter- 
bury Cathedral, the postman be^an to cr\' out for mercv. 

The best ol these >)(\(\ ])arcels was a \er\' curious little 

Tyi'F. of- \Vo(M)sr(H K lii i.Niii:iM or i88u 



])ook full o\ the stran.G^cst pictures of (Irac^nns and otluT 
animals, which made me conj^^ratulale myself that 1 had 
never had l<> exhihit the Manticora, the Aromi)o, or the 
Allocamehis, tlmu.^h 1 must say I rei^ret 1 am ne\er to 
see the Strepsiceros in tiiis world or to meet the harm- 
less Potto. 

All this, crowned with an ahle pampiilel on church 
turrets and Carillon machinery, did not advance my 
knowledj^e of Toy Spaniels. I speedily stopped adver- 
tising^ and went to the P>ritish Museum. There I spent 
many months confronted with innumerahle books, ar- 
rani^ed in countless rows round a room that appears 
considerably larj^er than the Albert Hall and Pucking^- 
ham Palace coml)ined, and had it not been for the kind- 
ness and intelli|Lience of the officials T should be there to 
this day. 

A liking for doQ^s runs in my family. Lord Byron, 
mv .q'reat i^randfather. wrote verses on his own doj^ 
which are too well known to quote, but the ej)itaph he 
wrote on a pet doi^ beloni^iui^ to Pady Piyron is not so 

well known : 

Alas, ix)or Prim, 
Pm sorry for liiin. 
P<1 rather by half 
It had been .Sir Ral])li. 

Sir Ralj)!! Milbanke beinj^' his father-in-law, the 
verse has the usual caustic Byronic vigour. 

Lady Byron had a Black-and-tan Toy Spaniel called 
Fairy. This dog had a very wavy coat, her eyes were 
extremely large and her nose short, but not short like the 
modern dogs. She had a curious temper and liked very 
few people. The ])oor thing came to an untimely end, 
])eing drowiu-d in a garden tank at .Moore place, Esher, 
3 7 


ill iS4(). M\ father hrcd I'lcnlicinis for many years and 
owned lUilbul, who was full hrother to ()xford IJoh. sire 
of champion Kollo. .M\ mother also hred IJettina from 
lUilhnl and Juliet, who was ^ot for her hy Miss Dillon 
and was of her strain. All these- a])])ear in the pedi- 
grees of our siiow doj^s. Seetsu Trince, Snow shower, 
J'airy JUossom, Storm I\.in<;-, Red Admiral, Kim, Duke 
Dorynski. Stuart Kin^" and Caris are all doj^s directly 
descended from some of the C'rahhet do^'s. 

I have kept Toy Spaniels irom my earliest days, and 
shall never forget my first sight of a Blenheim Si)aniel. 
1 had i;"one with my mother to visit ]\Iiss Dillon in Ox- 
fordshire, and when 1 awoke on the tlrst morning" there 
suddenlv rushed into the room a wonderful thinii" all 
fluff and feather. It sprang- on to my hed and danced 
ahout on my pillow, lickini^^ my face and rollin"* over in 
an ecstasy of youth and excitement. T thereu]ion fell 
head over ears in love with it. It was called A'iolet. and 
I could think and talk of nothing" else. It nearly l)roke 
my heart to go away — in fact, 1 as good as asked to take 
it with me — and home was ilat and dull after my late 
revels. Fortunateh- mv nurse had heen as much taken 
\\iih the dog as 1, and so we consoled ourselves hy talk- 
ing together of its perfections. ]\hinths went hy, and 
then one day a hasket arrived addressed to me. T opened 
it unsusjx^ctingly, and out of it there came a tiny fairy 
thing that could have stood on a man's hand, a miniature 
\'iolet. It was fat. and it was s(|uare, and it wagged its 
little tail and jirruiced uj^on its little legs and forthwith 
tumhled head over heels, as puppies will, and T thought I 
had never seen anything so lovely. T can venture to say 
that no present e\er giwii to anvhodv has hrought such 
intense delight as that of mv kind friend Miss Dillon. 


liii-; Ai iiioK WITH iitR I-ikst Dog 


How I loved that i)rcUy i)Ui)l)y! It ij!;vcw and nourished, 
and 1 rcnicmbcr in the aulunin niakini;- a cart for it out of 
a box and llic wheels of a doll's peranihulator, and i^oin^ 
with my turnout to collect acorns in spite of my uncle's 
facetious warnini^s that it was illej^al to i)Ut dosj^s in har- 
ness. lUit the puppy objected stroni^iy to the harness 
and vindicated the majesty of the law by running away 
and ujJsettinjL;" the acorns aj^ainst the garden gate post, 
the wheels came off, and that was the end of my dog- 
dri\ing enthusiasm. r)Utterfly's jiortrait will be foimd 
iUi-this \-olume. She grew uj) with a beautiful coat and 
ears, and was my constant companion. I taught her 
many very difficult tricks, but nothing would ever induce 
her to fetch and carry. \\'hile my eye w^as on her she 
would carry what I put in her mouth, but if I took my 
attention off she would slyly drop it in a bush and, if pos- 
sible, lose it. She would, however, sneeze, whine, bark 
and growl and turn liead over heels to order. \ ar- 
ranged a steeplechase course for her out of chairs and 
she would go the whole course by herself at command. 
She would walk about a fully laid dining table without 
upsetting or stealing anything. 1 used to have a dor- 
mouse which, though usually tame, would occasionally 
escape from me with a sudden frantic lea]). Tt would 
scurry u]) the window curtains, and travel all over the 
house, frightening the housemaids into fits by turning 
up fast asleej) in the linen cu])board or in somebody's 
befl. Tf T could i)revent its reaching the curtains it 
would rush round the room, diving into shoes or bury- 
ing itself under rugs. ]^)Utterfly would pen it in a cor- 
ner and catch it for me. She never hurt it in the least. 
She would take an cij!;i!; in her mouth without breaking it. 
What a i)ity it is that dogs live so short a time. But- 



terllv lived to more llian the usual sj^au of life, but a day 
came when she died and was buried under a tree. 1 
cried for nian\- weeks, thou.iih by that lime 1 was a 
Lirown-up \<)un^' ladv supposed to be thinking- ol nothim^ 
but balls and parties. The understandini;- between a 
child and its lirst doi;" cannot be a])])reciated by one who 
has never had a doi;' in his childhood. A doi;- teaches a 
child a world of thiui^s. '1^) train a doi;" one needs i)a- 
tience. self-conlrol, firmness, ^"ood temper and, above all, 
intuition and iudi^nient in no small dei^ree. To treat it 
successfullv in health and illness one must be skilful, 
quick of decision. ol)servant and unselfish. Who shall 
sav that these (|ualities are not in\alual)le in after life? 
Peoi)le can ])e silly over pet doi^s and brim;- ridicule on 
them by makini;- them wear motor-^o<4i^ies and goloshes; 
but these same peo])le would i)rol)ably make their own 
children ridiculous and be ef|ually irritatinc^ and silly 
over anvthiui;" of which they were fond, 'fhe i)eople who 
make themselves and their dogs a laui^iiingstock to the 
sensible world will be no less contemptible if (lei)rived of 
their doi^i's and reduced to the now fashionable Teddy 
bear, dhe keeping' ot pet do<;"S is sometimes decried as 
a degrading-, disgraceful, ridiculous, and, indeed, im- 
moral practice confined to an effete aristocracy or a still 
more detestable plutocracy. This T strenuously deny. 
I re])eat that a sensible boy and a sensible dog are the 
best education for each other, and the results of the com- 
panionship w ill remain long- after the little dog has been 
forgotten under the grass in some corner of the garden 
— but not forgotten bv his master, who, if he is worth 
his salt, will ne\er be ashamed of the tears he once shed 
for his faithful old dog. 

It has been stated that onlx' childless women and dis- 


Lady washing her Hands 

G. Ttr Bor. Ii, alx>ul 1650. DrCMlen. Photo, HanfMatiigl 


npix'iiitcd spinsters care for doi^'s. ll is true iliat those 
to whom tale has heeii unkind sometimes find comtOrt in 
the unsellish love of a doj;' wliosc affection subsists re- 
jj^ardless of worldly considerations, hut 1 would ])oint out 
that the man who thoroughly dislikes animals will i;en- 
erallv make an indilferent sort of father, and a fondness 
for animals often goes w ith understanding and fondness 
for children. Say what you will, a nature which dislikes 
animals is almost invariably hard and selfish or, at the 
ver^ least, cold and unsymi)athetic. 

Let no one, therefore, sneer at the keeping of dogs, 
but let us all rather be thankful that the world holds 
creatures so unselfish and unworldly-wise, so blind to 
their own interests, and so devoted to our own. 

Compiling a history of the Toy Spaniel breeds has 
been like unravelling a Chinese i)uzzle. The errors of 
translators and the abnormal amount of hyjKnhesis to 
be sifted have made me feel at times like the i)oor prin- 
cess who was given four sacks of feathers of hundreds 
of different birds and told to sort them into their ])roper 
species before midnight: ^\hile the confusion of mind 
which follows a preliminary study of the (|uesti(^n re- 
minds one of the delightful Irish i)orter who cheered the 
passengers with the information that *' the seven-thirty 
goes at eight-thirty and there's no last train at all." 
The Blenheim isn't a lilenheim. the King Charles isn't a 
King Charles, and the Pomeranian is not a Pomeranian 
at ail. 

Picsides the historical interest. I have tried to show 
the fancier how ridiculous and contemptible the present 
judging system ai)pears to outsiders, who are not all as 
blind, deaf and stupid as they are given credit for. I 
want all those who read this book to make up their minds 

1 1 


once for all to judmc fairly and honestly lOr the sake of 
the (1<»l;s. \\hate\er it may cost them in unpopnlarity 
with those who are less scrupulous. 

in writing- this Ijook I cannot i)ay too hij^h a irihutc 
to Miss Annie Todd, the good friend to whose generous 
jL^ilt ot' many years' knowledge and experience 1 owe my 
own knowledge, and to whose unselhsh loyalty I owe 
my success. W ith her, dog fancying has always heen 
an honourahle profession in spite of an uphill struggle 
against acherse circumstances, and her example has 
raised the whole h'ancy in my estimation. She has the 
rare gift of keeping the ideals and generosity of youth 
unsi)oilt hv the stress of a hard life and much bitter ex- 
l)erience. Since 1 had the good fortune to meet with 
her. the pleasure of success has heen doubled by her 
cociperation and enthusiasm : her philosophy has tided 
over many moments of despair, and without her wit and 
light-heartedness dog showing would be dull indeed. 

If there are errors in my book, it is not for want of 
hard work extending over nearly six years. Tt was 
thankless work, too, the evidence collected being mostly 
of a negative kind. T must, therefore, ask my readers to 
acce])t mv book in a generous s])irit and not to cavil at it 
for its shortcomings, and it" the effect of its publication 
is to bring forth from some unknown quarter more defi- 
nite information than any 1 have been able to find, it will 
still have served its piu^jiose. If what I have said will 
hel]) others to understand and a])preciate the true type, 
and especially if 1 can hel]) to bring about a return of 
that feeling for bcaitfy which has at present been com- 
])letelv lost, I shall not have wasted my time or worked 
in vain. 



Miss ANNit 1 ouu 
Kroiii a ilrawiiig l.y Ntville l.>lloii 



It lias liitlicrto hocn practically inipossihlc to trace 
the exj^ct origin of the Toy Spaniel, as notwithstanding 
luinierous theories it remained a matter for specula- 
tion, 'i'he chief cause of this has heen the extraordi- 
narily irresjKMisihle and contradictory evidence of 
writers whose mistranslations, added to spontaneous 
errors of their own, have confused history almost past 
redemi)tion. It has cost me years of research both in 
the liritish Museum and in the ])icture c^alleries of 
Kurope to disentani^le the truth from the cocoon of 
falsehood into which it w'as spun. \ ears ajL^o I he^g^an 
my search with a lii^iu heart, imaj^inin^' that the under- 
lakini^^ was a simi)le one, Imt the further 1 advanced 
the more contradictory my authorities a])i)eared. and the 
more dee])ly involved in mystery mv work became. At 
last I besj^an to see dayli.c^ht in the fact that the names 
and the breeds had been shuftled like a pack of cards. 
and I think I have succeeded in reducini;^ them at len<^th 
to their ])ro])er order. The chief ])oint on which there 
is no doubt whatever is that the present square-jawed, 
heavy, noseless type was introduced com])arali\elv re- 
cently, certainly no earlier than the year i<S4o. There 
is an overwhelminj^ mass of evidence to prove that 
pointed noses were the ori.iu:inal type of the lilack-and- 
tan and Tricolour, though the Red-and while alone had 

I ^ 

'^()^' DOCS AM) riiKiH axckstoks 

ill all slaves of c\nluli(>n a fairly short face and always 
a liij^ii skull. Xo douhi ihc fanciers who read this will 
exclaim: '* hXeryhody knows that already. ( )f course 
llu-y came from the MarlhorouL;hs and Si)orlini;' Span- 
iels." lUit if they will ha\e the patience to ij^o carefully 
throui^h the facts 1 am ahout to _i;"i\e them, the\- will 
lind that this is an error. 

The first records we have of red-and-white Toy 
Spaniels in Eurojie are tliose in Titian's ])ictures about 
1505, hilt Italy was not their place of ori^i^in. Then 
conies Palnia N'ecchic^, ahout 1515. and I'aul X'eronese, 
1550. It will be seen that the X'eronese tloi^s had al- 
ready a hi,i;h-d(Miied skull and a short, thoui^h pointed, 
nose, and had the cobby, compact and smart shape that 
is so essential in a Illenheim. not too low to the i^round. 
yet not leqj^y. They were S(|uare. the height being" ap- 
pro.ximately the same as the leui^th. which is riq;ht. 
They carried their tails hiiiih and turned over the back. 
The sudden api)earance of the \ eronese t\pe of pet doi^^ 
in Italy pu/zled me for a Ion*;- time and the absolute ab- 
sence of the least trace of it in any direction led me to 
the only possible conclusion, namely, that it originated 
there in the fifteenth century. Xow a breed cannot 
orii2^inate from nothini>". It must, therefore, have been 
manufactured, and 1 set myself to consider how this 
was done. In Jlaly and Malta the indii^enous doijs were 
tlie Shock do.i:^- and the " Pomeranian " Melit<eus, but 
Italy traded with China from the eiiihtli and ninth cen- 
turies onwards, and I thought the secret of the jiuzzlin;^ 
upsprinj^inj^" of the new type niij^ht lie in a cross be- 
tween an indii^enous doj»- and a red-and-white variety 
of ("hinese do^' imported to llalv. This Chinese doi;" 1 
tr.'iced with inliiiile troul)le, ;md he was undoubtedlv the 


()HI(;i\ AM) niSTOKV 

foundation of the rcd-and-whitc Toy. I also came across 
l^oy Spaniels ai)i)roxinialini; to the X'eronese type, and 
if they existed before the fifteenth century, this Italian 
Spaniel nii^ht possibly have been evolved from them 
without actual crossing, thoui^h 1 think the verv sharj) 
nose must have come from a cross.' The Ioniser nosed 
Chinese Toy Spaniels can be seen on a bowl of the Taok- 
wang period, iSji, and 1 rather doubt the type bein^^: 
very ancient. 

After X'eronese come Rubens, date about iTxX), and 
Xetsclier of i^)3<). Heist Tischbein and Tem])el, as well 
as the two \'an Mieris's Ter I>orch, Metsu, and Steen, 
all show liver-and-white and a few yellow-and-white Tov 
Spaniels of the seventeenth centurv, also two fawn-and- 
while ones, and a red one with white face, breast and 
toes, and one of the Dutch Princesses is re])resente(l 
with a black-and-white dotr with the spot. Juan de 
X'aldes Leal and X'elasquez, of about 1600 to 1660, 
showed the Alicantes or Cayenne variety of monjs^rel 
white Toy Spaniel with very short nose and hic^h skull, 
said by lUiffon to be a cross between TlCpa^neul and the 
I)o«^uin or Pui^. These doi^s were said to be l)rown-and- 
white-and-tricolour or black-and-white, and some were 
entirely white. .\n old writer on .Spanyuolles says the 
" Alauntez " (query Alicantes) were brought to Scot- 
Land from Spain in 13^)0. There appears, however, to 
have been a breed of large hounds called by the same 
name. 1 can find no trace of " lilenheim " or tricolour 
Toy Spaniels in .S])ain, and the red-and-white Toy Span- 
iels undoubtedly came to England from Italy where they 

' The Papillcjn, whicli is the modern descendant of the Italian Spaniel on 
the Continent, shows the " Pomeranian " type very strongly, even to the 
erect ears of one of the varieties, 

4 15 

T()\ 1){)(;S AM) I'lIKIK AXC'KSroi^S 

a|)])arc'ntly were cxoKcd. as I ha\c said, frniii the 
ChiiK'sc Si)anicls. I'iclorially llicy can l)c traced Ixick to 
tlic fiftcentli century, and probably existed in Italy in the 
time of the Roman empire. In Rural Sports I find the 
fol lowing" passaj^es rej^ardinq' the Spaniel about .\a])les: 
*' 'IMiey ])0.ssess a kind of Spaniel so excellent that the 
king- has taken i)ains to increase the breed." The Ital- 
ian pictures sliow many red-and-white Toy Spaniels. 

1 lenri III of France kept small pet Spaniels, and can 
only ha\e come across his little do.^s when he landed in 
Italy alter the llight from Poland. Mr. lielloc is my 
authority for this. Thev were called " Damarets." ^ 
There is only an allusion to them in Brantome. 

One of C'aius's main- translators and revisers speaks 
of " a new kind of ( ])et ) Spaniel broti.c^ht out of Fraimce,, strange, and hard to get." This is not in Caius's 
original Latin, and was i)robably an interpolation of the 
translator himself after the time of Charles IT, as it was 
a common practice with translators to add their own 
experience and oi)ini()ns and embody them w ith the orig- 
inal text. This is ver\- annoying, as the translator 
often lived several hundred years after the original 
writer under whose name his o])inions appear, and it 
natural1\- falsifies the dates. It is especially mislead- 
ing where descri])tions of tyi)es are given, and it is 
only by going back to the original that the matter can 
be verified. 

b'or instance, jonston, 1733. quotes Aeliaii. who 
lived in A.I). 230, for certain things which do not ap- 
pear to be in the original Latin. Instead, therefore, of 
the information being i^»3<) vears old it is only one hun- 
dred and fift\' lour vears old. lonston's book being 
' The translation of this word is " a fop." 


-Vcliaii i)liis Joiiston. Later on comes Aclian plus Jon- 
ston plus Jac()l)s, and so on. 

At tlic end of tlic seventeenth century there are 
French portraits ol' I lenrietta ol ( )rleans. sister ot 
Charles II, who was hrouj^ht up in I'rance t'roni a bahy. 
She is j)ainle(l with red-and-white Spaniels. At the 
same period we find the i)auj)hin with a black do^" and a 
black-and-white one. and Louis Xl\' with a most beau- 
tiful black-and-white Toy. The black-and-white do_i;s 
were akin to the 1 lolland d(>i;s. and we see them also 
in W'atteau's pictures, '* Kmbar(|uemeiU pour C'\ there," 
and " The Toilet." etc. That the black-and-white and 
red-and-white varieties were brouj^ht by Henrietta to 
Enj^land seems clear. There is no evidence that such 
breeds existed in bji^land before this time. 1 lem'ietta 
was Charles Il's favourite sister, and when she died an 
early death throuij^h poi.soniujL:^, it is more than probable 
that he took over her little doji^s and bred them with 
those she had ])resumably previously introduced into the 
KnjL^lish Court, which she had \isited at the a.c^e of fifteen 
and later. I can find no ])ictorial evidence that Kinj^ 
Charles II ever kej)t black-and-tan do^^s in his life, and 
all the early evidence is merely traditional, and shows 
that if there were .any black S])aniels in P^nj^^land at that 
time they were of a breed totally different from both the 
black-and-tan Pyrame Si)aniel and the red-and-white or 
black-and-white bVench importations. T imagine, how- 
ever, that there must have been black 'l^)vs at the b'ni^- 
V\<h ( "ourt. and that the one in the I )an])hin's picture was 
brought from i'jii^land. as there is n(^ previous trace of 
a black Si)aniel in hVance unless it may have been the 
Truffle (lo^ or the short-haired Gredin. 

It will be seen from the Titian and Veronese pictures 



ihal the rcd-and-w liilc Toy S])anii"l cxislcd in Italy us 
a Toy nearly a couple of ccnliirics hcforc llic 1 )iikc of 
AIarll)oroiiL;"h was horn, and it is certain that liie do^s 
kept l)y diaries 1 were the I^n^iish Cocking- (inn Spaniel 
or Si)rini;"er and not Toy Si)aniels. The names of Cocker 
or Cocking (i.e., wood cocking) Spaniel and Springing 
Spaniel or Springer were indifferently applied to the 
early gun and field Spaniels. It was only kiler that the 
names were divided and applied to different types.' 

The Shooting Directory of 1804 conlirms my opinion 
with the following passage: " Another \ariety of cocker 
much smaller ( i.e., than the \A aler .Spaniel and .Sussex 
Spaniel) is the ^larlhorough hreed kept Iw His Cirace 
the Duke of Marlhorough. These are red-and-white 
\\ ith \er\- round heads and hlunt noses, and highly valued 
h}- sportsmen." This (lescri])lion might l)e mistaken for 
our modern type but for the plate, which gives the heads 
as those of Cockers with high skulls and what we should 
call \ery long faces. The S])orting Directory, speaking 
of Charles I's dogs, savs: " These do not appear to have 
Ijeen the small 1)lack kind known hy his name, hut Cock- 
ers, as is evident from the pictures of \'an Dyck and 
the print hv Sir R. Strange, after this master, of three 
of his children, in which they are introduced." .\ refer- 
ence to \'an Dyck's picture will show that he certainly 
did not intend to represent Toy Spaniels. 

r)L'iine, in his " l^iseases of Dogs," iN^^J, savs: 
" Among the experienced fanciers of the small vellow- 
and-white Si)aniels which much re^emhle those known 
1)\- the name of the Marlhorough hreed, this is |)artiallv 

' The dog which was drenched in the blood of Mary Queen of Scots 
may have bet-ii any kind nf |»et iloj^, as I can find no record of its shape 
or colour, and I shall deal with Or. Caius and the Comforter directly. 


I'liiiir AM) Maky 
AiUonio Moro, 155J. I'hoio, W.ilker. I'.y iKTiiiivsion of the \h,le ..f Bedford 


cxcini)lirie(l. IMicsc decani animals arc \orv C(inini()n 
anion*;" llic ' Spitalficlds ' weavers; and lo sucli a pcrlcc- 
tion have \hc\ hroULiht llie art of hrcedinL; tlu'ni. that 
it is allirnicd thcv can insure, ahnosl to a certainly, tlie 
re(|uisile (juantity of colour, the length of coat, its lex- 
tine. and its disposition to curl or to remain straiij^ht." 

This is a most valuable reference, as it is evidence 
that the Toy yellow (or red )-and-\vhile Si)aniel was not 
considered the same l)ree(l as the Marlhorous^hs, thoui^h 
it much rcsciiiblcii them. In my opinion the Italian Toy 
Spaniel was much yellower in colour than our present 
dogs. It is also useful as showinjn' that the coats were 
sometimes curly and sometimes straii;ht. A reference 
to the needlework pictures of 1736 (a century after \'an 
Dyck) will show that the verv round skull of the Italian 
Toy Spaniel was a marked characteristic, and that the 
noses were short. The dot;s had not the faintest re- 
semblance to \"an Dyck's doj^^s in the picture of the chil- 
dren of Charles I, but please note the likeness in jxise of 
the do.c^ in one of the needlework pictures to the one in 
the h'rench picture of Louis XI\', and to the cinemato- 
graph of Champion Windfall. 

The reason why the vSpitallields weavers were so suc- 
cessful in breedinj^^ the " Ulenheim " Spaniel was prob- 
ably that, cominj^ from France, where the doj^s had 
spread from Italy, they knew what the type should be 
like, whereas our bjij^lish breeders did not. Possiblv the 
weavers may also have broui^ht a few with them. 

I rej^rel to have to \)o\n\ out that the famous " spot " 
is not necessarily a characteristic of the true N'eronese 
Spaniel, but of the Sprinj^er, where it still exists to the 
present day. The present Toy Blenheim ^o{ its s])ot 
from the Marlboroup^h cross and from the black-and- 



white Holland Spaniel, which curiously enough pos- 
sessed it as early as 1500. This also accounts for the 
rareness of the " spot " in the short- nosed specimens 
and its comparative prevalence in the longer faced indi- 
viduals. There is still a small breed of Welsh Springers 
which are almost Toys. Nearly all of them have the 
spot. It seems certain, therefore, that here is the main 
source of the " Blenheim " spot. The spot also runs in 
some strains of setters and bull dogs. ( See some of the 
'* Stone " dogs.) 

Bell, 1837, writes: "The Si)ringer is a small but 
elegant breed : it is generally red-and-white with black 
nose and palate. The smallness of the head and the 
length of ears are essential points in dogs of this race, 
niie true Marlboro breed is sometimes called the 
Springer. It is, however, a shorter dog with a less taper 
nuizzle. These Spaniels are sometimes sold for an enor- 
mous ])rice." 

Bell goes on to quote a dog which was valued at 
seventy-five guineas. 

The Field of 1866 thus descril)ed the ^^larlborough 
Spaniel of 1841, from which it is plainly evident that it 
was not a Toy : 

*' About twenty-five \ears ago we proceeded to 
Woodstock . . . and our enquiries led us to one of the 
^larlborough lodges occupied by a very crustv old 
woman " (This old woman appears to have made her- 
self celebrated bv her crustiness, as another writer refers 
to it). " She showed us fifteen or twenty of these Span- 
iels, they were on an average eighteen ])ounds in weight, 
leggy, small-eared, prick-nosed wretches, having but one 
of the properties of the breed, the ' spot * on the top of 
the head." 



'Hiis rcniiiuls me of a visit ])ai(l by a friend of mine 
to I'.lenlieim some years a.y^o. In tlie lodges were doi^s 
precisely of tlie type of \'an Dyck's in his ])icture of the 
cliil(h-en of Cliarles I. The short ears mentioned in i>^C)C) 
are characteristic of the early Marlhoronj^li, hnt in this 
case thev were (hie to manj^e. of which there seemed to 
he a fine trachtion. 'IMie woman at one of the lodj^'es 
was a])i)arently snlTerinii;' from llie traditional crnsti- 
ness, heini;- \er\- cross and relnctant to admit ni\- friend. 
She ti.)ld him she hated the doj^s, they always smelt no 
nasty. The visitor saw a litter of ei^ht or nine i)Uppies, 
and almost all of these, in addition to nearly every do,i( 
in the place, had the spot. Though the\' were smaller 
than the a\era,^"e of eighteen ponnds i^iven for 1S41 . they 
were far fr(»m small, and any decrease in size is ])rol)- 
ahlv dne to an infnsion of Toy hlood from the ontside. 
1 believe that all this is now altered, and that fewer dogs 
are ke])t at lilenheim. 

Mr. J. W. 1 'aimer, the present Duke of Marl- 
borouL^di's estate agent, is doing his best to improve the 
tvpe bv breeding from the best and smallest of our show 
dogs, and 1 have seen some ])retty ones from the Duke's 
estate. It is by the Duke of Marlborough's kind per- 
mission that I have rei)roduce(l his i)ictures in this 
volume, and my l)est th.anks are dne to Mr. Palmer for 
his most courteous hel]) in getting the photographs 
taken. Without his consent it would have been impos- 
sible for i)ro])er pictiu'es to be secured. 

John Scott wrote that in 1800 the Duke of Marl- 
borough's red-and-white S])aniels were Cockers, lie 
also speaks of " Carjiet Si)aniels " as a different breed, 
saying that these are very delicate and small dogs, 
have ex(|uisite noses, and will hunt truly and pleas- 



antly. l)Ut arc ik-IiIkt IU idr a loiii;" (la\- iior a ihorny 

Ackcnnann. in iS()<), speaks of ihc Marlboroui^li as 
" in(lefaliL;al)lc," and says tlial it was used as a finder 
in greyhound coursing, and dilTers onl}- from ihe Cocker 
in size, hut also says tliey are all so crossed that very 
few of i)in-e race are now to he found. 

In Ackermann's " Repository of Arts " the descrip- 
tion of the Cocker is nearly that of the Marlhorough 
S|)aniel : 

" Delicately formed like the Si)ringer, hut with a 
shorter, more coni])act form, and rounded head, shorter 
nose, long ears, and the longer the more admired. Limbs 
short and strong, the coal more inclined to curl than the 
Springer. Colour, liver-and-white, red-and-white, hlack- 
and-white, all liver colour and not unfreciuently black 
with tanned legs and muzzles.^ From the great simi- 
larity between some of these Cockers and the small water 
dog, both in figure and disposition, there is little doubt 
that they may have been originally i^roduced by a cross 
between the Si)ringing Spaniel and the latter. . . The 
smallest Spaniels i)assing under the denomination of 
Cockers is the peculiar breed in the possession of the 
Duke of Marlborough and his friends which are in- 
\ariablv red-and-white with very long ears, short nose 
and black eyes. They are indefatigable, and are held in 
high estim.'ition. 

" These two kinds differ in size and not much in 
(|ualifications except that the former is inferior to the 
latter in rai)idity of action and does not seem to catch 
the scent so (|uicklv. .spaniels of both descriptions are 
used as finders in coursing with greyhounds. They 

' IIiTc \M- li;ivi.' tlif Pvranu- classed as a Cocker. 
■> -> 

H S 

z > 


show pleasure and excitement by perpetual motion of 
the tail — termed feathering. . . . The tail is generally 
curved. Crosses of this race of dog are so varied that 
but very few of the pure and unmixed breed are now to 
be obtained." 

A coloured print shows a red-and-white dog with 
long nose and curly coat. Youatt in 1805 says: " The 
Blenheim Spaniel, from its beauty and occasional gaiety, 
is oftener an inhabitant of the drawing-room than the 
field, but it occasionally breaks out and shows what 
nature designed it for. Some of these carpeted pets 
accjiiit themselves nobly in the covert." 

Captain Brown, in 1829 ("Anecdotes of Dogs"), 
says that the small Cocker, which was of several colours 
but often black-and-tan and liver coloured, with rather 
curly hair, was extremely common in many parts of 
Sussex, and from its beauty and temper was more fre- 
quently a parlour pet than a sporting dog, and that the 
Duke of Marlborough kept a red-and-white variety of 
this Sussex Spaniel which had very long ears, short 
noses and black and sparkling eyes. He also says that 
General Maxwell of Edinburgh kept an extremely beau- 
tiful breed of Cockers, mostly black-and-tan, with ears 
nearly seven inches in length. They were small but very 
lively, handsome little creatures. 

The same writer says the King Charles is similar in 
every respect to the Cocker but is smaller, that he is of 
all colours, with longer ears and a longer tail. 

Meyrick, 1842, says the Cocker averages fifteen 
pounds in weight, the head is rounder, the nose more 
pointed than that of other breeds of Spaniels. The ear 
is light for a Spaniel, and the hair on it should be com- 
paratively thin (this exactly coincides with the descrip- 


tion of the Marlborouf^h and of the Pyrame). His coat 
should be wavy and Uiick. The colour is either black- 
and-white, pure black (the Gredin), liver-colour-and- 
white. or red-and-white (the original Gun S])aniel and 

" Some excellent breeds, such as the Welsh and 
Devonshire Cockers, are ])ure liver colour. Black-and- 
tan (Pyrame) is not uncommon but is not a favourite 

lesse speaks of a small thick Spaniel called " Doll." 
" She was of great beauty, red-and-white, with deep ears 
drooping to an extraordinary length for a dog of her 
colour. Her eyes were of a beaming hazel, nose short 
and well formed, stout but little sturdy legs almost cov- 
ered by the silky hair from her stomach. Doll always 
occupied the rug, and at dinner was called up when there 
was something for her. Bread she objected to; if she 
was offered a piece of dry bread she made a horrid face 
and turned away her head. If offered the dry bread a 
second time she would go into a corner and sulk, and if 
a third time she took the first op])ortunity of the door 
being opened to make oft' and started for my grand- 
father's at West Bromwich, some six or seven miles the 
other side of Birmingham." 

From The riclii, September 15, 1866: " On the origin 
of the dog (red-and-white Spaniel) which, judging from 
\'an Dvck's ])icture, was cherished at the Court of Charles 
1. It has been asserted that the same description of dog 
was a favourite in the time of Henry \'1II, and it was 
nuich esteemed by I^lizabeth, and tliat the small ' dogg ' 
which was found under the clothes of Mary Queen of 
Scots after her execution was of this breed. We incline 
to the opinion that it sprang from a race of Cockers of 


dvHrait cfL-ke S^otl . ^y^(z'Xi/4tcrn. 


that colour, for which the first owner of Blenheim was 
celebrated, and that the small race known by that name 
derived their origin from in and in breeding, in jealousy 
to preserve the breed." This is a characteristic modern 
account of the history of Toy Spaniels, but has no evi- 
dence behind it. 

Stonehenge, in " British Rural Sports," 1876, says: 
" About the year 1841 perhaps but two or three good 
specimens existed in the neighbourhood of Blenheim — 
and only one of surpassing excellence — a bitch named 
Rose, belonging to Mr. A. K. Kingle, of Oxford — she 
weighed four and a half or five pounds. Her head, 
exquisitely modelled and full of character and intelli- 
gence, was in exact proportion to her size. Her coat 
was soft, silky, shiny and of transparent whiteness ex- 
cept where it was stained with the genuine rich ' Blen- 
heim Orange.' " 

The price of a Blenheim in i860 was about £15. 

The " Penny Encyclop?edia " of 1841 states that Dr. 
Caius's Comforter, or Spaniel Gentle, was a Maltese, 
and stood alone as the lady's lap dog of his time. Not 
being at all a good Latin scholar myself I deputed a com- 
petent person to verify this and Dr. Caius's original 

I give here a literal translation of Dr. Caius's much 
misquoted words on Toy dogs. Dr. Caius was physician 
to Queen Elizabeth. The original text is in Latin — 


Reading "Apud": "There are also among us, 
among the kind of high-bred dogs, but outside the com- 
mon run of these dogs, those . . ." 

^ Early natural history writers often wrote " dog Latin " in more senses 
than one. 


^()^' DOCS AM) riiKiK axcksioks 

l\ca<lin^' " aliud ": " TIktc is also anioiii;" us another 
kind of Infill )r(.(l <1ol;s. hul oiUsidc llic common run of 
tlu'sc do|Li"s (namrlx ), those whicli ("ahimachus calls 
Mclilci from the Island of Mclita in the Sicilian strait, 
whence that kind chielly had its origin also. That kind 
is \ery small indeed and chiellv sou.^ht after for the 
amnsemenl and pleasure of women. The smaller the 
kind the more pleasing' it is, so that they mav carry them 
in their hosoms. in their lieds ; and in their arms in their 
carriaf^'cs. That kind ol do^" are altogether useless for 
any ])uri)oses, except that they ease pain of the stomach, 
heiui^" often appi)lied to it. or frcf|ucntly home in the 
l)osom of the diseased ])ers()n (easing pain), hy their 
moderate warmth ' ( lit.: l)y the moderation of their vital 
heat ). Aloreo\er it is helieved from their sickness and 
(-) fre(|uemly their death that diseases even are trans- 
ferred to them, as if the evil ])assed over to them owing 
to the intermingling •' ( lit.: likeness) of vital heat." 

In his tahle Dr. Cains gives the Maltese dog under 
Canes Delicati as the Comforter, or Spaniel (ientle, hut 
Fleming ex])lains that the IMelitreus su])planted the Com- 
forter, and gives all Chamber Companions " pleasant 
])lay-fellows " under Spaniels Gentle. In mv o])inion 
Caius was referring to more than one variety of Toy dog 
in his l)ook. Most people seem to have understood him 
to refer only to one breed, but it seems curious that he 
should have overlooked the Holland Spaniel in describ- 

' The pet dogs of Mexico are still used for this purpose. 

- Plcnimquc. If the comma at iiitcllifiitiir is correct, then it must l)e 
taken with inorlc, if there is no conuua it miniit l)e translated with iiitcUi- 
gitur — '■ It is often or generally lielieved." 

^ Siiitilitudiuc is a curious word here: it would seem to imply some 
special likeness between the " vital heat " of tlu>;e d(>i;>; ;nid of 
human l)eings. 


> I 

o - 

H-1 ^ 


ing the Melitei only. The opening sentence seems to 
show that he merely classed the Melitei as Chamber 
Companions under the head " Spaniel Gentle," and de- 
scribed them as outside the common run of these dogs. 

Fleming, writing six years after Caius, in 1576, 
translates him as follows: ''Of the delicate, neat and 
pretty kind of dogs called the Spaniel Gentle, or Com- 
forter, in Latine Melitjeus, or Fotor . . . There is be- 
sides another sort of gentle dogges in this our English 
soyle but exempted from the order of the residue, the 
dogges of this kind doth Callimachus call Melitaeus of 
the-Island Melita in the sea of Sicily (which at this day 
is named Malta an island indeede). These dogges are 
little pretty proper and fyne and sought to satisfie the 
delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton womens wills 
instruments of folly for them to play and dallie withall 
to tryfle away the treasure of time to withdraw their 
mindes from more commendable exercions . . . with 
vaine distractions." 

Fleming adds an explanatory description of his own, 
which decides the identity of this particular Melitseus. 
" Iseland dogges curled and rough all over which by rea- 
son of the length of their haire make showe neither of 
face nor of body yet these curs forsooth because they are 
so strange are greatly set by, esteemed, taken up and 
made of many times in the roome of the Spaniel Gentle 
or Comforter." 

It is quite evident from this that the " Iseland " 
dogges were not the true Spaniel Gentle but his sup- 
planter, the Maltese, whose personal appearance is accu- 
rately described and shows him to be the type that is 
still known as the Maltese. 

This description absolutely and finally disposes of 



the time honoured fallacy hv which Toy Spaniel his- 
torians have claimed Fleniinj^'s Melitei as lieinjji^ Toy 
Spaniels as we know them. 

i^'roni heini;- called Melitei or Island dn^s sul)se(|uent 
writers L^ot to callini^" them Iceland do|L;s. and Captain 
lirown calls the Spaniel Gentle the Spanish (lentle, and 
the Maltese heini;- suhsecpiently called the Shock doj^^, 
the name of Comforter eventually returned to the Hol- 
land Spaniel. 

In 1607, ''^- Topsell says: " In Ent^land there are the 
Mimicke or Gentulian do^- and the Melit.ein dogs." He 
(piotes Straho, hut adds nnich of his own. 

"There is a towne in I'achynus, a ])romontory of 
Sicilv called Melita, from whence are trans])orted many 
tine little dos^s called Melitei canes, they were accounted 
the jewels of women hut now the said towne i.< possessed 
hy fishermen and there is no such tender reckoninfi;" made 
of these tender little doi^s. for these are not hiii"g"er than 
common ferrets." 

The Mimicke or Gentulian doq-, of which there is a 
])icture, does not concern us, as he was a monstrosity, 
enormously hio-h on his lei^'s with a hump hack and no 

Before S'^iui^- further T must here point out a s^reat 
source of confusion which lies in the fact that there were 
two Alelitas and more than one hreed of ■NTelit.Tus toy 
do^-. The one ini])orte(l to l-ji^land in Dr. Caius's day 
is descrihed hy hdemins;". hut the orii^inal Melitjeus uni- 
vc^rsally ke])t hy the Greeks from 800 v.a:. was the now 
so-called Pomeranian. The Pomeranian was the trite 
.Maltese pet do<;-. In the course of mv researches T soon 
he.q'an to suspt-ct this, and 1 had the i^ood fortune to 
come ui)()n several proots ol it. ( )ne ol these was a 

Young Man out walking with his Maltese Dog, Early sth Century b.c. 

Reproduced from the Annali dell Instituto di Correspondenza Archa^ologia 

Late 4TH Century b. 


picture on a Greek vase, date about 500 B.C., represent- 
ing a man with a pet dog which is unmistakably a 
" Pomeranian," and by a fortunate chance he is actually 
addressing the dog as Melitaie (or Maltese). The word 
is written in Greek over the dog.^ The many other pict- 
ures of the Melitaie and the many references to them in 
the classics will be found in my chapter on the Pomer- 
anian, and are quite conclusive. 

As to the two Melitas, the one mentioned by Pliny is 
the modern Meleda or Zapuntello and the one mentioned 
by Strabo is the modern Malta. Pet dogs were bred in 
both, and also in Sicily (see Aelian). 

We do not come across the Maltese as we now know 
it till 200 B.C., when it is found represented in Egypt, 
together with the Melitaeus, though there is no evidence 
to show whether it originated there or was brought over 
with the other Melitaeus. The latter supposition, how- 
ever, seems the most probable, owing to the model being 
dug up in company with another model of the Pome- 
ranian Melitaeus which we know from Greek vases 

1 Mr. A. B. Cook, Reader in Classical Archaeology at Cambridge Uni- 
versity, has very kindly furnished the following note on this vase : 

" The vase was found at Vulci, and formed part of the Basseggio col- 
lection. It is an Attic pelike of the red-figured stjde. The designs on its 
two sides are, I think, meant to be taken together. On the one hand 
the young man about town is out for a walk in the most approved style 
with his Maltese pet dog before him . . . MeXtrare certainly means ' O 
Maltese' (dog). On the other hand we have not a gad-about youth with 
a dog meant for show, but two hard-working ordinary beings — a worthy 
citizen and his watch dog keeping guard over the home. . . . The letter- 
ing is I *POPOI, that is, ot <ppovpol, ' the guardians.' The first O has 
been rubbed off the black glaze and the second O stands for ov. This 
was made out by Paul Kretschmer . . . the words ot <ppovpol MeA Ta7f, . , . 
are the first half of a hexameter line. I do not doubt that they are a popu- 
lar tag spoken by the worthy citizen when he sees the young swell pass 
down the street. We might complete the sense thus : — ' Folk on guard, 
master Maltese puppy, have something better to do.' " 



and literature to lia\c orii^^inatcd in one of the two 

Many centuries later, i.e., Ijy 1755, Malta (the real 
one) e\ idently had other breeds besides, as the followinj^ 
translation (?) of Aelian by Jonston will show. A 
reference to Aelian himself j)roves that the descriptive 
l)art was Jonston's, and this is important, on account 
of his date beinq- so much later than Aelian. 

C. Aelianus J. Jonstoni. 1755, says: "Differences 
among dogs are great." Here we shall treat in order 
of the Greyhound, the Maltese dog, the coursing dog, 
the trailing dog (clever or " sagacious " — possibly " the 
watch dog "), farm dogs, war-dogs, and the useless dog 
(or toy or pcf). (The latter is classed separately from 
the Maltese dog proper.) 

" Maltese dogs are so-called from the island of 
Malta, which faces Pachynus, a i)romontory of Sicily.^ 
11iey are either short-haired or long-haired, or maned. 
P)londus praises those that arc black-and-white; to-day 
the red-and-white varieties are regarded as valuable. 
In size they resemble the ordinary weasel. That they 
may become small, and remain so, they are shut up in 
boxes, and are fed there. They are fed on the choicest 
foods. 1 f they conceive many at a time, the bitches sud- 
denly die. That they may be born with .shaggy coats, 

1 " Melitcnses ab insula IMclita, quae Pachyiio Sicilia? promontorio 
imminct, nomen habcnt. Sunt vel brcvioris vel prolixioris pili ct inbati. 
Rlondus partim albos, partim nigros commcndat ; hodie ruti et candidi 
in prctio haliontur. MaRiiitudino sunt mustclre silvestris. Ut parvi fiant ct 
mancant, canistris includuntur, ihidcmquc nutriuntur. IX-iicatissiinis 
vescuntur cil>is. Si plurcs fcEtus concipuint, suliito mnriuntur. Ut villo- 
siorcs maxantur, curatorcs loca in quibus cul\int, vclloritnis pecudum 
instcrnunt, ut ca pra? oculis semper habeant. Lugdimi in (^alla singuli de- 
cern aureisi v(rneunt. Brmonin- quadringentis li1)ris vcnduntur. Mulieri- 
Inis sunt in delieiis. C. A. J. Jonstoni. 


I9T1I-CENTURY Water-colour 

May have been iiU(-iuk-,l for Bulwer Lytton. Photo, E. Walker. By permissioii ..f Wllfria Scauxii llluiit, E.sq. 


their keepers line the places where they lie with sheep- 
skins, that they may always have them before their eyes. 

"At Lugdunum (Lyons) in Gaul they are sold for 
ten gold pieces each. At Bononia (Bologna) the larger 
sorts are sold for forty pounds. They are great pets 
with women." 

Now I am pretty sure that some of the larger sorts of 
Melitjen and Sicilian dogs mentioned were the red-and- 
white and black-and-white Toy Spaniels so popular at 
the court of Louis XIV. 

Gmelin, a German writer, says of this long-haired 
dog of Bologna that he has small roundish head, short 
nose (or may mean jaw). Long hair on ears, throat, 
chest, belly and legs, with a tail also feathered, and is 
generally of a white colour with black or brown spots 
on the ears. 

The Veronese type of Toy Spaniel probably there- 
fore originated in Italy and the islands round about it, 
and the following epigram of Martial, written to the 
famous pet dog belonging to Publius, may have been 
descriptive of a Toy Spaniel. Issa was an island in the 
Adriatic after which the dog was evidently named, sug- 
gesting that she was bred there. 

In Martial, Epigrams:^ "Issa is more frolicsome 
than Catullus's sparrow, Issa is purer than a dove's 
kiss, Issa is gentler than a maiden, Issa is more precious 
than Indian gems, the little dog Issa is the delight of 
Publius. If she whines you will think she speaks; she 
feels joy and sorrow. She lies down and sleeps on his 
neck so quietly that not a breath does he hear, and 
though she may be very cramped and uncomfortable, 
never has she soiled the counterpane with a single stain, 

1 Book I, No. 109: "To an Artist's Pet Dog." 


bill Willi a LiViitK- l)rsccrliiiiL^- fool slic arouses Iut iiias- 
Ut. warns him l(» piil Ikt on ihc i^round, and asks to 
1)0 rclic\c(l. Such is ihc iniialc niock'^ly of this chaste 
maiden that she knows nan^hl of W'luis; nor do wc 
find a luishaiid worthy of so frail a liltlc feminine crea- 
ture. Lest the last days that she sees the lii;ht should 
snatch her from him fore\er. Puhlius has painted her 
l)icture, in which you will see a likeness so -true that the 
portrait is more herself than she is. In short, i)Ut Tssa 
aii<l ihe picture side 1)\' side, and }-ou will not know 
whether both are real or both are i)ainted." 

To return to Dr. Caius. Ten years after Fleming-, 
Harrison, 1588, has still further confused us by adding- 
some more to Caius's supposed words, and ([uotini;" 
1'deminL;- with embellishments. In fact, these writers 
remind one forcibly of the o;ame of Russian scandal — 
each (juotes the other with alterations of his own. He 
says: " Of the delicate, weak, and ])retly kind of dog",Q^es 
called the Spaniel (lenlle, or the Comforter . . . ihe 
3rd sort of dog of the gentle kind is the S])aniel (ieiitle, 
or Comforter, or as the common term is the ? hound, 
and these are called Melitei of the Island Malta from 
where they were brought hither.' These are little, 
])retlv, i)roper and fine and sought out far and near to 
satisfie the nice, delicacie of daintie dames and wanton 
womens wills, instruments of follie to i)laie and dailie 
withall in triHing away the treasure of time ... a sillie 
])oore shift to shun their irksome idleness. These sybar- 
ilical i)Uppies the smaller they be and thereto if they 
have a hole in the forepart of their heads the better they 
are accepted, and the more jileasure they provoke as 
meet plaie fellows for mincing mistresses to beare in 
1 " Whence that kind of dog chiefly had its origin also." — Caius. 


Ivv^^^^^^^HH^^^H ^^^^^^^^H 





^ - ■ ■•' ■ / ^H 

H?^ ^H 











1 sili^HB! 










Q I 


their bosoms to keep companie withall in their chambers, 
to succor with sleepe in bed and nourish with meat at 
bord, to he in their laps and hcke their hps as they he 
hke young- Dianses in their wagons and coches: — and 
good reason it should be so for coarseness with finenesse 
hath no fellowship but featnesse with neatnesse hath 
neighbourhood enough." He continues his diatribe in 
very strong language and ends : ^ ''It is thought by 
some that it is verie wholesome for a weak stomach to 
be beare such a dog in the bosom," and Caius adds — (he 
says) " and though some suppose that such dogges are 
fyt for no service^ I daresay by their leaves they be in 
a wrong boxe." 

This reference to a hole in the forepart of the fore- 
head, attributed to Dr. Caius, but really interpolated 
much later by Harrison, has been often quoted as con- 
clusive evidence of the identity of the Toy Spaniel with 
Dr. Caius's Melitseus, but Fleming's description applies 
only to the orthodox Maltese. It is clear that the hole 
in the forehead could not apply to the Toy Spaniel 
of Queen Mary's time, which had no stop whatever, 
and we find in the "Book of the Dog" (p. 448), a 
reference to early writers as saying that " it was cus- 
tomary to press the nasal bone of the Maltese puppies 
so that they might seem more elegant in the sight of 
man." Combined with Fleming, this tends to show that 
there were two or more kinds of Melitseus and probably 
did apply to Toy Spaniels, as I feel sure that Toy Span- 
iels existed in Malta two centuries later, but there is no 
evidence of any importation in Harrison's time, though 
it is possible that importations may have taken place 
then. Against this, however, there is the fact that not 

^ The expressions omitted here are unnecessarily coarse. 



a vestii^e of the Italian Toy Spaniel with the stop, can 
])e found in lui.nland between 1586 and 1660, so that the 
do_HS, if ini])orte(l at all. must have died out immediately, 
onlv to he re-imporled alxmt i^)<')0. 

A slud\' of (allimacluis, so often quoted, ^q^ives no 
result, and I cannot find that he mentions the Melitei 
at all in an\' work now awailahle. 

Straho has been extensi\ely (|Uoted hy sul)se(iuent 
writers as sayini;' man\" thinj^s al)out the doL;-s, but^ 
search as T will. I can Inid nothini;- Imt the following, 
which consists of ele\en words in Greek and seven in 
Latin, so any further details nmst have been added by 
the translators: "Opposite Pach\nus lie two islands. 
Malta, whence come the small si)ecies of doL;- which 
takes its name from the place, and Ciaudus." ^ 

Piuffon gives the Maltese (or Shock) dog as a cross 
between the black-and-white Toy Spaniel and the tri- 
colour ])etit liarbet, which was in itself a cross between 
the black-and-white Toy Spaniel and the red-and-white 
luarbet. The ]\raltese was therefore considered a 
varietv of Toy Spaniel, l)nt 1 have jiroved that it was a 
\erv ancient breed which I ha\-e traced back to 200 B.C. 

LiniKeus. \yi)2, says that the Melit;eus is about the 
size of a squirrel. 

The poem cjuoted 1)y ?\lrs. Jenkins, written bv Swift 
on a ladv's Spaniel, was supposed to ha\e been com- 
])Osed in ridicule of Philips' poem on Miss Carteret, 
and was written, it has been said, to affront the lady 
of Arch. Boulter. (See Jesse. 1865.) 

Rees's " Cycloiijedia," i8i(), says: "The Comforter 
is another small dog allied to the Maltese and is a gen- 

' Translated from Stralm's " ruoirrapliy," Book VF, Chapter 11, par. ii, 
in Circi'k an<l Latin, edited liv C". Miiller ;ind I". niil)ner, I'aris, 1S5.V 


Elizabeth Langstaffe 
From a painting by Sir G. Kneller, 1722. Photo, E. Walker. By permission ofC.jl. M. Fawcett 


eral attendant on the ladies at the toilet or in the draw- 
ing-room, but it is of a snappish, ill-tempered disposition 
and very noisy." 

The next mention of the Comforter is by Bewick, 
in 1824, and by that time, the Maltese having become 
very scarce, the name was applied by Bewick to the 
fashionable cushion dog and ladies' pet of his time, 
which was the descendant of the Holland Spaniel. 

The liver-and-white Holland Toy Spaniel existed in 
Dr. Caius's time, but he makes no reference to it, and 
Harrison clearly referred to the imported Melitei, as 
the* Holland Spaniel of that period, being quite desti- 
tute of stop, could not, as I have already said, have 
been spoken of as having " a hole in the forepart of the 
forehead ; " moreover, I have already shown that this 
was a peculiarity prized in some kinds of Maltese dogs 
of Caius's time. 

Bewick, in 1824, writes of the Comforter: " A most 
elegant little animal, and is generally kept by the ladies 
as an attendant of the toilet or the drawing-room. It 
is very snappish, ill-natured and noisy and does not 
readily admit the familiarity of strangers." This was 
quoted from Rees. 

The name of Comforter here had once more become 
the exclusive property of the Holland Spaniel, but was 
confounded, no doubt, later in people's minds, with that 
of other Toy Spaniels, and the description of its nature 
ill accords with the Spaniel pet breeds as we now know 

Captain Brown in 1829 refers to the Comforter, 
copies Bewick's picture, and says it is a cross between 
the Maltese and the King Charles, but in this he is, of 
course, quite under a misapprehension. He says the 



(.•()!( >iir is ^encrallN' w liitr w itli black or hrow n ( /.('.. H\cT ) 
patclu's: the cars Ioiil^', tlu- head Ijroad in tlu- upin-i' i)art, 
witli an acute mu/./.k'; tlic liair lonj^- all oxer and the 
t'()relc,i;s feathered; tail curled and t'ealhered with very 
lonii" liairs. lie also says that it is the smallest of all 
distinct races of doj^s, often not o\er a foot from nose 
to tip of tail. As the tail in the picture is fully as long 
as the body, the doe;- cannot have weighed more than 
two or three ])oun(ls, and this is another confirmation 
of niv argument that it was the descendant of the tiny 
Spaniel of Queen Mary, lie says that the Comforter 
is very scarce and becoming more so, being superseded 
by the Cocker (see above). He gives the ^laltese and 
the Shock dog as different l:)reeds, and there is great 
confusion in the Latin names, as he calls the Shock the 
Fotor, the Comforter, the Consolator, and the King 
Charles the Brevipilis. He gives the orthodox ^Maltese 
as the MelitcTus. 

Fennell, 1841, gives the Shock dog and the Com- 
forter in the same picture, which shows that the name 
of Comforter had gone back to the Toy Spaniel. The 
Shock is the ^Nfaltese, and the Comforter a parti-col- 
oured Toy Spaniel with long, curled, bushy tail, very 
pointed nose, liver (?) cheeks, and long white ears. 

He savs: " The Comforter or Spaniel (ientle, another 
sort of lap dog and which in com])arison with the Shock 
is as Hyperion to a satyr." 

He also gives pictures of the '" King Charles S])aniel," 
and speaks in its praise as compared to the Comforter: 
" This beautiful breed received its name from having 
been the favourite of that ill-fated monarch. Charles I, 
who rarely walked out without being attended by sev- 
eral of these Spaniels. The\- were black-and-white with 








Metsys, 1510-1575 

Louvre. The only red and white Toy Spaniel 
represented with the "spot ' 

Palma Vecchio, about 1500 

Pitti Gallery 

Bewick's Comforter of 1824 

Petit Barbet (Miniature Poodle) 

Cima, about 1470. Venice Academy 

r^IlERIS, 1635-1681 
Pinakothek. HanfstaengI 

Black and White Toy Spaniel 

From the Embarquejiient pour Cythere by Watteau 

About 1 7 10. Louvre. HanfstaengI 


curlv hair, small, rounded heads, short muzzles, long 
ears and ivcbbcd feet." 

The picture shows a fairly high skull, deep stop, and 
profuse coat. 

" The lap dog at the time of Dr. Caius was of Mal- 
tese breed. At present it comes from different coun- 
tries, in general the more awkward or extraordinary 
these are the more they are prized." ^ 

" The Springer. There are considerable varieties 
of this animal to be found in Great Britain, but the kind 
which has attained the greatest distinction is that de- 
nominated the King Charles Spaniel." (He mentions 
its curly hair. ) " 

M. M. P. Bernard and L. Couailhac, 1842, give a 
picture of the " Epagneul Marlborough." A tiny black- 
and-white dog, round skull, shortish pointed nose, very 
profuse coat and feathering, very fine bone and ears 
very highly set. It is drawn from a stuffed specimen 
in the museum of Natural History at the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris. 

The only pictures in which Van Dyck has Toy Span- 
iels are the ones painted before he came to England. 
The best of these is one of the wife of Philippe le Roy, 
of the Genoese period, representing a very tiny yel- 
lowish-red-and-white dog weighing about three pounds, 
to judge from the size. This proves that the dogs in his 
pictures of the children of Charles I were not big by 
accident but were probably accurate representations of 
a biggish Spaniel. They are quite differently treated to 
his Toy Spaniels. 

1 Goldsmith's " Natural History," 1874. 
- " Shooters' Guide," B. Thomas, 1809. 


^()^ i)()(;s am) tiikik i^sious 

I'lic ()nl\- Toy Spaniel wliicli appears to lia\c existed 
in I'Jij^land before the time ol' Charles 11 is shown in 
the portrait, attributed to Sir Antonio More, of l*hilip 
and Mary, ])ainted in 1552. This was (|uite a (hfferent 
t\pe from the hi.i;h-domed Italian Spaniel, and had no 
more stop than a Borzoi. It is livcr-and-whitc, and is 
a,e^ain shown in a portrait (now hanging in the dining 
room at Crabbet) of a century later, the type and col- 
our being precisely the same as in 153-', though it is 
somewhat larger. It co-existed in 1660 along with the 
French S])aniel in different countries, which goes to 
prove that the French Spaniel was not evolved from it. 
This Spaniel of Philip and Mary is the Holland ty])e, 
and was ])rol)al)ly imported into Fngland in 1550 by 
Anne of Cleves, as it was already in England before the 
Prince of Orange's importation. It may possibly have 
been crossed with the Springer by the Duke of Marl- 
borough ; the reference to the Blenheim breed of Cock- 
ers being invariably red-and-white, does not disag;rec 
with this, as the liver colour was of a somewhat mis- 
leading shade. I have often asked people to describe 
the colour of the dog in the picture already mentioned, 
and the}' call it red-and-white or brown-and-white (juite 
indiscriminately, whereas it is really tpiite a dift"erent 
colour from the j^resent I'lenheim. The liver-and-white 
Holland Spaniel has now died out, but the t}-]ie of head 
may sometimes be seen in the Marlboroughs. The Duke 
of Marlborougii jjrobably im])orted some of the parti- 
coloured Toy Spaniels from Holland during the wars 
with Manders, or they may have come over with \\'ill- 
iam ill, who was a native of Holland, as well as with 
Anne of Cleves, though W illiam 1 1 1 seems to ha\e kei)l 
white ones. 



The date of one of the importations of Holland 
Spaniels is settled by the following passage: 

" In Somers Tracts it is narrated how Julian 
Romero in 1672 made a night attack on the Camp of 
the Prince of Orange and he was saved by his little 
Spaniel, which fell to scratching and crying, and withal 
leapt on the Prince's face, awakening him, being asleep, 
before any of his men. 

" The Prince kept one of that dog's race mitil his 
dying day, and so did many of his followers. The most, 
or all, of these dogs were white little hounds with 
cro'oked noses called Camuses." 

The attack spoken of apparently took place in 
Holland, and as the Prince and his retinue kept the 
dogs to his dying day, it follows that he must have 
imported them to England. A white Toy Spaniel sur- 
vived till the time of Queen Charlotte. The crooked 
nose may merely mean a stop, or the dogs may have 
been Alicantes. 

My deductions from historical research are as fol- 
lows : 

I. That the Red-and-white is the oldest breed and 
came from China and the Black-and-white was also an 
original Chinese breed. The Italian descendants mixed 
with Melitseus, only appear to have been crossed in 
colour at the time of Charles II, producing the Tri- 
colour of 1660, which was, however, different from our 
modern Tricolour. Italy carried on a brisk trade with 
China during the thirteenth century onwards, and even 
earlier, and the Chinese dogs were evidently imported 
to various parts of Italy, where they may have been 
crossed with the then indigenous so-called " Pom- 
eranian " (one of the varieties of Maltese dog), pro- 



ducini; the hii^ii-doincd poinlccl nosed \ cronese type. 
Malta and the Sicilian Islands were notorious manufac- 
tories of Toy dose's, and tlie inhabitants of some towns 
made a si)ecialty for producini;- dwarf breeds. 

The Holland Si)aniel was another distant variety of 
C'liinese Toy Spaniel, hut it never had a short nose or 
a lonj2^ feathery tail. The custom of docking its lail 
seems to have been an old one, as the Chinese .Spaniel 
in the Chinese mirror has the tail docked. 

J. That the lilack-and-tan is a cross between the lit- 
tle curly black Spaniel and the Pyrame, and that these 
were not crossed until after 1800, as they were always 
l)re\iousK- spoken of as separate breeds. A rei)lica of 
the orii^inal curly all-black Kin^- Charles still exists in 
the Miniature Tov Trawler, which is exactly similar to 
it in type, and which, if crossed with modern Kint;* 
Charles, ])ro(luces Black-and-tans exactly like those in 
the bes^inning- of the last century. 

The whole red variety in EnoTand cannot be traced 
back more than eii^'hty vears, the first picture beiui^ a 
Landseer of 1830. thou.^h \'an Dyck's picture of the wife 
of Philijjpe le Rov of the (ienoese jjcriod two hundred 
years earlier contains a \ellowisli red Toy with white 
on head and toes. The Hrst written reference to a 
whole red Toy is that of Mr. Garwood's Dandy in 

1 ha\e traced the existence of an earlier one in 1828 
which belonged in Mrs. Todd, of Xewcastle. and a 
later one in 1830 — /'. c. Mr. Risum's doc;-. It is also 
probable that the red-and-white and black-and-white 
Italian and b^rench Sjjaniels were separate varieties up 
to the seventeenth century, and that the lilack-and-tan 
and Ruby are now one breed, dependent on each other, 


Chinese Mirror, i8th Century 


the latter being a variant of the former prodnced 1\v a 
cross with Blenheim, Inil the King C'harles was in no 
way connected with the other colours until just before 
the middle of the last century, and the first result of the 
connection was the production of the Ruby, as I shall 
show presently. 

The red variety with white on forehead, breast, and 
toes is a perfectly authentic one, and should certainly 
be allowed to compete in Toy Spaniel classes. It may be 
seen in \^an Dyck's picture and also in a picture by 
Ter"Borch, which belongs to Mr. Gerald Loder. The 
dog is a rich colour and quite unmistakable. This red 
with white is historically quite correct. It was no doubt 
a variant of the red-and-white Chinese Spaniel, such as 
is also seen in the Chinese bowl. 

In England the dog which belonged to Mrs. Todd, 
of Newcastle, in 1828, had a white breast and toes, and 
w^as so sm.all that it travelled to London in a lady's 
mufif. Its mother was said to be a Black-and-tan which, 
if so, is the first Toy Black-and-tan on record, though 
Lady Byron's " Fairy " was the first of which I have 
any description. The Ruby was by mistake christened 
" Rollo " (a dog's name). She was renamed Rose by 
the London lady who bought her. The little thing had 
a tragic end. She was stolen and rewards were offered 
in vain. At last one day her mistress found her on the 
doorstep, with a bit of rope hanging to her neck. She 
bore evidences of having reared a litter and had doubt- 
less escaped and found her way home, but it was too 
late. She managed to crawl inside the house, crept into 
her old familiar basket, and died. 

The first black Toy Spaniel on record is in a Mignard 
picture of Louis of France, afterwards Louis XV, and 



liis faniilv (i()^o?). Tliis is nol a hl.ick -aiid-tan, hut 
]>urc black, in the same i)iclure there is a hhick-aiul- 
white doi;.' 

Tlie h'rench 1 »hick-aiKl-\vhilc Spaniel was ol'ten not 
truly hlack-and-white, hut silver-grey-and-white, of a 
most ex(|uisite shade, and if any fancier should hreed 
a pu|)i)y of this eol(»ur. I ho])e he will ininiedialely let 
me know, as it should certainly he revived. It was evi- 
dently considered the hest colour, as the richest people 
kept it. The colour red-and-white, shot with black, 
which was recently broui^ht out at the Kennel ("luh 
Show, is also \ery interesting^, as it approximates the 
curious colour of some of these Frencli Spaniels, and 
may either be an evidence of the French descent or more 
])robahly of the Bulldos^ cross. 

Louis Xl\' had a very i:)retty ]iet Spaniel called 
" ]\Ialice," ])robably the one in the picture bv Lar_<;"liil- 

It is recorded that when he q'ot tired of Mile, de 
la \ alliere and took another ta\-ourite in .Mnie. de 
iVrontespan he used to pass throuiih la X'alliere's ai)art- 
ments to oo to those of ]\Iontes])an. and would Ihn";- 
the (k\tT to Mile, de la ValHerc, sayint^' contemj)tuously : 
" Tenez, voila votre conij^ac^nie, c'est assez." 

Louis XL unlike Louis XI\\ was ajiparently not a 
dog" fancier, and seems to have been capable of the 
most w.anton cruelty. It is said that on one occasion 
when walking- in the Gardens of Paris he saw a lady 
with a pet do<^-. Without the lea^t proxocation he 
called the do^- to him. and as soon as it came up 

' Mr. Watson, of Hackcnsack, tells mc of a picture hy William Dob- 
son, 1646, of .Sir Charles and Lady I.ncas with a hlaik T»)y .Spaniel, hut 1 
have been unahle to trace the picture 

Dutch Picture, about 1660 

Photo, Hanfstaengl 


broke its back with a blow from his stick and walked 
on laughing. 

Mme, de Maintenon in a letter to Count d'Aubigne 
remarks that as she writes there are in her room twenty 
people, three children, and ten dogs ! 

Our present-day fanciers flatter themselves that they 
have evolved a tiny pet Spaniel from a big English sport- 
ing breed by careful selection, and are now talking of 
going back to the " true massive type," whereas the real 
fact is that the red-and-white and black-and-white Ital- 
ian and French Spaniels weighed just about half what 
our present ones do, or even less, average specimens 
in 1750 being only six inches high, whereas our very 
smallest specimens are little if anything vmder nine 
and a half inches, and most of them are ten inches to 
thirteen inches at the shoulder. 

Meyrick, 1842, says the Blenheim should weigh four 
to seven pounds, and the King Charles are seldom less 
than five or six pounds. Webb, 1872, gives the King 
Charles as six to twelve pounds, and the Blenheim five 
pounds, and of little value if as much as eight pounds. 
Idstone says King Charles seven pounds and the Blen- 
heim six or seven pounds, top weight nine pounds, and 
Stonehenge gives the Tricolour as six pounds at top 

The measurements of the Toy Spaniel of 1770, trans- 
lated into English, are as follows: 

Length of body from tip of nose to root of tail, eleven 
inches and four lines ; height of forehand, six inches ; 
quarter, six inches ; length of head to tip of nose, three 
inches. (This makes the dog as nearly as possible square, 
allowing five inches for head and neck. ) Circumference 
of end of muzzle, three inches ; under eyes, four inches 



two lines ; circumference opening of the mouth, two 
inches six hues; distance between nostrils, two lines; 
from tip of nose to inside corner of eye, one inch; to 
outside corner, one inch. (This gives length of nose 
as a1)out three (juarter inch. ) Length of eye, eight 
lines; height of eye, six lines (/. c, eyes nearly round). 
Distance between eyes, ten lines ( /. c, eyes are very 
wide a])art, there being more than the length of the eye 
between them). Girth of skull, seven inches; girth of 
tail at the root, two inches six lines; ears, two inches 
eight lines ; length of leg from elbow to wrist joint, two 
inches two lines ; length from wrist to end of claws, 
two inches ; width of ears at top three inches three lines ; 
length of neck, two inches ; round neck, seven inches six 
lines ; width of forefoot, nine lines ; girth of body, ten 
inches six lines ; girth at l)iggest point, ten inches ten 
lines ; girth at waist, nine inches six lines ; height from 
ground under flank, tw^o inches six lines ; height to 
breast bone, tw^o inches three lines ; length of tail, eight 

This will show plainly that the theory suggested by 
many w^riters and repeated by Mrs. Jenkins in her arti- 
cle in Cassell's new " Book of the Dog," and again by 
Mrs. Raymond Mallock in her book on " Toy Dogs," 
I'ic, that the Toy Spaniels w'ere derived from the Cocker 
and that *' in olden days they were much larger than 
our own " is an error. " In olden days " is a comfort- 
al)ly \'ague term, but from about 1450 to 1800 the Toy 
Spaniel was certainly far smaller than our present type ; 
and the only one of the varieties which came from sport- 
ing ancestry — namely, the Black-and-tan — w^as not orig- 
inally as big as some of our present dogs, and only in- 
creased in size after the cross of Pyrame. Even as late 


Picture by Mieris 

About 1660. St Petersburg. Photo, Hanfstaengl 


as Idstone, 1872, the top weight of a show specimen was 
never to exceed seven pounds. Since that time the Toy 
Spaniel has been getting- steadily bigger, not smaller, 
the last Kennel Club Show producing gigantic speci- 
mens, the smallest dog in one class weighing over twelve 
pounds, while the largest in the Show must have scaled 
well upon twenty pounds. The American T. S. C. are 
still further encouraging size by increasing the exhi- 
bition weight, 

Mrs. Jenkins states that the Tricolour has only ex- 
isted within the last quarter of a century, but this is a 
mistake, as it existed already in the time of Sir Peter 
Lely before 1660 — i. c, over two hundred and fifty years 
ago. Its " original appearance in a litter of King 
Charles " pure bred was therefore probably explained 
by a throw back to a former cross, and not to a freak, 
and the appearance was certainly not " original." 

The red-and-white and black-and-white Spaniels were 
the oldest breeds, and the red-and-white can be defi- 
nitely traced two centuries and a half further back than 
the Tricolour. The liver-and-white, though apparently 
very rare in Italy, occurs in one of Titian's pictures. 

Mrs. Mallock says : " I am afraid I am a crank on 
the subject of breeding type to its type, and shall never 
be satisfied with calling breeds metamorphosed into 
something else by the old name." This sentence is 
rather vague. " Type to its type " is rather indefinite, 
especially as she does not specify the old name to which 
she refers, but I imagine she wishes to convey that what 
she describes as the " old type " to which the " old 
name" (of Toy Spaniel?) belongs is the one of which 
she speaks as quickly disappearing — i. e., the *'old-time 
Spaniel with his deep chest, massive head," and " won- 


T{)^ DOCS AM) rilKlli AXC KSroKS 

dcrt'ul cliL;iiit\." X<>\v lliis is not at all the type of 
the ()!(l-linic Toy Si)anicl, and such a description is a 
pathetic fallacy, as the ori.^inal 'i^>y Si)aniel was 1)y no 
means " majestic in appearance with — that wonder tul 
massiveness of head which lends much iulinite di.L;nity 
to the individual." 

The old hreed would certainly he metamorphosed 
into somethiuL;- else if it resemhled this heavy type. 
Anyone is. of course, at liherty to admire this new style, 
hut it is impossihle to seriously pretend that it is his- 
torical. The old-time writers describe their old-time 
doi^s as " fairy-like," " spri.qhtly and diminulixe." cer- 
tainly neither dignified nor massiye. A doi;' six inches 
at the shoulder can hardl}- he called massive! One 
mii^ht as well call a hummini^-hird massive. 

Mrs. Mallock also says: "One seeks in vain that 
tvi)ical mincin"^ cj^ait so seldom seen nowadays." T 
think one may certainly look for it in xain amon^- the 
massive, maiestic. and dignified .Spaniels she describes, 
where its rareness could only he ecjualled hy its inap- 

Once for all 1 must say that the massive Toy Spaniel 
is a modern fake and not a true Toy .Sj)aniel at all. It 
has been the bane (~>f the Toy doq- that the name Spaniel 
has been so misused. Fanciers insist upon heavy bone 
and heads and low carriajq^e of the tail, all of which are 
wronj;', but which they imajn^ine are true sjianiel charac- 
teristics. For a beautiful field .Spaniel unsi)oiled by mod- 
ern show fashions, see Stubb's jjiclure. Why modern 
Si)aniel fanciers have evolved the present heavy type 
1 cannot imai^^ine. The only old heavy tyjie of .Spaniel 
was the bi^' Water .Spaniel. The other sporting- .Spaniels 
were all of a li_L;ht. active build, with small heads and 


Field Spaniel 

Stubbs, 1750. Compare with modern type. Photo, E.Walker. By permission of Sir Walter Gilboy. 

Mrs Rouse's Ch. Clareholm Opal 
Field Spaniel 

Compare with above. Photo, Tall 


short backs, cobby and compact, and with Hght Ijone 
compared to what is now thought right. 

Apart from the extinct black-and-white Toy Spaniel, 
the red-and-white Toy Spaniel is the only one of the four 
varieties which has a long record of the high rounded 
skull and a short nose. The Veronese type is a very 
pretty Blenheim in general appearance. It seems to 
have gone back to a still higher skull between the years 
1480 and 1550, but of course it is difficult to trust abso- 
lutely to the picture of any one artist, as artists are very 
fond of having what might be called a *' property " dog, 
which they choose for its suitability to pictorial pur- 
poses, and not for its purity of breed. 

It is possible, therefore, that Titian's red-and-white 
Spaniel, which is not high in skull, was merely a low- 
skulled specimen, as we find the Veronese type exactly 
reincarnated more than a century later in the portraits 
of Henrietta of Orleans. And as we can trace the breed 
through Rubens and others all the way, it cannot, in 
the case of Veronese, be considered as merely the por- 
trait of an individual, but should be taken as represent- 
ing the real type of 1550. The black-and-w4iite Spaniel 
has a totally different type of head, though its birth- 
place was probably also China. The erroneously so- 
called Blenheim — ?. e., the red-and-white Toy Spaniel — 
was the Italian Toy Spaniel evolved from the Chinese 
Spaniel, and the cross between it and the French Span- 
iels (probably evolved in the same manner) after their 
importation to England, produced a gaily marked tri- 
colour, which has since given way to the artificial tri- 
colour. As to the production of the Tricolour, the cross- 
ing of Black-and-white with Red-and-white will often 
in itself produce Tricolour. But we cannot do this now, 


'l'()\' DOCS AM) rilKlH AX( I'.SrOKS 

as llic r.lack-and while is cxtincl. W c llu'rcforc replace 
it wiili ihc lilack-and-tan. 

I ci>nsidcr thai there are two kinds ol' Iricolniirs : 
I'irst. those of 1660 thai were i^ailv marked and were 
descended troni the hlack-and-w hile and red-and-w hile 
()ri<i"inal slock: and, second, the modern artificial Tri- 
colour which was introchiced ahonl 1S35. and was ihe 
result of a douhle cross hetween ihc ?)lenheim and ihe 
r.lack-and-tan. This colour can always he ])roduce(l 
in the manner descrihed in mv chai)ter on hreedini;'. hy 
niatino- a I'.lack-and-lan lo a I'lenheini. 'This resulls in 
niismarked P>lack-and-lans and Ruhies, and recrossini:;' 
ihe i)rooeny on the Hlack-and-tan side with a lllenheini, 
it produces hea\ilv marked 1'ricolours. and sonielinies 
a reversion to re<l-an(l- white. I do not consider this to 
he the true Tricolour, which is now extinct in all j^roha- 
hility. IVohahly this method was only discovered w'hen 
the true Tricolour became scarce. The Tricolour de- 
scrihed hv .Stonehen_Q"e is oh\-iously of the artificial kind 
havin.^" the black back. Of course when recrossed a 
third and fourth time with Pilenheim they become indis- 
t in squish able from the true bred ones. As a rule the 
white is not c|uite of the same i)early (|uality in the sec- 
ond and third crosses. This dilTerence. in some cases, 
is very noticeable. 

T think T am f|uite safe in sayinq- that the true Tri- 
colour has ])ractically ceased to exist. T.y the chart 
^■i\en elsewhere it will be seen that the Tricolour is a 
practically invariable result of a certain combination of 
blood, and I consider that in Shows the red-and-white 
Tov Spaniel should //rrrr compete a^'ainst the Tricohnu", 
which is of different breeding- and, therefore, a totally 
different \ariel\-. Once created, ihi^ \arietv appears to 


<! ^ 


breed true. When often recrossed with Red-and-white 
it is possible it might gradually breed out, but I have 
no evidence of this. 

The pure white Toy Spaniel existed in Spain and 
Holland, and was possibly imported by the Prince of 
Orange from Holland, and Benjamin West painted one 
or two in the time of Queen Charlotte. 1 cannot find 
any trace of it to-day. 

My chart of colours is, of course, only an approxi- 
mate one, as I have not been able to experiment in suffi- 
cient numbers to prove it conclusively, but I do not think 
it is very far out. The percentage is based on neces- 
sarily restricted experiments, and is therefore, as I have 
said, only approximate, but it is the most convenient 
way of expressing in a condensed form what appears 
to me to be the relative proportion of colours produced 
by each cross. I have allowed an equal percentage of 
red-and-white and tricolour offspring from red-and- 
white and tricolour parents, as the chances of getting 
an equal number of each colour in any given litter ap- 
pear practically even, but I believe that experiments 
covering a large number of cases would show a per- 
centage slightly in favour of the red-and-white. 

In '* The Wonders of the Dog " (no date) there is 
a coloured picture of " King Charles's dogs, so called 
because King Charles I was very fond of little dogs 
. . . and this was the kind of Spaniel he liked the best." 
The ears were placed very high, colour black-and-white 
and red-and-white. 

In Jardine's " Naturalists' Library," 1843, the 
" King Charles Spaniel " is given as a long-nosed Tri- 
colour exactly the same size as a Cocker, very evenly 
marked, with ticked legs. 



There is a prim al the hei; inning- of " Anecdotes of 
Dogs," 1846, of two " Kini; ( harles " (1(),l;"s, one very 
heavily marked tricolonr, and the oilier red-and-white, 
both with Ion*;- noses. The i)late of field Sjjaniels shows 
dogs exactly the size and shape of Marlhonm^h r>len- 

I find the follow in _i^- in The Ticld of Mav u. i85(): 
" Spaniels for Woodcock shooting. Melita asks what 
are the best Spaniels for the s])ort? Melita can nse a 
team of ]M-etty red-and-white Blenheims, their noses are 
\er\- delicate and their crv nuisical. bnt thev soon knock 
np. The IMenheims are fit for better things than being 
lap dogs." 

At this time the effect of the Toy cross is beginning 
to be felt, previous authors speaking of them as inde- 

Extract from The FiehL Xovember 2-:^, 1865 : 
*' Cockers are crosses from, or large specimens of the 
King Charles or Blenheim Spaniels." This is the re- 
verse opinion to that held by modern writers. Mr. Nave 
says that the short face and l)lack-and-tan colour in the 
King Charles were produced by a cross of black-and-tan 
Tapanesc Spaniel, but T think this is most improbable. 

Tn the Natural History Aluseum there is a stuffed 
Blenheim with a pointed nose, ller label says that she 
is interesting as showing the ty])e of Blenheim known 
in the early part of the nineteenth century. She is dis- 
torted by being very badly stuffed, as are also most of 
the luore recent specimens, but one can see j^retty well 
what the ty])e was like, and it had greatly degenerated 
from the type ke])t by Henrietta of (Orleans. 

llie TieliL February tj. i85(), says of the Blenheim 
that it is " red-and-white w ith black nose, fine, but short 


Black and White Spaniel 

From Watteau'-s The Toilet. About 1780. Photo, E. Walker 


muzzle, and of elegant form, quite a fairy among dogs." 
This goes to show that the Italian type was still to be 
seen in 1859. 

At the beginning of the tenth century, under Vene- 
dotian Code, N. Wales, the worth of a Spaniel of the 
King and of a highman was assessed at £1, the Spaniel 
of a freeman six score pence, and the Spaniel of a vil- 
lain of the King four pence, the same worth as his cur. 

In 1 57 1, Spaniel whelps with brimstone, turpentine, 
nettles, oil of balm, and parmacete were considered a 
cupe for gout. 

Under Henry VIII, 1529, amongst instructions for 
the Royal Household was one relative to dogs : " Noe 
dogges to be kept in Court then (than) some small span- 
yells for ladies or others." 

There is frequent mention relating to his dogs in 
the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VIII from 1529 to 
1532, edited by Nicholas Harris, 1827. Payments of 
10/ — and 5/ — occur " For bringing Cut the kings span- 
yell ayen," also of 4/8 to a " poore woman in rewarde 
for bringing ayenne of Cutie the kinges dog." 

The first representation of Toy Spaniels in England 
is in the picture by Sir Antonio More at Woburn Abbey, 
1 55 1. It shows two very small pet dogs; their ears are 
long, noses very pointed, and their necks have collars 
of bells, their colour is liver-and-white. This variety 
is now extinct, having been probably merged into the 
Marlborough and bred out. It was not the same as 
the Italian Toy Spaniel. 

In Mary's Privy Purse expenses is the entry: 
" Gevenne to Sir Bryan Tulxes servante bringing a 
couple of little fayre hounds to my lade's grace 5/." 
(Doubtless these were the ones in the painting.) Mary 



<4a\o IwciilN sliillini;s for a little " Spaiiyoll." The next 
representation of Toy Spaniels is the i)icturc l)y Sir 
Tetcr Lel\. Then we conic to a portrait of I'Llizahcth 
I.ani^slatYc, 17J8, and also to sonic old needlework 
tai)estry' worked in 1736 to 1750 by the five wives of 
Thomas Foley. 

Jesse ^ says: "Others are cushion doj^s and for 

A very old work speaks of " the smaller ladyes 
popees that bear away the flees and dyvers small 
fowles." This su.c^jT^ests an orii^inal reason for lady's 
lap do.2:s. The " dyvers small fowles " is a most alarm- 
inj^ sentence! 

The Earl of Shaftesbury says in a description of a 
country jrcntleman of the seventeenth century: "The 
parlour was a larg-e room ... on a i^reat hearth paved 
with brick lay some terriers, and the choicest hounds 
and Spaniels. Seldom but two of the g^reat chairs had 
litters of young- cats in them which were not to be dis- 
turbed, he havin^q; three or four always attending- him 
at dinner, and a little white round stick of fourteen 
inches lying- by his trencher, that he might defend such 
meat as he had no mind to part with to them." 

P)laine's Rural Sports says that five thousand Span- 
iels were kept as parlour pets in London alone about 

Samuel Pepys describes a visit to the Council Cham- 
ber of Charles TT on Sejitember i, 1666. lie says: " All 
I observed there was the silliness of the King^, jilaying^ 
with his dog all the while and not minding; the busi- 

Again he says: " .\t Hatfield we baited and walked 

' " Sindar in his Reevcls." 

La Consolation de l' Absence 

N. Delaunay, about 1760-1770. By permission of Basil Dighton, Esq. 


into the great house through all the courts and I would 
fain have stolen a pretty dog that followed me, but I 
could not, which troubled me." 

I think most dog lovers are " troubled " at times by 
regret at not being able to carry off somebody else's 
pretty dog! 

He also speaks of having his wife painted by Savill, 
and says : " Her little black dogge sat in her lap and was 
drawn, which made us very merry." There is, how- 
ever, nothing to show the breed of this particular lap 
dog, but Mr. Pepys intense " Royalism " probably led 
him to own the same variety as the King, unless I am 
much mistaken. 

Rural Sports says: "Charles H was famous for 
a partiality for a particular breed, and came generally 
accompanied to the Council Board with a favourite 
Spaniel. His successor, James 11, had a similar attach- 
ment, and it is reported of him by Bishop Burnet that 
being once in a dangerous storm at sea and obliged to 
quit the ship to save his life, he vociferated with impas- 
sioned accents as his principal concern : ' Save the Dogs 
. . . and Col. Churchill,' " Col. Churchill being added 
as an afterthought. 

Nicolas de Larghilliere painted a picture of Prince 
James, in 1695, in which there is a yellowish-liver-and- 
white Springer with a perfect spot. This painter was 
a contemporary of Mignards, and this settles once for 
all the contention that our red-and-white Toy Spaniel 
was an evolution from the Springer, as it already ex- 
isted in a perfect toy form and had so existed for 
nearly two centuries before Larghilliere painted the 
Springer with the spot. In Le Clerc Buffon's " Histoire 
Naturelle Generale et Particuliere," 1777, there is a col- 


'V()\ i)()(;s AM) 'nM<:iK a\c Ksrous 

oiircd plate (Wll) called " LV'i)a,niH'iil." The (Iol;' 
represented has a straight coat, the body white, tail 
curled over the hack like a ronieranian, the head that 
of .1 Pomeranian, hlack-and-white, the ears like a Span- 
iel, fairly l<»nL;-. and the nose ])ointe(l. 

It is amusing" to find that the \-iolent .abuse of those 
who keep ])et do^s is no new tiling-. Juvenal. Clement 
of Alexandria, IMutarch. Lucian, and later Fleming and 
Harrison are bitter in their denunciation of the prac- 
tice. C?esar himself made sarcastic remarks on the sub- 
ject. On the other hand, the doi^s had their defenders 
in Martial, Artemidorus. and .-li^lian. Alcil)iades's doi;' 
cost 70 mines, 6,640 francs for £266). 

Doe;" lovers need not, therefore, be too downhearted, 
as, if pet doL;s ha\e surxixed two thousand se\en hun- 
dred years, they will i)rol)al)ly last our time, in spite of 
Fr, \'aui;han and the newsi)ai)ers. 

The Spaniel exists in Creek art of the remotest 
archaic ])erio(l. Acta'on, who is usually represented as 
beinj^ attacked by hounds, is on one vase represented 
with Spaniels, the breed is unmistakable, and has the 
characteristic S]\aniel car. 

Idle followim^- quotations are of interest, showing 
that Toy dogs were kept in classical times: ^ 

" Ajielles put his hand to his mouth and made an 
excruciating sort of hissing, which he afterwards de- 
clared was Creek. Trimalchio, not to be outdone, made 
a noise like that of a trum])et .and beckoned to his page, 
whom he called Cnesus. The boy, a blear-eyed creature 
with horridly decayed teeth, was wrapjiing up a lifflc 
black sJic-doi^, disgustingly, in a green scarf, and 

1 Petronius Arbiter,* The Satyr. Section 64 — part of " Trimalchio's 
Banquet" — about 54 a.h. F.dited by IVanciscus Riicbeler. lUiIiu, i(X)4. 


Henrietta of Orleans 

Mignard, about 1660. Versailles. Photo, Mansell 


was cramming her with a half-loaf which he had placed 
on the couch and which she, already satiated, was turn- 
ing from with loathing. This put into Trimalchio's 
head the idea of sending for Scylax, his watchdog. The 
latter w^as very promptly brought in. He was a big dog 
with a chain round his neck. In answer to a kick from 
the doorkeeper this animal lay down in front of the 
table. Then Trimalchio threw him a piece of white 
bread, saying, ' No one in this house loves me better 
than this dog.' 

".The boy, angry that such extravagant praise was 
])estowed on Scylax, put the little lap-dog on the ground 
and egged her on to fight. Scylax, as big dogs are 
wont to do, filled the dining-hall w^ith a terrific barking 
and nearly tore Croesus's treasure to pieces. A quar- 
relsome uproar arose, and a candelabrum was upset over 
the table, and all the crystal vases were smashed, so 
that several of the feasters were splashed with scalding 
oil. Trimalchio did not seem to be disturbed at the over- 
throw, but kissed the boy and told him to ride pick-a- 
back, and in a trice the boy, quite used to this perform- 
ance, was slapping his master's shoulders over and over 
again with his palms and calling out, with a laugh, 
' Bucco, bucco, how^ many are there here ? ' " 

The following poem is a condemnation of women, 
and was written by Juvenal as a warning to a friend 
against marriage : " Women see Alcestis on the stage 
sacrificing her life for her husband, but if they were in 
the like situation they would not do the same. Indeed, 
they would purchase the life of a favourite dog by the 
death of their husband." ^ 

My translator writes that the subject of the follow^- 

1 Juvenal, Satire VI, lines (652-654) (75 a.d.). 



ing satire 1)\- jnvcnal is xcry unpleasant, and would now- 
adays receive onlv a technical treatment in a medical 
1)()(>k.^ Nievolus is complaininjH" of the meanness of his 
rich patron and says: 

" W hat dift'erence would it make to you to j^resent 
a few acres to your worn-out pander? 1 supi)osc you 
])refer to leave your farms, with the slaves heloni^ini^ to 
them, the country child and his mother, wif/i his f^Iny- 
niafc, flic Utile doij!;, and the huts they live in — to some 
odier friend of \-ours, some shameful, cvmhal-heatini;- 
])riest ot L \l)ele." 

" If Maccus -' takes ])leasurc in a fox-cared owl; it 
Canius delij^ius in a dun-coloured ,>^thiopian ; if Puhlius 
has ^ix-en his heart to a fiiiy Utile do!^:" if ("ronius fa- 
vours a monkey like himself; if Alarius likes a mischiev- 
ous ichneumon : if you, Lausus, are jileased with a nm^^- 
l)ie that says * How do you do' and ' Clood morniu'i;- ' ; 
if Glancilla winds an ice-cold snake round her neck; if 
Telesina has assigned a tomh to her ni^iiting-ale; why 
should not he who sees such extraordinary things i;ive 
pleasure to his superiors, be enamoured of the winsome 
face of l.ahvcje, who insi)ires love? " 

" If you would learn the elianiis of tlie little do<^ a 
whole page would he all too short for the tale." '* 

A letter written by Arethusa to Lycotas at the 

"A dull silence reigns here. I Inrdlx does a simple 

' D. J. Juvcnalis, Satirrc IX, witl" notes, edited by C. V. Hcinrich, 
Rome, 18.^9, with the lielp of the ecHtion issued, with nutes and I'.iiglish 
translation hy J. D. Lewis, in London in iSS_'. 

-Martial, I-'pij-'ranis, ahout 58 .\.i)., Book VII, Xo. 87. 

•'' See tile epigram on Issa. 

<Rook XIV. Xo. 08. 

'^ Propertius, iiook IV, V.hay III, lines S^^Sf"'. .\hont 68 a.k. 

Henrietta of Orleans 

Mignard, 1660. (Note the dog's earrings.) National Portrait Gallery. Photo, E. Walker 


maid open the locked temple of the hearth-gods, as the 
ctistom is one on the first day of the month, which comes 
round so seldom. The voice of my little dog Clmicus 
whining is pleasing to me. She alone claims your place 
in my bed." 

To suniuiarize: The Comforter of 1552 was the 
name applied to the pet dog of that time whose identity 
is uncertain. The Italian and French Toy Spaniels still 
exist on the Continent as Papillons. 

The Toy red-and-white Spaniel, being the Chinese 
and Italian Toy Spaniel, has no right to the name of 
Blenheim, but he is the true red-and-white Toy Span- 
iel. By this I do not mean that the red-and-white Toy 
Spaniel is descended from what we now call the 
Pekingese, but that he is descended from the red-and- 
white Chinese ancestor. 

The Tricolour was originally a cross between the 
black-and-white French Toy Spaniel and the red- 
and-white Italian Toy Spaniel; both these varieties 
have been termed Carpet Spaniels. The modern Tri- 
colour is a double cross with a Blenheim and King 

The Black-and-tan has no right to be called the King 
Charles, as King Charles II apparently never had a 
black-and-tan dog at all. It is a cross between the all 
black curly Toy Spaniel, originally called the King 
Charles, and the short-haired English Pyrame, which 
was a small gun Spaniel generally black-and-tan in 

The Ruby is a variant of the same breed, produced 
by a cross of Red-and-white, but Pyrames were some- 
times red. 

The Van Dyck red with white markings was prob- 



al)l\ a \arianl of the rcd-and wliilc Chinese and Italian 

Tlic MarlhoronLih I'lcnlicim was a cockini^ S])aniel, 
or S])rin.!4cr, and 1 cannot reiterate too often that he was 
not a Toy Spaniel. thoui;h he had prohahly a cross of 
the ]i\er-and-white Toy do.i;' of Anne of Cdeves, and 
recently of the dome-headed Toy S])aniel. 1 le was used 
for woodcock shooting', and was not a lap dog. He has 
heen crossed with the Toy Red-and-white com])aratiyely 
recently. This is the real Blenheim of lUeuJieiin, and 
his type may he seen in l.ari^iiilliere's picture of Prince 
James, hut a^ain T repeat that he is not an ancestor of 
our Toy P)lenheim, which is not. properly speakinc^, a 
P)lenheim in any sense of the word, haying- no connec- 
tion with that place except hy crosses which haye been 
ver\- undesirable for him. 

The Kin^- Charles lUack-and-tan was only crossed 
with the i)arti-coloured dogs at the beginning or just 
before the middle of the last century. The P)lack-and- 
Nxhite was prol)al)l\" onl\- crossed willi the Jved-and-white 
after 1660 or thereabouts. 

1^he present standard and scale of points has apjiar- 
entl\- no foundation earlier than 1885 or 1887. 

It will i)e seen that there is a hopeless confusion in 
the naming of the l)reeds and in tlie txpe desired. 

The chief reforms to 1)e made in the ])resent standard 
are as follows: 

The size should be judged by height not weight, 
eleyen inches being the maxinuim ; the smaller the bet- 
ter, so long as type is not sacrificed. .\o Ked-and- 
white. Tricolour or Ruby. o\er eleyen inches should be 
awarded a cham])ionship. The Plack-and-tans may be 
rather larger. 


Detail of Mignard's Henrietta of Orleans 

Showing perfect type of Italian and French Pet Spaniel. About 1660. (Note the earrings.) 

Photo, E. Walker 

From Watteau's Bal Champktre 

1780. DuKvich. Photo, E. Walker 


The head should be in perfect proportion and never 
too large or too small. 

The tail should be raised, not carried low. 

Symmetry should be an essential point. 

Lively movement should also be essential, as well as 
a sprightly disposition. 

The " spot " should be cultivated in the Tricolour as 
well as in the Red-and-white. 

The ears, though wide apart, should be set rather 
high, not low. 

The Black-and-tan may be curly or straight in coat, 
the curly coat being evidence of purer descent. 

The Red-and-white should be either straight or wavy 
in coat, though I myself prefer a wavy coat. The Tri- 
colour may be either wavy or curly, though I prefer the 
wavy coat. 

I am perfectly well aware that in saying that the 
Black-and-tan may be curly I am laying myself open to 
execrations from the orthodox fanciers, to whom a 
straight coat is almost a religion. The facts, however, 
are there, and it is the province of an historian to deal 
with facts and not with fashions or prejudices. The 
Toy ancestor of the present King Charles was undoubt- 
edly always curly — very curly — and, what is more, he 
remained curly till 1830, and we still see Woolmington's 
Jumbo curly in 1867. The King Charles has been curly 
for at least three centuries, and probably for as many 
more as he has existed, so no wonder our breeders find 
his coat a trouble to straighten out. The purer the 
strain the more curliness there will be, as the straight 
coat came from the cross of Pyrame Brevipilis (short 

I must repeat that the Red-and-white and Black-and- 


T()^' 1)()(;S AM) I'lIKIK A\C KS roKs 

tail were sc|)aralc breeds — not only se])arate \arietics 
of one breed — as was also ibe .Marlboroui;li. Tbe red- 
and-wbite Toy and tbe blaek-and-wbite Toy were tbe 
Si)aniels kei)t by tbe sister of Kinj^^ Cbarles and presuin- 
ablv 1)\ biniseh' also, tbe orii^inal Tricolour beinji;- doubt- 
less tbe produee of a cross between tbe two. Tbe lUack- 
and-tan bad notbin^' to do witb tbein until comparatively 
recently, wben tbe Tricolour and Rubv were produced 
by crossini;'. 

Aliss Dillon, wbo kindlv lent me certain [)ictures 
wbicb represent tbe type of Woodstock JMenbeim sixty 
years aL;"o, always bad a borror of wbat sbe called 
" black blood," and never would own a IMenbeim " con- 
taminated '■ by it. 

By himself, about 1670. The Hague. Photo, Han'staengl 



The origin of the present black-and-tan King 
Charles is so comphcated that in order to explain it I 
am obHged to write a separate chapter, in which I shall 
deal with the different varieties that are akin to it. The 
breeds we have to unravel are as follows: 

1. TJie Gredin. — In England this was a variety of 
Cocker. As represented by Buffon, it was probably a 
degenerate descendant of an English exportation. 

2. The Pyrame (Pyrame Brevipilis) . — There were 
two sizes of this dog. The largest was an English 
sporting breed, a variety of the Gredin or Cocker, and 
the smaller were dwarf specimens. Both the Gredin 
and the Pyrame in England were gun Spaniels, black or 
black-and-tan and sometimes other colours; they had 
short hair on the body, no feathering to speak of, and 
short straggling hair on the ears, which were formed 
like those of a Spaniel. 

3. The Curly King Charles. — This was a perfectly 
black dog with a white breast, and was probably con- 
nected with the small Water Spaniel and was not a 
Cocker, but a separate breed of very small dog. It had 
webbed feet and a comparatively short blunt nose, with 
rather a high skull and deep stop, a curly coat, and long 
ears and feathering. 

4. The TriiMe Dog. — Probably closely akin to the 



curlv KiiiL;' C'liarlcs. lie was of all colours, hut ollcu 
black, aud was said lo be a variey of the small French 
water Spaniel or PockIIc. There was a Spanish impor- 
tation of Truflle (lo.i;s into lui.i;lan(l at the time of 
Charles 1. which may very likely be the origin of the 
curl)- Kin^- Charles. 

5. 77/r Duke of Norfolk's Sussex Sf>auieL — This 
was a small curly Black-and-tan, and possibly liver-col- 
oured dog-, a cross between the curly King Charles and 
the Pvrame. This was bigger than the ordinary curly 
King Charles. 

6. The Miniature Toy Trawler. — The modern rep- 
resentative of the real old type of curly King Charles, 
some specimens may be throw-backs to the same, after 
crossing with \-arious small S])aniels. 

7. The Modern Ki]ii^ Charles. — A cross between 
the Pyrame and the curly King Charles, with the 
Pyrame predominating. Possibly recrossed later with 

It will be seen that No. 6 is the true type of dark- 
coloured Toy Spaniel, the tan on the face and. paws of 
No. 7 being evidence of the Pyrame cross, the smashed 
face, heavy jaw, and bowed out forelegs of some strains 
being presumptive e\-idences of the Pjulldog cross. The 
webbed feet come from the original stock. In my opin- 
ion the red-and-white and tricolour Toy Spaniels have 
no Bulldog blood excejit what may come to them through 
the King Charles cross, but the Tricolours have prob- 
ably been at times crossed with Japanese. 

lentil the beginning or middle of the last century the 
King Charles w\as (juite unrelated to the Red-and-white 
or to the Tricolour, and was an entirely black species 
with no tan unlil about iSj(X 1 do not count Svmonds 


Picture at Crabbet Park 

About 1670. Photo, E. Walker 


among my authorities, as he was speaking of the sport- 
ing Pyrame, though he called it the King Charles. 

The first picture on record of a dark-coloured Toy 
Spaniel is Mignard's picture of the Dauphin (Louis 
XV) and his family about the year 1650. In this picture 
the little dog is very small and is perfectly black, with 
a pretty Spaniel head, large eyes, long ears (set high), 
and a moderately short pointed nose — a beautiful little 
dog of most elegant and delicate type. Buffon's 
Gredins of over a century later were a sort of degenerate 
caricature of this dog, which Smellie frankly states to be 
nothing but " Mongrels." 

There are many editions of Le Clerc Bufifon's " His- 
toire Naturelle," both in French and in English. In an 
edition of 1755 there is a plate of a black dog called the 
Gredin which has often been quoted as the direct an- 
cestor of the King Charles. I cannot find any serious 
foundation for this theory and believe it to be an error, 
though I daresay the breeds are connected through in- 
tercrossing and a common ancestor. 

The dog has little resemblance to our King Charles. 
Plate XIII shows him to be tall on the leg, with some 
Pomeranian character in texture of coat, carriage of 
tail, and shape of head, though the hair both on tail and 
body is short. He has a flat narrow head and a very 
long nose, and is both narrow chested and flat in the 
ribs, whereas our curly King Charles is broad, short- 
backed, and cobby. The Pyrame on the same page is 
black-and-tan, but has not the character of Mignard's 
Spaniel, and the specimen drawn by Buffon was prob- 
ably a degenerate of the Pyrame breed, which I believe 
to have been the sporting breed mentioned by Symonds, 
occasional small specimens of which may have been kept 



as pets. lUifFon states in 1755 that the Pyrame is a vari- 
ety of Gredin, but several authors distinctly class the 
Pyrame, the King Charles, and the Gredin as three 
separate breeds. I think that the selection of the Gredin 
as the original King Charles is due to an error made by 
Smellie, who translated Buff on into English in 1788. 

In this work he gives the same plate of the Gredin, 
onlv he labels it, for no apparent reason, with the fancy 
title of the King Charles. He gives no explanation of 
the liberty he has taken with Buft'on's names, and I can 
onlv suggest that he did not feel equal to translating 
the word " Gredin " into its English equivalent of 
'' scoundrel " and calling it the Scoundrel dog, and 
therefore chose a more elegant name, classing it with 
the other black Spaniels of this name. Smellie ap- 
pears to have been the first writer to use the term 
" King Charles " as applied to a breed of dogs. He 
quotes Buff'on as saying: "The great and the small 
Spaniel, which differ only in size, when brought into 
Britain have changed their white colour into black and 
become by the influence of climate the great and the 
little King Charles dog. To this may be joined the 
Pyrame (this dog, though very common in England, 
has no Eui^lisJi name), which is only a King Charles 
dog, black like the others, Init marked with red on the 
four legs and spot of the same colour over each eye and 
on the muzzle." AMiat Buff'on really says is this: " Le 
grand et petit barbef" (and in one edition: " Le grand 
et le petit epagneul") . . . " sont devenus grands et 
petits Gredins auxquels ont doit ajouter le Pyrame qui 
n'cst q'un Gredin noir commc les autres." . . . The 
words alter-ed T have given in italics. 

On the face of it, it hardlv appears likelv that climate 


Mrs Lytton's Bunthorne 

Modern example of the old type of Curly King Charles 

K1.Y Black King Charles and Black and Tan Pyrame 
OF 1809 

Truffle Dog 
(Copied from print) 

Head of Bunthorne 

Head of JMignard's Spaniel 


should change a curly, white, thick-coated dog like the 
Barbet into a pitch black, short-haired, smooth dog. 
Other translators distinctly say that the Gredin had no 
English name. 

There is an old print of the King Charles — not the 
Gredin, but the real black English Toy Spaniel. It is 
shown with the Pyrame and classed as a separate breed. 
In 1820 the King Charles was a very pretty curly dog 
of which the present Miniature Toy Trawler is an exact 
and faithful likeness. 

The black-and-tan German Toy Spaniel (see Vero 
Shaw) w'as the same type as the Truffle Dog, curly King- 
Charles, and Toy Trawler, and was far more profusely 
coated than our modern dogs. 

The only excuse for Smellie's mistake is that, in a 
very early edition, which I could not find in the British 
Museum, Buffon states that the Gredin was of English 
origin, but he never mentions King Charles, and there 
is no evidence whatever that this King ever kept any 
dogs like the Gredin or Pyrame. In fact, the evidence 
is all the other way, the earliest English authorities, 
with the exception of Symonds, agreeing that the King 
Charles was a small, black, very curly Spaniel. 

Gmelin describes the Gredin as the short-haired Bo- 
lognese dog. He says : " Small roundish head, short 
nose (or may mean jaw) long hairs on the ears, under 
the throat, the chest, the belly, and on the hind parts 
of the four legs (feathers, in fact) and on the right side 
of upturned tail. It is of various colours and sizes. 
To this class also belongs the so-called Pyrame, which is 
small and has fiery spots on black ground, then again 
the larger race which resemble the poodle by nature, in 
that the hairs and the inside of the mouth is quite black, 



and which arc called in luij^land Kinji: Charles das'." 
The reference to a roodle su^i^^ests a curly coat, and 
certainly refers to the curly Kin^ Charles. 

The so-called Kine: Charles was orie^inally black, 
not hlack-and-tan. N'ero Shaw, in speaking- of the Kin^i^ 
Charles of 1S79, says that unless it is periodically 
crossed w ith red do^s the tan niarkino^s disappear alto- 
gether, and so also says Mr. Nave. I believe this to be 
perfectly correct,^ and it is valuable evidence that the 
foundation stock of the King Charles was not the 
I'yranie. as the persistent reversion to ])ure black would 
never occur unless the original stock were 1)lack. and 
it merely means that the 1 Vrame cross is graduallv get- 
ting bred out, and breeders have found a substitute for 
it in the red Spaniel: for T consider the modern King 
Charles is descended from the original King Charles 
crossed with Pyrame. 

Tn 1824, Svmonds' " Treatise on Field Diversions " 
shows some sportsmen shooting snipe with dogs pre- 
cisel}' like Marlboroughs. He says: 

" The Cocker or gun Spaniel of true perfect breed is 
of one general or whole colour, either black or black-and- 
tan, commonly called King Charles breed, or red in dif- 
ferent shades paler or deeper, and as in horses we would 
call a blood bay or a bright bay. I ha\e known some 
(very rarely) absolutely so without the admission of a 
different hair, though for the most ])art there is some 
white on the breast and bottom of the throat. Coat 
loose and soft, but not waved, back broad and short; 
legs short with breeches behind. There is a great vari- 
ety at this time in different mixtures of red and white, 

' Unless the greatest care is taken in seleetiiiK specimens with very 
bright tan. 


o 2 


brown and white, black and white, grizzled, etc., some 
with a short, hard coat, others with a waved coat, will- 
ing to curl, but in all these pied or parti-coloured there 
is some tincture remaining of the Beagle or Water 
Spaniel, that through distance of time, and passing from 
friend to friend, cannot be easily traced back." 

He says that a Beagle cross is " lost " in three or 
four generations. 

Symonds dealt only with field dogs, and the breed 
thus referred to as the " King Charles " was evidently 
not'the pet Spaniel, but was the black-and-tan Spaniel 
mentioned by Buffon as very common, but having no 
name in England, though being akin to the French 
Pyrame. We may therefore call it the English Pyrame, 
which is described by Youatt as a fairly large breed of 
Spaniel. It must be remembered that before the date 
of Symonds we have records of the curly black pet Span- 
iel with webbed feet, and that in Rees' '* Encyclopedia " 
we have this and the Pyrame in the same picture. That 
these breeds were subsequently crossed is evident, the 
preponderance of Pyrame on one hand producing the 
Duke of Norfolk's black-and-tan Sussex Spaniel, and 
the preponderance of small King Charles producing the 
black-and-tan King Charles of 1830, which, though a pet 
Spaniel, retained some sporting instincts and a pointed 
nose. This breed has since been ruined by a heavy 

It seems as though our ancestors could not be con- 
tent to " leave well alone," but mixed the liver-and- 
white Holland Spaniel with the Springer, producing 
the Marlborough, the black Spaniel with the Pyrame, 
and the black-and-white French Spaniel with the red- 
and-white Italian Spaniel. 


T()\ 1)()(;S AM) I'lIKIU AXCKS'IOKS 

liuHoiis PxraiiK- hears cvorv evidence of beinc^ a 
mongrel breed, l)iit the luiL;li.sli l*yranie appears lo have 
been a true breed of si)orlinjL;" Spaniel, and lliis black- 
ancblan breed is also referred to by Ackernian in 1809. 

jnliii W ri^lit. in 1S31. lestilies to the I'yranie being 
a sporting- Si)aniel. In iSoi Sydenham luhvard's 
" C'ynoqraphia I'ritannica " says that the Cocker was 
sometimes black with tanned lei^s and muzzle. Here 
again we llnd the bji^iish I'yrame. ^^)uatt. in 1845, 
says that the Kini;- Charles is a Tricolour and belongs 
to the COckers. In his ])icture of Blenheims and Cockers 
the type of the Marlborough is identical with th:it of 
the Cocker, and among the dogs is a small, curly black 
Spaniel, like the nnc gix'en by Rees as the King Charles. 
Youatt speaks of the lilack-and-tan and the curlv King 
Charles as separate breeds. The earliest edition of 
Buffon states that the black Gredins were imported to 
England from France as white Spaniels and changed 
into black owing to the climate (which even in such a 
climate as ours seems rather odd!), yet in the very same 
edition he says that the Gredins originated in England 
and were inijiorted from thence, ready made black, to 
b^rance. It is. therefore, impossible to consider him a 
reliable authoritx in this matter, but 1 belie\e the latter 
statement to be the truth. 

In any case he sa\s that the C(xats of the Gredins 
were short, also the hair on the ears, legs, and tail, and refers to the Pyrame as the " I'revipilis," so 
it is impossible that they should have been true Spaniels, 
as these were well feathered, long-eared Toys in i(^C)0, 
and he elsewhere described them as having small, round 
heads, very long, pendulous ears, well feathered, as also 
on the chest, breechings. legs and on the tail, which was 


Marie de Bourhon 

From P. Migiiard's picture at Versailles. Photo, Mansell 


gaily carried. He says that those which are black-and- 
white usually have tan markings over the eyes ; that 
their bodies are slight, and though most of them are 
white, some are liver-and-white on the head, or l^lack- 
and-white. This description is said l)y Buff on to apply 
both to the large and to the pet Spaniels. This liver-and- 
white Toy Spaniel is seen in early pictures in England 
and also in Holland, but is distinct from the red-and- 

I have a picture by Northcote, about 1780, repre- 
senting one of these dogs asleep on a cushion, and also 
a similar picture of the time of Charles H. 

Sibley's Mai^aainc, in 1791, only copies Smellie, which 
was just then the standard work, when it mentions the 
" Gredin or King Charles " in its list of breeds. Lin- 
naeus, in 1792, repeated the same error. 

Linnaeus says: '' Pyramc Brcvipilis. — Black, with 
fiame coloured spots. Dr. Gmelin has evidently con- 
founded two distinct varieties of the same Cocking 
Spaniel. First, the King Charles, entirely black, and 
has a black palate ; second, the Pyrame is marked black 
with flame coloured spots." 

^' Mammalogie," Demarest, 1820, says: 

" Chien Anglais, melange petit Danois et Pyrame 
dont il a la taille, tete bombee, yeux Saillans museau 
assez pointu queue minie en arc horizontal. Poil ras 
partout. Oreilles mediocres et a moitie relevees, robe 
d'un noir fonce avec des marques de feu sur les yeux 
sur le museau sur la gorge et les jambes. 

" Chicn d' Artois Roquet et Doguin. — (Note: 
" Quelquefois le nez est tellement aplati que ce chien 
devient punais.") This was the same as the Alicante 
and was smooth haired. 



" (ircdiii. I X r)rc'\ii)ilis." 

Ik'll, i**^,^/, savs: " riic hcaulifiil breed called Kin.c^ 
Charles Si)aniel was hiack-aiid-wiiile. and is supposed 
to have heen the orii^iiial race of the iitlle hlack Cocker." 

Smith, in 1S43. distinctly states that the Gredin was 
the Cocker, and that the Kinj^ Charles (a Tricolour of 
which he gives a coloured picture) is presumed to be 
the ])arent of the Cocker. He therefore evidently con- 
sidered that the little black-and-white or tricolour Span- 
iel of Buffon was, as Buffon states, the origin of the 
Gredin or Cocker, but this seems to me more than im- 
prol)al)le. As for im])orted parti-coloured dogs becom- 
ing black under the influence of our climate, if this 
were so, then the red-and-white and black-and-white 
dogs would have long ago lost their colour in the two 
and a half centuries since they came over from France, 
and the Maltese, having been here since the days of Dr. 
Caius, in 1576, would be as black as coals. 

Richardson, in 1847, gives the King Charles as a 
very curly I'lack-and-tan with white breast, cobby, with 
high-set ears and large black eyes. He says the price 
of King Charles and Blenheims was 150 guineas to joo 
guineas, and also thinks the Alicante was related to 

H. 1). Richardson, 185 1, says of the King Charles: 
** The breed has been carefully preserved by the late 
Duke of Norfolk. The present Duke preserves two 
varieties of King Charles breed, the I'lack-and-tan and 
of middling size like an ordinary field Cocker. These 
latter sometimes occur black-aud-ii'lutc, and are kept 
at Arundel Castle. It is said that James TT was at- 
tracted bv these Spaniels. In London the r.lenheim 
(which he previously describes as the hlach-cuid-fan or 


La Reine Anne 

Franz Pourbus le Jeune 

The Cayenne Dog 
Prado. Photo, Hanfstaengl 


Pyrame) is frequently crossed with the King- Charles, 
so that the variety of colour on which the difference 
of nomenclature depends often appears in the same 
litter." This did not mean that the Red-and-white 
and Black-and-tan were crossed hut the Black with the 

Jesse, in 1865 (p. 176), says: "Our Marlborough 
and King James Spaniels are unrivalled in beauty, the 
latter breed that are black-and-tan, with hair almost ap- 
proaching to silk in fineness ( such as Van Dyck loved 
to introduce into his portraits), were solely in possession 
of the late Duke of Norfolk. He never travelled with- 
out two of his favourites. When at Worksop he used 
to feed his eagles with the pups." To feed one's eagles 
with Toy Spaniel ])up]:)ies seems rather in the style of 
bravado with which Ouida's heroes light their cigarettes 
with bank notes. To feed one's eagles on bank notes 
would indeed be cheaper nowadays, not to speak of the 
feelings of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to 

I can find no trace of the Toy King Charles at Arun- 
del Castle to-day, but there is a picture of the black-and- 
tan Sussex Spaniel, miscalled the " King Charles." 

Lieut. H. Smith, as well as Richardson, says that 
the " Blenheim " is a Black-and-tan, so possibly the 
Duke of Marlborough kept the Pyrame as well as the 
red-and-white Springers with the spot, and both were 
originally by some people termed " Blenheims," simply 
from the place where they were bred. The Pyrame is 
persistently referred to, even as late as 1843, ^s a differ- 
ent and separate breed from the *' King Charles," 
though the cross had already produced the Duke of 
Norfolk's Spaniel. 



Mr. Martin, in 1845, aj:j^ain described the Blenheim 
or Marlhoroni^h as a IMack-and-tan or IJlack-and-white, 
with the hnil)s beautifully spotted and a tanned mark 
over each eye ( i.e.. Tricolours ). He states that ilie Kin^^ 
Charles breed was black or black-and-white, not black- 
and-tan, and Cravx'u ( 1846) also calls the Blenheim a 
I>lack-and-tan and the King Charles a black dog-. The 
utter confusion of names and colours which overtakes 
historians in the nineteenth century is the natural result 
of the crossing of the breeds. 

" The Si)ringer or Cocker," says Recs, " is a variety 
closely allied to this kind (i.e., the King Charles ). The 
dog called Pyrame by Buffon is also a variety of the 
same, and is distinguished by a patch of red on the legs 
and another over each eye." There is here a distinct 
inference that the true King Charles was not a Black- 
and-tan. Bewick gives the King Charles and Pyrame 
as different species, and includes " the Comforter " in 
the same class, and the w^oodcut shows it with a nose. 
Tn Goldsmith's " History of the Earth," the King 
Charles is described as " a small variety of springing 
Spaniel prized as a fancy lap-dog," in ])roportion to its 
diminutiveness : soiiic/iuics foun<l entirely blade, and 
then is called, in bjigland. King Charles dog from the 
liking evinced by Charles 11. 

^ ouatt, in 1845, speaks of ihc i^^ood lUenheim as rare. 

Tdstone, writing in 1872, says that the Cockers bear 
certain evidence of being crossed with the King Charles, 
and this confirms my view that the King Charles was 
crossed with the Pyrame and Gredin, which were 
Gun Spaniels, and the crosses were sometimes called 
Cockers and sometimes the Duke of Norfolk's King 



Paolo Veronese, about 1560. Prado. 

Photo, Anderson 



Rees's " Cyclopaedia " of 1819 says that the King 
Charles is of the most elegant kind ; the head small and 
rounded, with the short snout, and the tail curved back. 
Its ears are long, hair curled and feet zvebbed. Our plate 
shows that a " short snout '' was not what we now un- 
derstand by the term. 

In 181 5 Charles, eleventh Duke of Norfolk, kept 
what were considered Sussex Spaniels. A picture of 
one of these by Lonsdale shows it to have been a curly 
black-and-tan dog, similar to the Spanish, French, and 
Jtalian Truffle Dog in shape and coat, but like the 
Pyrame in colour. These " Sussex Spaniels " had no 
analogy whatever with the modern Sussex Spaniel, but 
were a special breed said to have been kept only by the 
Duke of Norfolk. They had long ears, very large eyes, 
showing the white very much, and had white breasts. 
They, however, did not belong exclusively to Arundel, 
but I have traced them to other owners. 

Blaine wrote in 1832: " King Charles II, it is known, 
was extremely fond of Spaniels, two varieties of which 
are seen in his several portraits. One of these was a 
small Spaniel of a black-and-white colour, with ears of 
an extreme length ; the other was large and black, but 
the black was beautifully relieved by tan markings ex- 
actly similar to the markings of the black-and-tan Ter- 
rier. This breed the late Duke of Norfolk preserved 
with jealous care. That amiable and excellent lady. 
Princess Sophia of Gloucester, showed me a very fine 
specimen presented to her by that nobleman after re- 
ceiving a promise, guaranteed by her royal brother, that 
she was not to breed from it in a direct line. Another 
was shown to me by the late Lady Castlereagh, received 
after a similar restriction. Even the Duchess of York 


T()^' i)()(;s AM) TiiKiH A\( Ks roiis 

could 111)1 ()l)l;iiii one l)iil mi llic same Utiiis, as she her- 
self in I" naned ine." 

The nnJN- i)ictiire of Kin.i;" Charles II in which 1 can 
find a Ton- Si)anie] is the one which was once in the 
Strawherrx- Mill collection. it re])resents a very liny 
parti-coloured (Iol;-, |)ro1)al)ly Ijhick-and-white or Hver- 
and-white, to judme from the depth of colour on the 
en^ra\ino-. it had the spot somewhat elonoatcd, a lonj^ 
tail, and \ery fine hone. It was the Holland type, not 
the h^rench. 

'idle l\e\'. \\'. Synionds' " Treatise on Field Diver- 
sions," in 1SJ4, already quoted, says that the true 
Cocker or Clun Sj)aniel of perfect hreed was called the 
Kiiii^" Charles, either hlack or hlack-and-tan or red. 
"Jdiis is the hrst reference I can find to a red " Kinj^" 
Charles," hut it only shows that all small Spaniels went 
by. the name of Kin"- Charles at one time, simply hecause 
King Charles liked them, hut the description afterwards 
f^iven hv Svmoiids refers far more accurately to the 
lari^'e Pvrame Spaniel, and certainly not to the Toy 

There was a correspondence in llic Bacaar, hec^in- 
nini;" in Mav, igoS. on the subject of a black-and-tan 
Sportin.e^ Sixmiel. which T believe to be the Pyrame and 
Kinq* Charles cross, i.e., the Duke of Norfolk's Sussex 
Si)aniel. .\ correspondent. L. ]\. F.. says: "The (loo;s 
in f|uestion were Black-and-tan S])aniels. almost identi- 
cal with the small I\in,L;' Charles Spaniel, but \-erv much 
larger." 1 le also says: " ddiev were beautiful doi^s and 
delii^htful companions. These T know came from a very 
swell (|uarter (ducal. 1 think)." 

The l\e\-. Ci. (). i'ardoe also wrote: "There used to 
exist a strain of Si)aiiiels ot black and tan colour not 

From Der Cavalier im Verkaufsladen 

Franz van Mieris. 1665. Vienna. Hanfstaengl 

From Netscher's Maternal Instruction 

About 1695. 

(The author has bred a dog of exactly this type.) National 
Gallery. Hanfstaengl 



unlike a large Blenheim, but without the snub nose and 
goggle eyes. In fact they were among the Cockers of 
old days." He gives a photograph of a dog of this 
breed, and in a letter which I have from a gentleman 
who wishes his name to remain unpublished, he states 
that his father had these dogs about 1825, that he himself 
remembers them in 1832, and that they came " from 
somewhere far away." This gentleman's father had a 
pair of the dogs given to him. The first dog, he remem- 
bers, was called " Arran." The offspring of this pair 
were given away from time to time to various parts of 

In 1807 ^ ^^§ of this breed, belonging to Dean 
Pellew, was lost, and was never heard of again. The 
Dean afterwards bred from another pair, which was 
presented to him by a gentleman living near Tintern 

The writer of the letters to which I refer says : " I 
believe that a century ago the King Charles Spaniels, 
though small, were a good deal larger than the hydro- 
cephalous, goggle-eyes production of the modern 
breeder." He evidently connects the two breeds, in 
which he is perfectly right. 

An old print shows that the little curly Truffle Dog 
was of exactly the same type as the King Charles of 
18 1 9. The black- and-tan colour of the latter was ob- 
tained by crossing with the English Pyrame, just as 
the curly coat in the Pyrame was produced in like man- 
ner, by the same cross. The modern King Charles may, 
therefore, be considered the small Pyrame King Charles, 
and the Sussex Spaniel, now extinct, was the large King 
Charles Pyrame. That King Charles II ever had a 
black-and-tan dog is more than doubtful, though he may 



ha\c had the little c-url\ all-black (1<>l;s which were cither 
indii^cnous Ton Water Spaniels or iini)<>rlc(l Spanish 
Triinic Doj^s. The tact that an importation ot' these 
Spanish do.^s took i)lace about 1O40 points to their origin 
as Spanish. 

It is clear that all pet or "carpet " Spaniels of any 
and e\ er\ colour were later popularly called " Kinj^' 
Charles," until a \ erv recent date, and contiiuie to he 
called so e\ en now h\- the world at lar^e, who know 
nothini;" ot our present show classification. 

One of the earliest i)ictures 1 could inid ot a hiack- 
and-tan Kinii- Charles is dated 1^47, and is a drawini!^ 
owned 1)\- Mrs. I-'\'irndelK of I'eckham. who kindly sent 
it for niv inspection. There is absolutely no record ot 
a black-and-tan Toy Spaniel under the name of Kini;' 
Charles before that date except the one called " b'airy." 
which belonged to my great grandmother. Lady I'yron, 
and the one owned l)y Mrs. Todd, which are. therefore, 
the lirst in history. 

Stonehenge says that no picttu^cs of Charles TT's day 
represent tricolour Spaniels, biU the picture by Sir Peter 
Lely of about 1^)70 jiroves the contrary. 

It may be of interest to poiiU out that, though Stone- 
henge asserted that the I'lack-and-tan should be straight 
in coat, he held uj) \\'oolmingt(Mi's jumbo as one of the 
very best specimens ever e-xhibited, the only fault, as 
he said, being a high carriage of tail. Xow, W'oolming- 
ton's lumbo was a \erv curlv coated dog indeed. (|uite 
as curlv as the " King Charles." and it will al>o be seen 
that the specimens which he gives of shortness ot lace 
carried to excess are b\' no means so \ery short in lace, 
compared to our modern d<igs. 

A relative of oue of our oldest fanciers had a Toy 


Lady at hek Toilet 

Kaspar Netschtrr, aboul 1669. DreMlt-ii. Pliuti), I laiilslaeiigl 


Spaniel with a very curly coat which, early in the 
eii^hteenth century, was famous in Newcastle as a diver, 
and used to retrieve pennies thrown into deep water. 
Some Toy Spaniels belonging to a friend of mine are also 
very fond of fishing, and will ])ull fish out of a tank if 
allowed to do so. 1 think the conviction of many breed- 
ers that the King Charles Toy Spaniel should have a 
straight coat is due to Smellie's mistake with regard to 
the Gredin, which had a straight, very short coat, and 
is also due to the fact that the straight coat was intro- 
duced by the Pyrame cross. In my opinion this is a most 
pernicious error, which is perpetually refuted by the 
strongly curly coats which are constantly reappearing 
amongst the modern Toy Spaniels. 

The Pyrame cross has spoilt the King Charles type, 
and the heavy (bulldog?) cross has completed the ruin 
to the great pride and delight of fanciers who like our 
national breed. 

In a translation of Buffon's " Natural History," cor- 
rected by John Wright, 183 1, I find the following im- 
portant passage: 

" The Springer is a lively and ])leasant s])ecies of 
dog, very ex])ert in raising woodcocks and snii)es from 
their haunts in the woods and marshes. . . . T>ufifon 
gives the name of Pyrame to a variety of this dog which 
is distinguished by a patch of red on the legs and an- 
other over each eye. 

" Of the same kind ^ is that elegant little dog which 
in this country is well known under the appellation of 
King Charles, as having been the favourite companion 
of that monarch, who scarcely ever walked out without 
being attended by several of them ; it has a small rounded 

1 The Italics are mine. 



head with a short snout, the tail is curved l)ack. the 
//(///■ is curled, the ears are loni;-, and the feet are webbed. 
Idle hiriie water doi^" is ot" an analoi^ous hreed. hul is less 
handsome. It has curly hair which hears a s^Teat rc- 
senihlance to wool, and it swims excellently in consc- 
(|uence ot the wehs hetween the toes, heinj;" much lari^er 
than tho^e ot' most other doj^s." 

It would appear from this that Kin^" Charles, Spring- 
ers, and Water Doi^s were at that date all closely allied. 
It is clear, also, that the I'yrame was not identical with 
the Kini;' Charles. In t'act, Wright distinctly states that 
the Kinj;' Charles was curly as o])posed to P.utTon's 
smooth ryrame. Rees's '" Cyclopaedia " also _i;ives the 
curly Kiui^ Charles as a separate species, quite distinct 
fr(^m the Pyrame. 

l.oudon's " Entertaininq" Naturalist," 1850, says: 
" The heautitul hreed of Spaniels known as the Kin^^ 
Charles are hii^hly prized for their diminutive size and 
Icni^th of ears. They are found of all colours, hut those 
which are hlack w ith tanned cheeks and lei;s are consid- 
ered the i)urest hreed." It is e\ident that hy this time 
the breeds had been crossed. 

John Wright's reference to the curly coats of the 
Kin<4" Charles ])roves that he is not referring" to the 
Gredin any more than to the I'yrame. and his comment 
on its webbed feet is exceedingly interest iui^. It cor- 
roborates my theory that the {^resent Ulack-and-tan Toy 
Sf>(iiiiel has Water .Spaniel blood in his ancestry, and. 
above all, is confn-meil by the tact that Toy S])aniel pup- 
pies are still very often born with this jX'Ctiliarity. I 
have five (lo<;s now in mv ])ossession which have these 
webbed feet, and I consider this ii^oes far to pro\e that 
the modern Kini;' Charles is descended t'rom the 



curly, web-footed' variety, the Pyranie hein.i;- only an 
out cross. 

'Iliis also would sugi^est the probability of the de- 
scent from the Truffle l)oi>-, which is described as a 
nearly pure miniature Poodle or Petit Barbct, which was 
orii^inally half Water Spaniel and half Toy Spaniel, 
weighing about four to six ])ounds. The Water Span- 
iel had very pronounced wel)s between its toes. The 
Truffle Dog was a very curly little dog with a smooth 
head. The Barbets also had smooth heads according to 
BujTon, who says that their heads were silky and also 
their ears, and the hair on their tails, " a pcu prcs comuie 
celui des epagneuls." The Truffle Dog was indigenous 
to France, Italy, and Spain, and some were imported 
into England in 1640-50. 

I have a stufTed King Charles of about 1850. It is 
very curly and exactly the type of the illustration, square, 
compact, and col)by, eleven inches high and eleven inches 
long ; ears set very high and carried forward ; a deep stop, 
nose finely pointed, one and a quarter inch long: skull 
broad, but not domed ; head small ; eyes set very wide 
apart, indeed, and showing the whites, which I presume 
was done to imitate nature. Neck well arched, very long 
feathering, and white breast. It has faint tan markings, 
showing the Pyrame cross. A more fascinating little 
creature could not be devised, and when T think of what 
our breeders have evolved in sixty years from this little 
dog I feel fairly disgusted. From its solid square shape 
I should judge it to have weighed about twelve pounds. 

1 In the best sliow specimens the two middle toes are often ahsokitely 
joined together, one broad claw doing duty for both toes. The two 
middle pads occasionally merge into one, and a third toe nail appears in 
the centre. 


'V()\ 1)()(;S AM) rilKIH AXC KsroKS 

l)Ul its l)()iK'S arc t'xcc't'diiii^ly slender, and its proijorlions 
heins^' perfect, it looks imieli smaller. I lia\e also seen 
a stulTed Tyranie of ahont the same date. It has a 
dilVertMit txpe of lu'ad. The doi;' is smooth and nuich 
lari^er. with short ears, and a narrow " wede^e " skull, 
with a shallow sto]). nor is it well made like the Kin^' 

Stnneheno-e. in 1867, says that in iS,^7 the Tricolour 
Spaniel reii^ned supreme, and was not considered ol 
much value it over six ])ounds in weij^ht. His skull 
was round, and he had a short nose, hut not the under- 
hung- jaw and positively ut;iy face of the modern school 
( /. c, 1867). The smaller the do*;-, the better he was. 

Accordino- to Stoneheni^^c, the Tricolour was sup- 
])lanted by the ]^)lack-and-tan Toy Si)aniel between 1837 
and 1867; so we have a ])retty accurate idea of the date 
of its introduction as the lUack-and-tan " Kinjj 
Charles," and it will be seen that, instead of beini;- the 
oris^inal breed of Toy S])aniel, as is generally sui)i)Ose(l, 
it was, in fact, the last to be introduced. 

The unre.i^'istered breed known as the ^Finiature T(\v 
Trawler appears to 1k' a throw back to the orii^inal Kin^^ 
Charles. Nothino; is known of its origin. In order 
to test my theories, I have tried many experiments in 
breeding;', the results of which T am about to jT^ive. It 
must he understood that these exjieriments w^re made 
for scientific ])urposes only. 

At the time when I was making- experiments T re- 
ceived a letter from a i^^entleman who told me that he 
had ])roduced exactly the type of doL;- 1 was study in*;- by 
crossiuii" the Kinq' Charles with the small, old-fashioned 
curb' Sussex Si)aniel. now extinct. 1 persistentb^ adver- 
tised for a bitch. hoi)inq" to \erif\- ihi^ stati-ment. but 


Detail of Picture by Mignard 

Showing the first black Toy Spaniel on record. About 1660. Louvre. Compare with photograph of IJunthorne. 

Photo, Braun, Clement et Cie. 



could not procure one, but I was informed from another 
source that the same experiment had produced similar 
results. Another person told me he had crossed with 
Blenheim, and I bought a very pretty dog said to be of 
this cross ; but this is at variance with my own experi- 
ments, as I have never succeeded in producing a red- 
and-white specimen from the black parents, even from 
the one said to be half Blenheim. Even when I crossed 
one of these dogs with a Blenheim bitch, the progeny 
were almost all black or red, and I have only once suc- 
ceeded in producing black-and-white progeny, 1)ut, as I 
said before, nc7'cr red-and-white. The black-and-whites 
were, I may add, decidedly off type (the reds and blacks 
only, in my experience, breed true to type), and I got 
exactly similar results from crossing with Cocker, the 
colour and coat of the Toy Trawler asserting itself to 
the exclusion of all others. 

The old-fashioned curly *' Sussex Spaniel " w^as the 
" Sussex " kept by the Duke of Norfolk, and referred 
to by several authors as the King Charles, and men- 
tioned in the Bazaar correspondence of 1908. This 
was a cross between the King Charles and English 
Pyrame. Please compare the illustrations of the curly 
King Charles with the Toy Trawler. 

It would not be very difficult to get back the pointed- 
nosed Blenheim and tricolour types from the Papillon, 
and in the pointed-nosed King Charles we still have 
enough material to save it from extinction, and I am 
working hard to do so. 

The curly black and the orange-red breed absolutely 
true to type so that it is impossible for a stranger to 
distinguish one dog from another. 

In order to trace the origin and test the accuracy of 



the stalcincnls made to inc. I liave tried tlu- fnllowino^ 
crosses : 

1. r>lack Cocker witli Miniature Toy Trawler sire. 
1 ilack-and-wliite prot^l^enw 

J. r.laek Cocker" with Marlhoroui^h r.k-nlieini sire. 
W'rv |)oor txpe, chielly yellow-and-wliite. .\o reseni- 
hkmce to Miniature i'oy TrawkM", hut \ery like the old 

3. Water Si)aniel with Miniature Toy i'rawler sire. 
Larj^e heax'v puiipies, two only taking" after the sire in 
size, hut hearing" a considerahle resenihlance to the 
smaller hreed. 

4. lilenheim with ^liniature Toy Trawler sire. 
\'ery l)ad mono-rcl t\i)e, no uniform type. 

5. I'ield S])aniel with Miniature Toy Trawler sire. 
Ugly heavy type of nondescript jnippies. 

6. Field Sjianiel with I'lenheim sire. Ordinary look- 
in;;" cross-hred pui)])ies; no type. 

7. Old-fashioned Sussex ' with ?^liniature Toy 
Trawler sire. Puppies handsome and uniform in type, 
mostly all hlack. hut lari^er than Miniature Toy 
Trawler, except two which weij^hed five jiounds and 
seven pounds full j^rcnvn. 

8. I'lack Miniature Toy Trawler with lUack Minia- 
ture Poy Trawler, .\lways uniform in type, whole hlack 
or whole red with or without white hreasts. (Compare 
with experiment No. i.) 

0. Long-nosed King Charles l^.lack-and-tan with 

Miniature Voy Trawler. Pure Miniature 1^)v Trawler 

type exce])t for th.e colour, which had tan ahovc the eyes. 

T find that with all hreeds tlie puppies follow the 

Miniature Poy Trawler sire in size more than the dam. 

1 The nearest thing to the old type which I could procure. 


Edward Walters 

Marlborough type of Spaniel about 16S7. Gompare with Henrietta of Orle 
r.y permission of T. B. Waldy, Esq., Cranleigh, Surrey 

.if same period 


The puppies are generally smaller than either sire or 

As I have already said, in breeding black to black, 
I never once got a red-and-white or black-and-white. 
Mated to Blenheims they still produce about an equal 
number of blacks in the litters, Avhich they certainly 
w^ould not do unless black was the foundation colour. 
Tw^o l)lacks will sometimes produce red, but seldom any 
other colour, and in my own experience I have never 
been able to produce a red-and-white specimen at all, 
though whole reds with white breasts sometimes appear. 

These experiments have convinced me that the influ- 
ence of Blenheim blood, if present, is very small. King 
Charles, on the other hand, appears to blend well, and 
this agrees with my theories. 

I found one dog exactly like my own in Wales, but 
the owner would not sell on any account. I also found 
two in Middlesex, but the owner could not, or would 
not, tell me anything of their breeding, except that they 
were " very valuable." I was also informed that they 
existed in Italy and Holland, but can find no trace of 
them in the latter country. In Italy and Spain there 
were the Truffle Dogs, and this would fit in with the im- 
portation to England in the seventeenth centurv. 

In no book can I find any reference to the old-fash- 
ioned Sussex Spaniel as a Sussex Spaniel, but Symonds, 
in his " Field Diversions," 1824, speaks of it as the King 
Charles Cocker or Gun Spaniel of true and perfect 
breed. That his description did not refer to the Pet 
Spaniel is obvious. 

" The King Charles Spaniel belongs to the Cockers ; 
the ears are deeply fringed, sweeping the ground; the 
rounded form of the forehead, the larger and moister 



eye, the longer and silkier coal, and the clearness of the 
tan, and wliitc-and-black colour sufticiently dislins^^uish 
ihis \aricl\ . I lis beauty and diminutive size have con- 
signed him to the drawing-room or ])arlour. 

" Charles 1 had a breed of S])aniels; very small with 
the hair black and curly, the Spaniel of the second 
Charles was of the black-and-tan breed." ^ 

I cannot trace that either of these Kings had the 
dogs, but it is quite likely Charles II had the former 

N'ouatt says that from France - a black-and-tan vari- 
ety was ])ro(luced from the Sussex Springer ( which 
was the best variety) and a Terrier, which was culti- 
vated by the late Duke of Norfolk: " The Dlack-and-tan 
Spaniel, the cross of Terrier being nearly or (|uile got 
rid of, is often a beautiful animal and is much valued, 
although it is frecjuently considered a somewhat stui)id 
anim.'d." 1 think he is here mistaking the cross, and that 
the Sussex Springer was already black-and-tan, crossed 
with King Charles. 

])ewick, in 1824, gives a pretty cut of the " Springer 
or Cocker," and he says: 

" Of the same kind is that beautiful little dog which 
in this country is well known imder the apjiellation of 
King Charles dog, the favourite and constant compan- 
ion of that monarch . . . it is still preserved as an idle 
but innocent companion. Its long ears, curled hair, 
and web feet evidently point out its alliance with the 
more useful and active kind last mentioned. Similar to 
this, but smaller, is the Pyrame dog, it is generally black 

lYouatt. "The Dog:," 1845. 

2 It is difficult to understand how France could produce the cross from 
a Sussex dog. 


Picture in the Coral Room, Blenheim Palace 

Alunit .750. Photo, Taunt. P-y penui.s^ion of the I )u1<l- .if Marlljorough 

Field Spaniel 

Stubbb, 1750. Photo, K. Walker. B)- punnission of Sir Walter Gilbi 


with reddish legs, and above each eye is a spot of the 
same colour." 

The King Charles Black-and-tan was of an entirely 
different breed from the Blenheim, and in my opinion 
the crossing of them was impermissible except to pro- 
duce new varieties — i.e., the Ruby and Tricolour in the 
second generation. 

The appearance of ])arti-coloured puppies in King 
Charles litters would merely be evidence of the recent 
crossing of these varieties, but the white would breed out 
all except the natural white breast if self colour were 
repeatedly bred to self colour. As to getting a Black- 
and-tan puppy from two Blenheims, I have never heard 
of such an occurrence and do not believe it ])ossible even 
where there has been a c|uite recent cross of IMack-and- 
tan. The Red-and-white is the dominant breed, but the 
black-and-tan colour does not appear to remain even 
dormant. Mr. Milnes tells me of a case where two 
Black-and-tans (both of which were Blenheim bred) 
produced a Blenheim, but this is very rare. In fact, I 
never heard of another case. 

The appearance of white on Rubies is because the 
Ruby originates in a cross of Red-and-white with Black- 

I entirely protest against these breeds being consid- 
ered one and the same in origin. They have only been 
crossed within the last eighty or ninety years, and the 
produce are only allowable as the foundation of the new 
Tricolour and Ruby breeds. The distorted and coarse 
type now commonly seen seems evidence of a further 
Bulldog (?) cross, which is not allowable at all. The 
cross of the King Charles with " Blenheim " has been 
resorted to in order to produce the other colours and 



to (k'tcrniinc .-il)nonnally smashed faces which possibly 
ori^inaU'd in the black Kini^ Charles, already crossed 
with IVranie about 1800. beini;' recrossed with BuUdoi;" 
about 1S4C). The explanation of the parti-coloured pup- 
pies which were said to appear in strains that were 
black as far as the owner could remember being in a 
])re\ious cross or ])erhaps the Pyrame cross. The 
l'\ranie, thouLjh !^cncrall\' black-and-tan. was sometimes 
w liok' red and sometimes black-and-wliite, and this pe- 
culiarity is referred to by Richardson in connection with 
the " Sussex " Spaniel. The production of these parti- 
coloured puppies is however only an assertion on hear- 
say evidence and I strongly doubt its correctness. 

Dalziel speaks of the Tricolour as an unavoidable 
but undesirable freak of colour in llie King ("harles. 
but this was sul)sei|uent to the crossing of the breeds, 
and the original true Tricolour was doubtless the cross 
between the Italian and P'rench Spaniel. 

*' In King ("harles a rich black-and-tan is demanded 
without white, the black-and-tan-and-white variety be- 
ing disregarded, though in the best-bred litters occasion- 
ally a pupi)y of this colour appears." This is a quota- 
tion from the 1867 edition of Stonehenge. 

He also says that the Blenheim must on no account 
be whole coloured. The Ruby was. therefore, appar- 
ently considered to be a miscoloured Blenheim, but the 
very pronounced mismarking is got by a definite cross. 

It is (|uite absurd to insist on the elimination of the 
white breast in Rubies and Black-and-tans, as these 
white breasts are natural and right, especially in the 

Emery Walker Coilotyper 





The whole fabric of niodern jiulging is utterly un- 
sound. The Club judges are, moreover, bound by the 
Club regulations, which prevent the exercise of any 
private judgment. 

When I say that I consider the modern standard 
incorrect, I do not mean that we should g'o back to long 
noses. I frankly own that before I began my historical 
investigations I held the same opinion as that of other 
writers, namely that the ancestors of the Toy Spaniel 
had long noses, and I was prepared to advocate a return 
to whatever the original type might have been. My 
researches have, however, led me to an exactly opposite 
conclusion. The red-and-white Toy Spaniel has a per- 
fect right to his short nose. The King Charles had com- 
paratively long-nosed ancestors, but is now a composite 
breed made up to suit modern taste and no longer bears 
any resemblance to his earlier progenitors. 

I still maintain that certain types of modern dogs 
are monstrosities, and shall to the end of my days fight 
against these types and protest against their propagation. 

I have been working for some years on the system 
of drawing attention to the distorted noseless type. 
There are several noseless types but of late breeders 
have gone in for sensationalism in heads regardless of 
beauty or even of general soundness. 



I have purposely ridiculed these extraordinary dc- 
forniities, hoi)in5^- thai at lasl people would see the gro- 
tes(|ueness for themselves, and this, 1 am hapi)y to say, 
has already resulted in the Toy Spaniel Club taking 
steps to revise their points. It is, howexer, impossible 
for anv club to propcrlv revise its points without a com- 
plete knowledge of the history of its breed, and this no 
one has in the case of Toy Spaniels, because no one has 
e\er had access to the i)ro])er material. 

T tlu'uk there are some grounds for 1)elieving tliat 
most of the ])reseut distorted, heavy, noseless, under- 
shot types are exidence of mongrel lUilldog blood. 

liefore going further, I must dispose of the idea, 
rife among dog lovers outside the "Fancy," that the 
" smashed noses " are got by smashing, A broken nose 
is not the least like the nose of the modern type, and 
the puppies are born with these noseless faces. The 
kind-hearted old ladies, therefore, who weep over the 
fancied cruelties of the breeders can dry their tears and 
rejoice. That this theory should have originated at all 
is evidence of how unnatural the modern head a])pears 
to outsiders. Nothing can exj)kain it except a brutal 
operation, but a broken nose would never deceive an 
expert for a moment. I may also remark that nobody 
has ever suggested that the noses of Japanese dogs are 
broken, though they are " noseless " dogs, and this is T 
think due to the fact that in the Japanese the propor- 
tions of the head are harmonious, whereas in some types 
of Toy Spaniel they are heterogeneous. 

When a pupi)y is born with a screw tail and noseless 
head it will be noticed that there is a ridge of flesh 
sticking uj) between the nose and skull, and in this ridge 
the nostrils are embedded. The ridge is noticeable in 


Heads of newly-born Toy Spaniel Puppies 

A, A. Flyers. B. Second-class winner. C. Average head 


o o 


Spratt's Terrier 
Travelling Box 

Pattern for Flannel Coat 
IN Cases of Illness 


the photograph of the fine bulldog, Good Lion, the 
property of Mr. T. Davis. I have chosen him as a ty])i- 
cal Bulldog head. 

It will also be noticed that this head is harmonious 
in its lines, each line being thoroughly appropriate to the 
short nose and fighting type. It shows immense power, 
and is, to my mind, just what a Bulldog should be to 
inspire awe. A careful comparison with the two heads 
of my Toy Spaniels, Spotted Lily and St. Anthony's 
Marvel, will reveal the close connection of the types, 
only what is magnificent in the Bulldog is absurd in the 
To^ dog. I think some types of the short face are got 
by Japanese crosses. These are the best ones, as the 
type approximates more nearly to the original stock. 

The first mention of abnormally short noses occurs 
in 1845. Youatt speaks of the new short-nosed type as 
a recent innovation. 

" The King Charles Spaniel of the present day is 
materially altered for the worse. The muzzle is almost 
as short and the forehead as ugly and prominent as the 
veriest bulldog. . . . The Blenheim Spaniel . . . has 
degenerated of late, and is not to be had pure even in 
the neighbourhood of Blenheim. The species may be 
distinguished by the length and silkiness of the coat, 
the deep fringe about the ear, the full and moist eye, 
and the blackness of the palate." 

An illustration represents Blenheims with a short 
but distinct nose, so Youatt would indeed have objected 
to the present type. The Sporting Annual of 1839 also 
mentions that the Blenheim was leggy and degenerate, 
but does not mention noses. 

H. D. Richardson, in 185 1, says of the King Charles : 
" Distinguished by shortness of muzzle, round and bul- 
ls 89 

^()^ i)()(;s and iiikik a\c kstoks 

Icl-likc shape of head, {jroinincncc of his eye, len<4lh of 
ear, and the colour, wliich must l)e hlack-aud-tau." I»ut 
lie also calls the I'lenheini the hlack-ruid-tan rvranie, 
anil ai^ain a Ivt-d-aud \\ liite Spauiel. so it is dinicult to 
follow him as to colour; hut 1 read this as uieaniiii^ that 
at I'lenheim were kcjU hoth the red-aud-white ^uu do^- 
aud the hlack-aud-tan i^uu doq-s. 

]\leyriek. 1S4J, says that the Kin.^' Charles has all 
the delormilies ot a i)roiiiinent watery eve. a prolrudins^ 
touii'ue, a hroad u^iy mouth, and a .^'enerally apo])lectic 

Idle l^ncyclo])edia ]^)ritannica. t8i~, savs of the Kinjj^ 
Charles doi;": " Head rounded, snout short, tail curved 
back." Short snout merely meant relatively short, and 
even in the first edition of Stonehen^-e, i86j, where 
he complains of the excessively short noses of the 
modern do.^s, the illustration shows a doi;' by no means 

P)UfTon says that the Spaniels and Waiter dogs were 
short and hlunt in nose. Tn another ])lace he explains 
this hy saying- short and hlunt compared to the Grey- 
hound, Russian \\'olfhound. etc. — not short in nose as 
we now understand the term. The i)ictures show his 
meaning' cpiite clearly. 

Ihc Field of iS5() says: "The Kin^- Charles .and 
P>lenlieini Spaniels as bred by the fancv are snub-nosed, 
rounddieaded :inim;ils like Pui^s, with silk\- ears .and 
coats, l)ut they are reni.ark.ably jq;raceful animals." 

Stonelien_L:;-e says that the low carriage of the tail is 
a i)eculiar feature of all true S]).aniels. .and was formerly 
insisted on .as :\ ])oint ol i;i"e:it ini])ort;inoe in the Toy 
Spaniel, riiis is not correct .accordiuL^" to m\- researches, 
as the re\erse, indeed, is certainly the f.act. .all the oldest 


Noseless Toy Spaniel, with wrongly 
CARRIED Ears and bad Expression 

Mrs J. Davies' Bulldog Good Lion 

A fine fighting type ; not suitable as a lap-dog 

Monkey-faced Type of Blenheim, with 
twisted Jaw and wrong Expression 

"A Fairy among Dogs" 

A Good Type of Brood Bitch 

A Tiny Lap Dog 


authorities agreeing that the tail should be raised. The 
old pictures confirm this. See Veronese and Watteau. 

There is a great wish on the part of some breeders, 
especially Miss Dillon, that the Toy Spaniel's tail should 
not be docked. My opinion is this. By all means let 
the tail alone, but if so it must be carried over the back, 
as in Veronese's time, and like the Japanese. There is 
no middle course, a long tail carried drooping in the 
mud, or straight out with a hook at the end, is simply 
impossible. It is neither one thing nor the other, and 
if the tails are not to be carried over the back they 
should be docked. A photograph is given of a modern 
Blenheim with an undocked tail, but this is a most un- 
usually good specimen. 

Sydenham Edwards, 1800, says the Marlboroughs 
are a small variety of Cocker with blunt noses and very 
round heads, and highly valued by sportsmen. He gives 
a lovely colored plate of gun dogs, much the type of 
Stubbs Spaniel, but does not give the Marlboroughs. 

In an engraving of the Hon. Mrs. Monckton, 1779, 
there is a Cocker with the spot and a very pointed nose. 

In a picture by Gainsborough, of Queen Charlotte, 
there is a very pretty, smallish Spaniel with spot, of 
the Marlborough Cocker type probably crossed with 
Toy. The engraving by Gainsborough Dupont can be 
seen at the National Portrait Gallery. 

The following quotation is from Idstone, 1872: 

" Thirty years ago (i.e., 1842) they were rare in the 
provinces, but so long ago as that I had several of great 
excellence, which were the offspring of a celebrated dog, 
named Cherry (about 1845). His produce had but one 
fault, they carried their tails a trifle high, but a superb 
black-and-white- and-tan bitch named Cora, weighing 



not over six pounds, was free from this or any oilier 
fault."' 'i'liis is c\i(lcntly due to Stonclicn^v. who was 
the first to su^i;esl thai Toy Spaniels should not earry 
their tails hij^h. 

lie eontinues: "Originally the Kin^" Charles was a 
liver-and-white do^', and 1 iniai;ine, indeed I am almost 
certain, that the do^s heloniiin.i^- to the Merry Monarch 
were so marked. 1 low or where the cohnir altered 1 do 
not know." 

1 le thinks the\- orij^inated from Jai)an, and says that 
the first imported jai)S were i)ale }ellow and white. 
These were prohahly Chinese do.^s. 

Tvohert Fortune says that the Jap do^'s in Japan arc 
dwarfed hv a spirit called " Saki," no douht a sort of 
^in, hut 1 mvself was told hy a lady who lived in Japan 
that the small size was obtained l)y another i)ractice, 
which 1 shall not specify, as there mii^ht he people un- 
])rincipled enoui^h to try and reproduce it over here. 
This practice would account for the extraordinary del- 
icacv of the breed, but I think myself the breed is nalu- 
rallv a small one. 

Idstone says that the King Charles in his day was 
almost universally black-and-tan, the Tricolour being 
out of fashion. He says he considers the Tricolour the 
handsomer dog of the two. " Should have a white leaf 
down the centre of the forehead, tan spots over the eyes, 
white lips, tan cheeks, and freckles of tan on the lips, a 
white collar and mane, white forelegs sparingly freckled 
with tan and black. The edges of the thighs should be 
white, bellv white, and end of the tail also. The inner 
part of the ears should be tan: the mane long, profuse, 
and like floss silk. The thighs and hind (|uarters must 
be feathered heavily. Also the tail with a flag end; feet 


Miss Fan 

From a print of 1810-20. (Tricolour. Note the "spot") 


Duke of M 






OF Blenheim 









Early Type of Marlborough 

About 1S40 

A Common Type of E.\rly 
Marlborough Spaniel 

T. Gainsborough, 1750. By permission of H. J. Pfunest, 


profusely feathered, tan, wherever visible, brilliant and 
rich. In the heavy feather of the hind quarters and tail 
there should be a harmonious amalgamation of the three 
colours. The face should be short ; the eye large, black, 
and prominent, the corner of it wet; the skull round, 
the ears large ; there should be a deep, pronounced stop 
between the eyes, the ears should be large, flabby, and 
well coated ; the formation of the dog low on the leg, the 
coat very silky, and a spriglifly temper is indispensable," 

The Black-and-tan and Tricolour should, he says, 
never exceed seven pounds for exhibition. 

Idstone says that the pale lemon colour in Blenheim 
comes from in-breeding. He also says that the King 
Charles cross is indulged in too freely, getting rid of 
the spot, which is a point of the utmost importance. 

He also thinks the breed comes through Spain from 
Japan. I can find no trace of this in pictures or 
literature. Velasquez depicted the Alicantes, not 

Idstone says : " The main points of beauty are as 
follows: The high skull, the full, black, wet eye, the 
short nose, the large, broad, heavv, well-feathered ear ; 
compact form, close to the ground ; pure, brilliant, rich 
red and distinct white markings, especially the broad 
leaf down the forehead, the round spot on the skull, the 
white neck and mane ; a texture like floss silk ; legs all 
well coated at the back, and deeply feathered toes. They 
are restless in their habits, capital guardians, always 
vigilant, but snappish and capricious, showing a dislike 
to children, and want of discrimination between friend 
and foe. They resent any fancied slight or injury, and 
are not particularly forgiving. 

" The crossing with King Charles and Blenheim has 



so C(»iilu>c'(l iIk' two hrocds thai llic llircc colours ollcn 
appear in <tiK' litter.' 

" I'alo coloured r.lculK'inis arc very int'erior and 
valueless, hut all specimens are of this same hue till they 
ha\e chaniLicd their coat. Xine pounds is the outside 
limit, hut xaluahle do^s should not \\ei,L;h al)o\e si.\ or 

'■ The nose has heen shortened till it is deformed, 
and the hroad mouth and protruding- tongue of many 
specimens are revoltini^ and untrue to the type of 
i^enuine I)lenheini Spaniel, which, when in any de.^'ree 
approaching" perfection, is one ot the most heautitul of 
our parlour i)ets." 

The writer of an article on lai)an in iSU) ((|Uote<l 
hv Mrs. Jenkins) su^i^ests that Captain .Saris hroui^ht 
preseius of Japanese doii;s to luii^iand in if)!^. This is. 
however. i)ure conjecture, and he adds that it tallies 
with the ai)pearance of the Toy Spaniel in i^u^. As 
far as 1 can trace there were no Toy Sjianiels in Knj^- 
land till about i^)()C). except the liver-and-w hite. which 
came presumably w ith Anne of C'leves. 1 can discover 
no mention whate\er of Japanese Spaniels before i«*^54, 
when lapanese Spaniels were im])orte(l into ICuiiiand 
by Slirlinii-. The short nose of the Toy Spaniel 
was already on the way in iSj^r), so th;il it would api>ear 
hardly likely that this should have been its origin, but 
1 consider that the Red-and-white Toy Spaniels. Ja])- 
ancse, and Pekingese, have a common Chinese ancestry. 

Mr. \ ero .Shaw, in his book on the doj^', jniblished 
in iSS(j. announced his intention of crossini;" Tov Span- 
iels with Jai)anese, and 1 should be very i^lad to know 
if lu" did so; as this cross mi^ht explain some of our 

' Only uiiiliT certain unvarying conditions. 


Miss I-a.\ and I'ri's ( I kicolour) 

riir |iuppy on her back is red and white. From an 
old coloured print, 1810-1820 


Puppy, ]v\rlv 19x11 Century 

'rKlCOI.OUR TdY Sl'AMi;i. 

Early 19x11 Century 

I'KNNKLi 's Shock and Comforter of 1843 

Tricolour Toy Spaniel, Early 19TH Century 

From ii painting in possession of the Rev. K. L. Paidoe 


particularly Japanese coated strains. In 1889 he says 
that Mr. Nave agrees with him in considering the 
short nose was obtained by a cross of Pug, and quotes 
the paragraph to which he refers. I, however, under- 
stand it differently. Mr. Nave said that he considered 
the short nose was obtained by a " cross of Black-and- 
tan Japanese Spaniel" (also called Japanese Pug). 
Black-and-tan does not appear to exist as a pure Jap- 
anese colour, nor does it exist in Pugs. He mentions 
the Pug only to state his opinion of its origin, but not 
in connection with the Toy Spaniel. 

Sir Rutherford Alcock thus describes the fancy dogs 
in Japan : " And first I am to find a pair of well bred 
Japanese dogs, with eyes like saucers, no nose, the 
tongue hanging out of the side, too large for the mouth, 
and white-and-tan, if possible, and two years old. My 
dogs are chosen, species of Charles II Spaniels inten- 
sified. There is so much genuine likeness that I think 
it probable the Merry Monarch was indebted to his 
marriage w4th a Portugese Princess for the original 
race of Spaniels as well as her dower." 

If there has been any direct cross of Japanese it has 
been since 1850, and there is only one of our strains 
which shows evidence of it, unless the very short faces 
are taken as evidence. 

Stonehenge, fourteenth edition, 1878, says of the 
King Charles : " Nor is the shortness of face of old 
standing, when carried to the extent which now 
prevails . . . those which I remember early in the 
present century were at least only half way on the road 
to the state in which they are now exhibited, with faces 
like those of the Bulldog." 

I have seen two coloured prints of Tricolour Span- 


'^()^ i)()(;s and tiikik axc kstoks 

ids kiii(ll\- lent iiic 1)\ Mr. IV-rriii. ( )nc is called "Jum- 
bo," iS3(), and ihc other " lUisy," of the same date. 
Both r-jpresent cohhy, well-leathered, well-marked lilllc 
dogs Avith L^reat hi.Li" t.'y^^- I l^'ir noses are moderately 
short, rather tajJeriiiL;'. hut \ery well cushioned u]) with 
round muzzles. These certainly are a little Japanese 
in type, hut. as there were no Japanese recorded in Eng- 
land before 1850, this cannot be considered a proof of 
any cross, and is j)robal)ly only the natural throwiui^ 
back to the Chinese ancestor. 

The KciiiicI Gaactte, of November, 1886. says of the 
lilenheim : " There are two points to which 1 should like 
to call tlie attention of the breeders of IMenheims. One 
is the absolute necessity for a short back, the r>lenheim 
is essentially a Cocker ' in miniature : the other is that 
the cross with the Kinj^ Charles is bring-inq- in the cocoa- 
nut skull." This last warninq", alas! passed unheeded. 

There are at ])resent four recog'nised \arieties t)f 
Toy vSpaniel. Blenheims, or Red-and-white; King 
Charles, or Black-and-tan ; Prince Charles, or Tricolour; 
and Ruby, or Red. They are all supposed to have j)re- 
cisely the same points, but it is quite certain that there 
is a vast difference in type between the I'lenheim and 
Prince Charles. /. c, the " broken colours," and the King 
Charles and Ruby, or " whole colours." Besides the 
])resent recognised colours they sometimes occur all 
liver or Hver-and-white, and lately there have been two 
examples of Blenheims whose red markings are, as it 
were, shot with black, giving a very beautiful effect 
indeed. T have also seen a dull blue-and-tan inipi)y bred 

1 The reference to the Cocker as a notoriously short-l)acked Spaniel 
will come as a shock to the modern breeder of these Spaniels. What 
would the writer nf this sav to the modern Cocker? 


Portrait of a Lady 

F. Haage, 1740. F.udapest. Photo, Hanfstaeng 


from a Ruby and a Black-and-tan. It unfortunately 
did not live to maturity, but I have kept its skin as a 
curiosity. The King; Charles breed truer, and are more 
constant to the short nose than the Blenheims. There 
is a strong tendency in the Blenheims to revert to the 
pointed nose of their Italian ancestors, and if they are 
not periodically crossed with the whole colours, or very 
carefully selected, they rapidly get longer and more 
tapering in face and flatter in skull, owing to the Marl- 
borough blood with which they are infected. Some 
of j;he oldest fanciers, to the great indignation of the 
modern fanciers, are most decided in attributing the 
present type of King Charles to an infusion of Bull- 
dog blood, and this view would seem to be confirmed 
by the curious fact that, whenever a puppy is born with 
a face so short as to be noseless, it is pretty sure to 
have a screw tail as well. This is a peculiarity very 
prevalent among Bulldogs, but as it is supposed to be 
due to arrested development, it may be an independ- 
ent coincidence. It is very seldom that such specimens 
ever grow a really profuse coat. Generally, too, their 
ears are set on very high and thrown back with a 
" rose " carriage, the *' leather " is extremely short, 
and their faces are inclined to be wrinkled. It is an- 
other curious coincidence that, in those parts of Lon- 
don where the best show King Charles Spaniels are 
often bred, there are occasional epidemics of noseless 
specimens, and a cautious investigation generally re- 
veals the fact that the breeder of these wonders has a 
cousin, an aunt, or a brother-in-law who owns a Bull- 
dog ! I feel inclined to think that it is this Bulldog cross 
which has spoilt the elegance of the King Charles and 
given the present specimens the wide, often out-at- 
14 97 


dhows forelcii^s, and the coniparalivcly pinclicd hind- 
([uartcrs and lica\\' movement of wliich I inlcnd to com- 
plain presently. There is, however, another type of 
screw-tailed puppy which shows no lUilldoj^" character, 
and this is j)rohal3ly due to Chinese and Iai)anese crosses. 
I was much interested the other day to hear from Mr. 
Aistrop tliat about tlie \ear 1810 his father j^ave fifty 
guineas for a cross-l)red P>ulldoi^. by name, liilly. He 
had been bred by old Mr. Aistrop, sold l)y him to 
Charley Dew. and re]nuxhased at his death. This dof]^ 
was the most famous rat-killer in F.n^iand, and killed 
one hundred rats in the Cock pit. Duck Lane. West- 
minster (a pit 18 X 16 feet), in five and a half minutes. 
Princess Charlotte had at that time three Tricolour Toy 
Spaniels, and summoning Mr. Aistrop in 1814, gave 
him £10 for the services of his dog, as she said she 
wished her three Toy Spaniels to have ]nippies by the 
most famous dog in England. Here is an authentic 
instance of a cross of diluted lUilldog blood in some Tri- 
colour Spaniels, at any rate. It is curious that Princess 
Charlotte should have cared more for celebrity than fc^r 
pedigree, to the point of crossing two such strangely 
unsuitable breeds. It is said that Mr. Aistrop refused 
three hundred guineas for Billy, and also an ofifer of a 
pension for life. 

Mr. Charles Aistrop is one of our oldest fanciers, 
and he is one of the most thorough enthusiasists I have 
ever met. Mr. iVistrop's father was a born fancier, who, 
when a bo\'. was turned out of the house by his mother 
for winning a prize at bull baiting, and refusing to give 
u]) the sport. It appears that this lady was of inde- 
pendent means, and had an excessive regard for what 
she considered the honour of her familv. and when she 



Billy, the Celebrated Kat-killer, killing ioo Rats in Five Minutes 
AND A Half on the 22nd April 1823 

By permission of Mr Aistrop 


one day read in the paper that her son had won a prize 
with his dog, she had hysterics, rang for her butler, and 
ordered that directly Mr. Charles came in he was to be 
sent to her immediately. As soon as Mr. Charles came 
she told him plainly that he must either give up dog 
fancying or leave her house, and she would give him a 
week to think it over. Mr. Charles, who was a spirited 
young man, replied that he did not want a week to think 
it over, but that he would go at once. To this Mrs. 
Aistrop answered that, if such was his determination, 
hg should not go penniless, but that she would give him 
one hundred guineas. So he took the money and went, 
and soon became the most famous fancier of his time. 
The present Mr. Aistrop was an expert lightweight 
boxer before a terrible accident by which he lost the use 
of both arms. He was driving one day with his brother, 
who happened to say that he had never driven a horse 
in his life, and Mr. Aistrop told him he should learn 
there and then. The lesson was disastrous. Before 
they had gone many yards a coal van turned out of a 
side street, they collided, and both gentlemen were 
thrown out. Mr. Charles Aistrop injured his spine, and 
his brother was killed. Disasters of a sensational kind 
seem to run in the Aistrop family, as old Mrs. Aistrop 
was killed by a bear which was kept at the pit for bear 
baiting, and attacked her when she was feeding it. Mr. 
Aistrop came home to find her dead, and, after killing 
the bear, sold the pit and took up the profession of a 
licensed victualler. 

Mr. Aistrop had some correspondence with the 
King at the time when there was a proposal to alter 
the name of the King Charles, and was the cause of the 
name being retained, as, in answer to his petition, the 



Kini;- cxi)rcssccl a wish thai ihc name should not he 

]\Ir. Charles Aistrop tells nie that the first Riihy he 
saw was in 1850, and it was also the first irrv short- 
nosed doo^ that he ever saw. It used to l)e hrouj^ht to 
the Ei.^iu Ik-lls. Denmark Street, Soho, which was run 
by Mr. Aistrop's father, and where some of the first 
fancy do^^: shows were held from 1836. lis owner was a 
Mr. Risum. and he used to attend with this wonderful 
red doi;', which was considered a curiosity, and was the 
talk of the " Fancy," the house bein^- crowded whenever 
Mr. Risum took the chair. The colour was not then 
held in high esteem, and the dog" went hy the name of 
" the cabbage-leaf eared dog"," from the immense size 
of its ears, both in length and width. 

The combination of the short face with enormous 
ears is f|uite ag'ainst the present rule, where short 
faces and small or short, crumpled ears too often go 

Mr. Watson, of Hackensack, found the following in 
an old sporting mag"azine: "Spaniel Show. The show 
of nine-pound Spaniels for a silver cream jug will take 
place at Charley Aistrop's, the Elephant and Castle, 
Peter St., Westminster, on Wednesday. February, 


T .give an illustration of a fancy dog show in 1857, 
held at the flight Hells. This was, Mr. Aistrop thinks, 
the first dog club ever started, though the idea was 
(|iiickl\- followed by "jimmy Shaw." "jack l)rown." 
and others. The members are said to have i)ai(l a small 
weekly sum. Meetings were held every week, enlivened 
by occasional shows; the judges being chosen on the 
S])ot from amongst the members. A li>t of stud dogs 




























was hung up in the parlour, and the meetings were gen- 
erally crowded. 

It will be noticed that the dogs in the drawing were 
not short-nosed or square in jaw, but pretty faced, long- 
eared dogs, most typical of the breed, with noses very 
much turned up, and such as would, no doubt, be called 
" short snout " by the early writers, when they meant 
to describe a nose which was by no means that of 
a Greyhound, but still less like that of our modern 

Regarding the screw tail and noseless face as evi- 
dence of Bulldog blood, there certainly was no such 
thing in the shows much before 1845, though from 
the time of Princess Charlotte there are rumours of 
too short noses. Possibly Princess Charlotte's experi- 
ment with Billy gave the dealers the idea of the Bull- 
dog cross, and this is certainly a possible source of 
the distorted " noseless " dog. It has been suggested 
that the short face originated from crossing with the 
Japanese, but this alone would never have given the 
powerful under jaw and the extraordinary tenacity of 
hold which is exhibited by some specimens. I have 
two noseless dogs at present, and they attack an object 
in precisely the Bulldog style, freezing on to it and 
shutting their eyes. Once they get a grip, it is im- 
possible to move their jaws, and they will allow them- 
selves to be lifted from the ground by their teeth. It is, 
of course, possible that there may have been isolated 
instances of a Japanese cross, but this breed is far too 
delicate for dealers to indulge in crossing systematically. 
An occasional cross would, however, provide the neces- 
sary material and in-breeding would do the rest. We 
must nevertheless look for some other explanation of 


r()\' DOCS A\n riiKiK axc kstoks 

coarser lyi)cs. Il is ])crlcclly evident Id in\ (iwii iniiul 
llial my Iviihy doi;. Mar\el, is crossed with liiilldoi;" at 
a comparatively receiil date, llioui;h lliere is nothing" in 
his |)e(hmree to su^^est it. 1 may say tliat. tliou^li I am 
iinahle tti explain it, the noseless head, screw tail, and 
\\el)l)e(l teel are practicallv in\arial»l\ co-related char- 
acters, hilt there are two marked t\])es of noseless 

As to the \\el)l)ed t'eet, these are douhtless a throw 
back to the little curly Kini;- Charles Water Spaniel. 1 
shall ne\er hehe\e that the noseless, screw-tailed doi^^ 
was ])ro(luce(l solely by selection within a period of fif- 
teen years. 'Idle ty])e changed (|iiite suddenlv from the 
kind of short nose which would he brought about by 
selection, to an outrai^eous deforniitv. In iS^o it was 
still " a Spaniel unrivalled for l)eauty." In i84_> it had a 
liroad mouth and j^enerally ai)oi)lectic a])pearance. In 
1S45 it had " forehead as ui^ly as the \eriest lUilldog," 
and in 1S7J the show doj^ was established as an " apple- 
headed, idiotic, hydrocephalous animal." and that de- 
lii^hlful Mr. Julius settled il b\- his ill limed practical 
joke in \>^JJ. 

I am sure that the short face is not the outcome of 
a cross with Wv^, as has been su^s;',s^ested by some writers, 
for four reasons, i. The screw tail that i^enerally ac- 
companies the noseless face is a short " down " tail, 
never curled upwards over the back. _>. The underjaw 
is usually very stron^q'. with a pronounced lay back. 3. 
There is never a black mask or trace under any circum- 
stances. 4. The back is often arched, and the chest 
is abnormalK' wide, with elbows out and curxed lore- 

1 had the misfortune to buy a Toy .Spaniel which 




Cocker and Springer 

The original Field Spaniels, iSoi 

Curly King Charles Spaniel of about 1800 


had gone astray with a Pug, and am able to state that 
in the htter of seven every puppy had a black mask 
and a weak under jaw and the black trace down the 

It is the bull-headed puppies that make all the whelp- 
ing troubles of small Toy Spaniels. Small bitches of 
six pounds in weight which are free from Bull crosses 
would probably whelp without trouble. I have had 
several small ])itches (one only five and a half pounds) 
showing the Italian type in a very pronounced way, and 
th^ bred quite easily. 

It is the Bulldog head and shoulders that make the 
danger. We have one strain of Blenheim now of which 
the females are useless for breeding purposes, owing 
to the contracted peh'is and the heavy head and shoul- 

As the Blenheim has the only long record of the 
short nose, it may be wondered why I have stated that 
the King Charles is the most constant to the short 

This is easily explained if the ahnorinally smashed 
face is due to the Bulldog cross, as the direct Bulldog 
cross certainly does not occur in the Blenheim breed, 
the only Bull blood being filtered through the King 
Charles. It must be remembered that many of the pres- 
ent Blenheim strains have also been crossed with the 
Marlborough, which, in its turn, has been crossed with 
the Holland Spaniel, which, between 1550 and 1660, 
had no stop whatever. 

I feel sure that, if allowed to choose my strains and 
use what dogs I liked, I could produce noseless, screw- 
tailed puppies of either of the types I have mentioned 
with absolute certainty. 



Most of tlic |)Uj)])ics with ahsolntcly sunhcii noses die 
of cleft i)al;itc or arc cliokcd at birth, and unable to 

The ones thai surxive most easily are those which 
approximate closest to the bi])anese noseless ty])e, which 
apparenth has not the elongated palate of the noseless 
Toy Spaniel. 

Toy S])aniels of the present <la\' have some very 
<;"rave defects, and breeders should turn their attention 
seriou.sK' lo them. Some of ilie jud^'es are beL^'inniuLi^ 
to do so, and I manai^ed to oet a clause as to soundness 
inserted in the Toy Spaniel standard a year or two a,c;"o. 
U]) to the present, however, very little attenti(m has 
been i)aid to it in practise, unsoundness passing un- 
noticed to championship honours. 

The defects are as follows: 

1. Unsoundness. 

2. Grotesqueness of type — uc^ly expressions. 

3. Bad coats or no coats. 

4. ILxcessive timidity — slugg"ishness or semi-idiocy. 

Unsoundness is a very i^rave danii^er, es])ecially in 
the black-and-tan, ahnost every strain of which is un- 
sound. There are \ery few perfectly sound Kini^ 
Charles, and lar_<;e numbers are entirely unfit for show 
on that account. That many of them win is sufficient 
proof that we must, indeed, be in a bad way. C"ripi)led 
sires and unsound dams cannot produce sound stock, 
and all unsoundness should be uncompromisingly i)en- 
alized by iudo;es unless obviously due lo an accident. It 
is no use for a'e to put down A's docf in Class I,, 
for unsoundness, and then proceed to put up P>'s doQ^ in 
Class 2, forgetting that he is etjually unsound. This 



Setter and Cocker, 1820 



sort of judging merely irritates exhibitors and does no 
good, and I must say that specialist judges are worse 
offenders than all-round judges in this matter, as they 
are apt to be carried away by wonderful head points 
and to forget everything else. If a judge penalizes 
unsoundness or any other bad point, he should do so 
consistently. I cannot too earnestly insist on this point 
of consistency, and I commend it also to reporters. It 
is grossly unfair to crab one dog for a fault and pass 
it over in another. 

Specialist judges are apt, as I said, to give undue 
importance to head points or technical specialist points. 
For instance, a good sound dog, perfect in all points, 
will be put back by practically any specialist judge for 
white on the chest, and a glaring cripple preferred to 
him, provided it has no white hairs. A dog that has 
even a few white hairs, that it takes the judge ten min- 
utes to find, will be penalized to an absurd extent. A 
curly coated dog will be beaten by the most miserable 
of weeds, etc., etc. Now, " all rounders " have much 
more balance of judgment, and I would far rather trust 
a good specimen of any breed in its own class to an 
unprejudiced all-round judge than to a specialist. Spe- 
cialists often have their own fads, which tend to warp 
their judgment on essential points. Defects of confor- 
mation should always be penalised before accidental 
blemishes, but it requires a very strong judge to over- 
look an obvious superficial blemish, such as a stain, a 
burn, a wounded foot or a damaged eye, or even de- 
fective markings rather than a faulty type, exaggerated 
jaw, or an unpleasing expression. As a matter of 
fact, I think the latter would at present always win 
the day. 

15 105 

'^()^ i)()(;s and tiikik a\c ksioks 

A (Iml; (»|' tlic rii^lit type, howcxcr badly hlcniishcd 
or niisniarkod. oiiL^lit always U) win over a doi;" (^f ihc 
wroiii;' typo. This should he a fiindaiiK'ntal principle in 
jiidi^ini;. A (loj4" of the w roni;- type is worse than no 
doj^' at all. 

h^irst j)rizes must l)e withheld I'roni had do^-s. This 
is another fundamental ])rinciple, hut one which rerjuires 
j^reat fortitude to carry out. I have seen so many had 
doiis used at stud, on the strength of wins in classes 
where they were the only entries, tliat I feel that a 
stand should he made a.^ainst misleadinj^ victories of 
this kind ( though it would l)e sure to he most imi)opu- 

1 have for years inxei^hed a^'ainst the modern type 
and scale of ])oints, .and on Octoher i6, i()o8, 1 wrote 
an article in llic Kcnucl expressing;' yet stroni;"er criti- 
cisms on the cxa.^i's^erations and deformities of the pres- 
ent day. Some weeks later Mrs. Jenkins also wrote to 
The KcuucL exi)ressini;' the same \-iews as myself, which 
suri)rised me considerably, as we had always held en- 
tirely opposite opinions. 

Mrs. Jenkins wrote of noselessness as one of " Na- 
ture's deformities," and yet she was amoni;- the first to 
take the lead as judi^e in ^ivini;" ])rominence to the most 
abnormal of the noseless ty])es. When a iudi^inj;" scale 
"•ives too j^reat a ])ro]iortion of points to .any (^ne part 
of a doju;-, it is clear that doi;s will win on .abnormalities 
of, ;ind 1 think revision is for 
any scale which c;m be m.ade .an ;iri;ument to sui)port 
an type .adnn'ttedly a^.ainst a judge's better 

X.'iture h;is :i qreat horror of int'lliciencN- .and de- 
formitv, and thi^ .abhorrence is necess.ary to the sound- 


Henrietta of Orleans 

]\Iiffnard, about i65o 


ness of the race, but can only operate where there is 
no artificial preservation of that which is unfit and un- 

The cult of beauty and strength and the natural 
attraction towards them and the preference even of 
animals for them (especially for the latter quality), are 
Nature's provision for the selection of the fittest parents 
for the best ofifspring in all departments of life. Any 
delight in weakness, unfitness, and ugliness is a morbid 
perversion of natural instincts which should be sternly 
disoouraged among all live-stock breeders. Nature 
ruthlessly destroys the weaklings, the weeds, and the 
failures. The conditions of life are too uncompromis- 
ing, and they die. The modern man preserves them at 
infinite trouble and expense, and ofifers prizes for them 
on the show bench. He breeds from individuals which 
would never naturally breed, which are too small, too 
feeble, or too deformed to propagate their species in a 
natural condition, and, moreover, often have a violent 
aversion in doing so. This is a grievous mistake, and 
our inbred deformed and artificial dogs are visited, as 
a consequence of their artificiality, by ghastly diseases 
like the " Black Death" distemper which are themselves 
almost " artificial " in virulence, and which, I venture 
to think, would not have existed at all had our pet stock 
been less inbred and unsound. Remember that Nature 
will not be entirely frustrated, and when thwarted in 
one direction, kills ofif the obnoxious productions of 
human skill in some unforeseen way, and generally does 
it with a blind, wholesale lavishness by which a large 
proportion of the healthy and strong are carried ofif as 

On the other hand we must not try and make the 


'r()^ DOCS AM) I'lIKIU AXCKSroi^S 

Iny S])anicl int(» a police doii. lie is in his nature an 
• nnanK'nlal nhjcct, like a rare llnwer (»r piece of china. 
We do not re<|nire him as a rat killer, and it" he is UL^iy 
his ])()int is entirely ,i;"one. The contempt of preltincss 
which is the ])ri(lc of the averaia^c l^n^iishman may be 
all \ cry well in choosini^ a hunter, hut it is out of i)lace in 
judi^ini;' a lady's j)et. 1 ha\e known sporting- iud.u'es in 
a variety class refuse to look at the i'oy Spaniels in it, 
saying- they hated the useless little thinj^s. A second- 
rate r.ulld(\q; or a third-rate Collie will always he |)rc- 
ferred to a llrst-class I'lenheim, were he the hest that 
e\er li\ed. This is not the ri^iit s])irit in which to judi^e 
variety classes. Honestly speakinj.;-, 1 think \ariety 
classes are ahsurd. There is not one man in five hun- 
dred thousand who is an e(|ually i^ood judge of all the 
hreeds that come he fore him. 

I myself feel thoroughly capable of judging all Toy 
S])aniels, and am equally familiar with Jai)anese, Pek- 
ingese, and Pomeranians, hut T should he very sorry 
indeed to ha\e to judge iViredales or Pohtail Sheej) 

If, however, I had to judge a variety class T certainly 
should not consider it right to turn my hack on the un- 
familiar varieties, saying. " 1 hate the great, clumsy 
things." The less one knows of a breed the more atten- 
tion one should give to it. so as, if possible, to make up 
l)y observation and com])arison for lack of experience. 
A judge's own ])articular fancy in breeds ought not to 
bias him in variety classes. 

.\ contempt of beauty and elegance runs through 
most of modern si)orting life. Take two animals of 
about e(|ual intrinsic merit, one pretty and the other 
useful looking, and the man who judges them will go 


w ^ 
















for the ugly one as sure as fate. He is so afraid of 
being misled by prettiness that he feels safer that way, 
and says to himself: 

" If I have made a mistake, at any rate no one can 
say that I have been taken in by meretricious and super- 
ficial charm." 

To discover hidden merits and astonish the novice 
is a common ambition. I have recently seen several 
judges report on Toy Spaniels as '' too toyish." One 
might as well complain of a cat for being too " pussy- 
isl>." If you are judging toys, the more " toyish " they 
are, the better. I do not consider that any man should 
lay down the points of a lady's toy. The man who 
knows the special requirements of a lady's pet is just 
about as rare as the man who understands needlework 
or lace. Most modern men have an innate impatience 
of useless beauty, and will unconsciously infuse an ele- 
ment of good, useful plainness into any pretty, useless 
dog. The only time where this comes in well is in the 
matter of soundness, which many ladies left to them- 
selves are apt to overlook. I am speaking here of the 
average judge, but there are, of course, geniuses of both 

The essentially masculine view was recently ex- 
pressed by an old fancier in one of the newspapers. 
Asked to state what was the best Toy Spaniel he ever 
remembered, he quoted one long since dead, which he 
said was large and with a bigger head than the present- 
day Toy Spaniels and which was emphatically '' a dog 
and not a pet ! " In speaking of an essentially pet breed, 
this is rather a surprising view, and if the head of the 
dog in question was larger than those of some of our 
modern dogs I can only say that I hope I may never see 


^()^' i)()(;s and thkik axckstoks 

nnc like it ! lie also says that he welcomes the proi^ress 
ot tlie ])resenl-(lay (lo_n" to the hi^'.^er t\])e of old as 
sounder and stronger. 1 ha\e shown that the Toy 
Spaniel type of old was infinitely smaller than ours, 
and that the heads were very small, and I would 
])oint out that size does not always secure S(nuid- 
ness, as some of our hii^i^X'st specimens are (piitc un- 

1 notice thai many of the ])eople who talk most ahout 
soundness do not carry out their theories in the judj^iuj^ 
riuL;-. and as loni;- as they ])Ut up unsound dog's it is of no 
use for them to ])reach soundness. 

1 do not consider the present type of Toy Spaniels 
at all satisfactory. It lacks (piality, especially as regards 
the I'lack-aud-tans and Ruhies. Short necks, protrud- 
ing tongues, roach hacks, llat sides, straight shoulders, 
huUdog" forelegs and weak hindlegs, with cow hocks 
are to be seen everywhere. The King Charles and 
Ruhies are now no longer Toys in any sense of the word, 
and I for one should be sorry to be ol^liged to carry one 
of the a\erage sized show s])ecimens for an Ikhu^ or two 
under my arm. It is not, however, so nuich the size to 
which I object as the want of symmetry and compact-' 
ness, the heavy bone, and the sluggish, shufning gait. 
1 am by no means in favor of excessive smallness when 
it leads to weediness, unsoundness of constitution, and 
general lack of smartness. It is also an almost invari- 
able rule (subject to exceptions, of course) that dogs 
and bitches under six pounds in weight are useless for 
breeding, and 1 think the ideal size is that where the (l(\g, 
though in e\ery sense a Toy. is still strong and vigor- 
ous and cai)al)le of rej)ro(liicing its s])ecies. On the other 
hand, there are at present far too many great, heavy, 


Dorothy Lady Temple, with Tricolour Spaniel 

Sir Peter Lely, about 1670. Photo, E. Walker 


coarse, bull-necked dogs with Bulldog expressions and 
thick, weak legs. 

I am of the opinion that a Toy Spaniel should not be 
nearly so much undershot as is now considered right. 
Exaggeration of all kinds is most undesirable. Heads 
are now often deformed. I will not mention other peo- 
ple's dogs, but, to illustrate what I mean, I refer to the 
photograph of my own dogs, St. Anthony's Marvel and 
his puppy. 

There is, of course, a vast difference between a 
modern noseless King Charles dog with a good ex- 
pression and one with a bad expression, and, if we are 
obliged to breed exaggerations under penalty of retir- 
ing from the shows, we must try to get the modern 
type as perfect as it is capable of being. As matters 
now stand, I should certainly exhibit a dog with a 
sunken nose if I bred it; at the same time I would will- 
ingly lose the result of my labours and give up winning 
with such a dog if the fanciers were to decide that they 
would consistently penalise too ugly a face just as they 
now penalise too long a nose, and if the day were to 
come, as I hope it will, when all deformities would be 
out of the money, I should take my card of Very Highly 
Condemned with the genuine pleasure of a successful 

I hope no one will imagine, however, that I am ad- 
vocating more nose at the cost of quality. Some people 
seem to consider a nose as synonymous with the type 
which Miss Todd calls the " Bottle Nosed Whale," i. e., 
a broad, spatulate, undershot muzzle at the end of a 
long nose. Nothing could possibly be worse than this. 
People have proudly shown me " Marlboroughs " with 
faces fit to make a horse shy, expecting that, as I dis- 



ai)i)r<>\c of llic noseless (k'l'oniiilics, I should hail these 
lonj^-nosed ones with sackhnl and psallery. Xo. Uad 
as the noseless deforniily undouhledly is when it \iolates 
its own rules of proportion, may heaven sa\e us from 
what is now called the Marlhoroui^h! 

Mv remark on distortions will, I am afraid, inevit- 
ahlv be made use of by those who own bad do^^s to up- 
hold the tvi)e they breed because it is not distorted in the 
])articular wa\- 1 ])oint out, but 1 must in advance take 
the precaution of absolutely disowning these people and 
their dogs. There are coarse long-nosed dogs, as well 
as coarse noseless ones. 1 will have none of either of 
them. There are multitudes of wrong types, but only 
two right ones. There are slight variations of type in 
length of nose, with corresponding variations ol skull, 
but, so long as the main essence is the same, the type 
is right. There /////-s7 also be the look of race and 

What is (|ualitv? 1 have often been met with this 
question, asked in the aggriexed tone n\ one who has 
vainly pursued a will-of-the-wisp and feels rather ex- 
hausted and irritable in conse(|uence. 

Oualitv is the most difhcult thing in the world to 
explain to those who do not instinctively recognise it. 
Tt is an intangible something which does not depend 
entirely upon line, but upon a cc^mbination of lines, 
thickness, thinness, width, breadth, depth, curve, etc., 
and their relation to one another; the result producing 
to the e}e, without anv conscious mental effort, a certain 
perfection and ex(|uisiteness without which mere dull 
correctness is lifeless and iminteresting. Tt is the differ- 
ence between coarse linen and fine cambric, (»r, let us 
say, between good and bad cooking, where the ingre- 



dients may all be the same, yet the result right in one 
case and wrong in the other. Dogs may be made of the 
same component points, and yet they may be indefinably 
wrong. Just as you make out recipes for a bad cook 
in vain, you may compile standards till you arc tired. 
Nothing will avail you unless your judge can recognise 

In a brood bitch you require a rather heavier version 
of type than in a dog, as the slightly stronger and 
heavier ones are more suitable for the dangerous work 
of reproducing their species, but in a dog, quality is all 

Why is it that some dogs command enormous prices 
and are constantly being run after, whereas others, per- 
haps bigger winners and possibly more obviously cor- 
rect in points, fail to attract much notice? I think it 
will be found that the dogs which attract big offers from 
the public at large are ones with quality. Quality gives 
a certain brilliance; a dog with quality strikes the eye, 
though he may be doing nothing in particular. You 
may only catch a glimpse of him, or he may be lying 
fast asleep, yet you cannot help noticing him. In move- 
ment he has a certain pride of carriage, a certain exqui- 
siteness of colour, a certain beauty, in fact, which others, 
equally good in points, have not. 

Quality cannot be defined in standards or divided 
into scales, but, like beauty and genius in the human 
race, it must remain forever independent of legisla- 

I have, therefore, all the more at heart the impor- 
tance of rousing our judges to the undoubted advance 
in popularity of a common, vulgar, coarse type. This 
popularity is strictly confined to fanciers; the outside 
16 113 


])ul)lic condc'iiin il instinctixcly. Tlu' fancier's cvc he- 
conics \itialc<l 1)\ loo close a piirsiiil ot points, and he 
needs i)eriodical liftinL;' onl of liiniself so that hv niav 
see the doi^s for a moment with a normal \ision. As it 
is the fanciers who make or mar a type hy what they 
l)reed, it is to the fanciers 1 s])eak. This ai)plies to all 
breeds, but especially to Toy Spaniels. 

Pomeranians have not as yet sufTered much in com- 
l)etition, but 1 must warn breeders in time not to do 
away with tlie sto]). This has been disastrously done 
in other breeds. breeders look at Champion Offley 
Honey Dew and copy him as nearly as they can, and 
they cannot ^o far wroni^^. The carria^^e, body, and 
style of our best Pomeranians cannot be improved, but 
the heads are not often rii^ht, and 1 think tlie modern 
tendency is more towards a wronq^ t}])e than the rij^ht 
one. There is no harm done yet, but breeders should 
look to their heads before it is too late. 

To return to the proper modern Marlborough. The 
]\Iarlboroui;h is a very ])retty little doo-, quite unlike 
these "bottle-nosed whales." It should be cobby, com- 
pact, light in bone, with a small head and pointed nose; 
stop very deep, and skull broad, but not dome-sha])e(l ; 
ears set verv hij^h and carried forward; coat straii:^ht 
and well feathered ; eyes large and black and very wide 
apart; muzzle tapering and nose slightly tilted and 
teeth level, Imt not undershot, and about two and a half 
inches long; back level, tail gaily carried. These dogs 
are most fascinating and ])retty and keen ratters and 
rabbitters. 1 have known them to kill large, fierce 
old rats nearly as big as themselves, which neither bull 
terriers nor fox terriers would face. They work well 
with the gun, but they are too wild, and are apt to get 

1 1 I 


right down rabbit holes, which involves their being dug 

The old-fashioned Marlborough was a very ugly 
dog indeed. He had almost every fault that a dog can 

The best type of modern Marlborough is now so 
rare that the variety has come into great disrepute, 
chiefly because, on account of its scarcity, people began 
to exhibit as Marlboroughs any long-nosed Blenheim 
that could not win in the short-faced classes and was 
neither one thing nor the other as to type. 

In Vero Shaw's " Book of the Dog " there are the 
following notes on the points of the Blenheim, and, as 
they apply to all four varieties, I would exhort all breed- 
ers and judges of the modern type to pay special atten- 
tion to them, as we are departing daily more and more 
from them. I consider that they err on the side of 
exaggeration, but, at any rate, they correct a few of 
our present errors : 

" The under jaw should be wide between tusks and 
well turned up; undershot, but not to show the teeth. 
The stop is wide and deep, as in a fine Bulldog, hut the 
nose should not recede as in that animal. The neck 
should be arched, tail carried gaily, but not over the 

This does not mean, as commonly misunderstood, 
that the tail should not be carried above the level of 
the back, but that it should not be carried over the back, 
like a Pomeranian. A writer in 1759 says of the Toy 
Spaniel : " It should have the tail raised," and ten 
points were awarded for position and set of tail. 
Stonehenge says that the general appearance of the Toy 
Spaniel should be that of " an intelligent, nimble little 


TOY 1)()(^S AND Tinsll? AXC'KSTOKS 

(Inj^ which comhiiR'S acti\it\' with a iliiiiiliiicss pccuHar 
lo s^ood hrc'C(hiiL;" and aristocratic connections." I ask 
my readers lo look round the show benches at the ])res- 
ent Kini;; Charles and Rubies and ask themselves 
whether the majoritw or even the minority, exhibited 
answer to this (lescrii)tion. 

It seems imi)ossible to convey to breeders the fact 
that a doii; can be airy and dainty and nimble, and yet 
be, as Stonehen^e a.^ain has it, " thickset and cobby, 
chest deep and wide, strong legs, short back, arched 
neck, well cut uj) from chest to loin ; the latter should 
be strong and as sturdy as possible." 

Every breeder knows that the large specimens are 
the most satisfactorv to breed from, but they cannot 
1)e considered ideal in the show ring, while absence of 
quality should be considered a bar both for the show 
ring and for breeding, however excellent the dog may 
otherwise be. Toy Spaniels weigh heavily for their 
size. A dog which weighs ten i)Ounds often looks the 
same as a Japanese dog weighing six ]i(^unds. There- 
fore it is a mistake to aim at great lightness in a Toy 
Spaniel. Height would be a far truer test of size. 
Besides this, the anxiety to keep the weight down leads 
breeders into the fatal error of underfeeding their pup- 
pies, with a view to keeping them small. The average 
weight of a two-year-old Toy Spaniel is something 
over one ])ound to the inch of height; they weigh more 
when older. 

The tendency of exhibitions is, of course, to en- 
courage exaggeration of si)ecial ])oinls, and this should 
be strenuously fought against by judges. A dog with 
nostrils actually sunk into the skull is just as far from 
the ])roper lyi)e as one with a nose three inches long. 


Ch. Highland Lad 

Miss H. G. Parlett's Ch. Rosemary Calvert 

Winn, r of 36 First Prizes in America 

Mrs Senn's Ch. SyL:ARE Iace (U.S.A.) 

Mrs Larkings' L'Ambassadelk 

Mrs Matheson's Rosie 


If a sunken nose is right, what becomes of the points 
specially awarded for " stop " ? Providentially, Nature 
asserts itself, and puppies with this deformity usually 
die of cleft palate or some other malformation or dis- 
ease before reaching maturity. Another exaggeration 
is the low placing of the ears. Fashion says the ears 
should be set low, but there should be moderation in all 
things, and it makes a dog ridiculous to have his ears 
set half way down his neck, giving him a silly, goose- 
like expression. The ears should be set forward and 
be irery broad at the joint of the skull. On no account 
should they be set right at the back of the head or be 
very narrow at the top. Historically, highly set ears 
are correct, though not of course absurdly high. 
Wrinkles should be absolutely barred on the face or 

I think that the present scale of points as laid down 
by the Toy Spaniel Club requires total revision. I do 
not know from whence it has been evolved, but there is 
no authority whatever for it in any of the classical 
works on dogs, nor has a search in the British Museum 
revealed any other books from which it could have been 
taken. The standard, however, as set forth by the Toy 
Spaniel Club, is taken from Stonehenge, 1878 edition, 
and contains a statement which no doubt w^as true 
thirty years ago, but is no longer applicable to the 
modern Toy Spaniel, namely, that " there is seldom any 
defect in symmetry." 

The scale of points of the Toy Spaniel Club is as 
follows : 



KiN<; (.'ii.\Ki.i".s AM) Rri'.v and Tku oi.oi'ks 

Syiuimtr\ , coiulitioii. size, ami soundness of limb '. 20 

Head .. 15 

Stop 5 

Muzzle 10 

Eyes 10 

Ears '3 

Coat and feathering 1 5 

Colour 10 


Proportion of head points. 40 to 60. 


Syninietr)-, condition, size, and soundness of limb.. 15 

Head 15 

Stop 5 

Muzzle 10 

Eyes 10 

Ears 10 

Coat and feathering 15 

Colour and markings 15 

Spot 5 

Proportion of head ])oints. 40 to 60. 

Wto Shaw <(ivcs ihc jjoiiUs of the 'l^)y Spaniel as 
follows : 

' The clause as to soundness was introduced on my representations a 
few years ago. 

Mr Cummings' Tricolour Toy Spaniel 
Ch. The Dragon Fly 

Ch. The Troubadour 

Blenheim Ch. Rollo 

Bred by Miss Annie Todd 

Miss Witt's Blenheim Dunrobin Flossie 

Mr Phillips' Ch. King Leopold and 
Lady Maud 

Ch. The Cherub (Left) 
Queen of the May (Right) 

Photo, Russell 


Skull lO 

Stop and squareness of jaw lO 

Shortness of face lo 

Ears lo 

Coat, including colour 30 

Size 10 

General appearance 10 

Body and legs 10 

Proportion of head points, 30 to 70. 

It will be seen that shortness of face was given no 
predominance, all other points being equally important 
except coat, which was three times as important as any- 
thing else. 

The American Toy Spaniel Club adopted McRaper's 
standard, but a short time ago adopted our own, with 
a few slight variations. 

American scale of points: 

Black-and-tan, Tricolours and Red 

Symmetry, condition, and size 20 

Head 15 

Stop 5 

Muzzle 10 

Eyes 10 

Ears 15 

Coat and feathering 15 

Colour 10 

Proportion of head points, 40 to 60. 





Syiiinietry, cuiidition. and >izc 20 

Ik-ad .. .' 15 

^l"l' 5 

Muzzle 10 

i-^y^^ 5 

Ears 10 

Coat and feathering 15 

Colour and markings 15 

^P'^^t 5 


Proportion of head points. 35 tn ()=^. 

Sl<>iK'licn,qe's oldest scale of poiiils in 1867: 

Form of head 10 

Nose and formation of jaw lO 

Eyes 10 

Ears 10 

General coat and texture lO 

Form and compactness lO 

Brillianc} of colour lO 

Feather of legs and feet lO 

Size and weight 10 

Carriage of tail lO 

Proportion of head [ioints, 30 to 70. 

This is the oldest authentic En.c^lish scale of points, 
and, after all is said and done, it is only forty-one years 
old. and the second standard drawn up hy the same 
author with an improved scale of ])oints was twenty 
years more recent still. 


Mrs Weston's Rose of the East 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Privett's Ch. Rococo 

The most valuable blood we have. Photo, Ru.ssel! 


i\lRs l^iNTo Lertes' Nina Ad\'Ocate 
Photo, Russell 

Miss A. Todd's Frederick the Great 


His standard for the Tricolours was as follows: 

Black nose, white muzzle flecked with tan and black ; 
a white blaze or leaf ran up his forehead, cheeks tan, 
and a large red spot over each eye. His collar, belly, 
and legs white, the latter spotted with red or tan and 
black ; the margins of the thighs and tip of his tail white. 
(According to this, Mrs. Percy's present Champion 
Casino Girl would be correctly marked. ) The haunches 
well coated with an abundance of black, white, and tan, 
long, silky straight hair; the tail well " fleud," cropped, 
and jcarried low; the ears very large, drooping, and 
heavily feathered ; the chest and both fore and hind legs 
being well furnished down to the toes, so that the foot 
should be almost hidden in coat. Full, prominent, large, 
weeping eye. Compact. Top zveight six pounds. 

The Black-and-tan came in highest fashion between 
1850 and 1867, and the standard of that date for it and 
the Blenheim is as follows ; 

" Round skull, large, round, prominent eyes, with 
a deep indentation or stop between them. Lower jaw 
short, projecting beyond the upper, and turn up. Large 
ears touching the ground are highly esteemed, but this 
is a figurative expression — drooping close to head and 
thickly coated. Back of all the legs must be densely 
feathered, and the feet must be almost lost in feather, 
which ought to project beyond the nails. Short and 
compact. Tail low. Protrusion of tongue most objec- 

It must be remembered that this standard was Stone- 
henge's own invention. 

Henry Webb, 1872, adds: 

" His coat should be silky, straight, and very abun- 
dant and of the richest colour, the black being a raven 



l)lack and tlu' tan a rich niahoi^any. Where llicrc is 
white mixed it is a demerit. Tlie hlack slioiild 1)e aho- 
i^elher tree trom white. lie should have tan of this 
rich red (|iiality on his cheeks and the inner mari^in of 
the ear. I lis lips should he tan, and he should ha\e a 
spot of the same colour over each eye. The larger the 
spot is. the hetter. His cheeks should he well tanned, 
also his chest or mane, all his lej^^s. his helly, the feather 
of his haunches, his vent, and the under plumai^e of his 

Although Webb says that the coat should be 
straigiit, the i)icture which he j^ives is of a strongly 
wavy coat. 

1he r.lenheim he describes in much the same terms 
as Stonehenge. and e\i(lently drew from him. llis re- 
marks as to colour, however, are different, lie says: 

" The markings of the body are not of very great 
imj)()rtance. provided there is no ])reponderance of 
either colour, and that both are distinct and clear. 
Freckled legs are not in favour ; . . . the fewer of these 
sj)ots the better. The ' red ' should be brilliant and of 
a yW/oTi' or golden lute, by no means ai)i)roaching- the 
deep sienna stain of the Black-and-tan Spaniel or Gor- 
don Setter, and man\' admirable s])ecimens are ot a 
])ositively sandy tone. This colour is not, however, 
I'llenheim colour, which ought to be rich, pure, and 

He gives the following scale of ])oints, which is the 
next oldest Rng-lish scale of i)oints in existence. 1 have 
given the oldest scale of all in my chapter on ( )rigin and 



Blenheim Spaniel in Motion 

Showing perfect feathering and markings 


Henry Webb's scale (1872): 

King Charles ' 

Head 10 

Colour 40 

Feather 10 

Nose and jaw 10 

Eyes 10 

Ears 10 

Texture of coat to 

Comjiactness of form 10 

Size and weight 10 

Carriage of tail 10 

Proportion of head points, 30 to 100. 


Head 15 

Eyes and ears 15 

Coat 10 

Symmetry 10 

Colour 20 

Feathers 10 

Weight 10 

Tail 10 


Stonehenge's second scale of points in Rural Sports, 
1876, is as follows: 



Form of head 15 

Eyes and ears 1 5 

Coat 10 

Compactness and form lO 

brilliant color and spots 20 

Feather legs and feet 10 

Size and weight 10 

Tail and position 10 

Proportion of head points, 22^ to 'j']\. 

The following scale of points, for Black-and-tans 
only, was recently published in the newspapers. It is 
said to be fifty years old, but there is no evidence in the 
matter. Miss Hall. Secretary of the Toy Spaniel Club, 
informs me that it was oriyen her by an old fancier of 
Norwich, Mr. Riches, and that it was drawn up by 
thirty Norwich fanciers. 

It contrasts rather remarkably with Henry \\'ebb's 
scale, as given above, where colour was awarded forty 

Face. — Finish, depth, and width of muzzle and stop 15 

Head. — Height, width, and roundness 10 

Eye. — Darkness, size, and placement to 

Coat. — Length and silkiness to 

Ears. — Length, width, and feathering 15 

Shape. — Compact and low to ground to 

Feet. — Round and full to 

Coi-oui*. — Black with bright tan markings 10 

AIarktngs. — Clean spots over eyes, on each shoulder in front 

of chest, legs, and feather under tail 5 

Tail. — Out straight and well feathe'-ed 5 


Cinematographs of Blenheim Spaniel in Motion 


Stonehenge gives yet another — a third — scale in 

Head 10 

Stop 10 

Nose 10 

Lower jaw 5 

Ears 10 

Eyes 5 

Compactness of shape 10 

Symmetry 5 

Colour 10 

Coat 10 

Feather 10 

Size 5 

Proportion of head points, 40 to 60. 


Stonehenge gives a different scale every time, and 
each is so widely different that he seems to have had no 
very clear idea of what he wanted. 

It is curious to note how his proportion of head 
points increases in eleven years from 225^ in 100 to 
40 in 100. 

On comparing all these scales, it will be seen how 
far removed the present scale is from any of the old 
ones. I have thought over the matter very carefully, 
and consider that the following would be a far better 
one. Condition, symmetry, and size should not be 
massed together, as size is then given too great an 
importance. I have not adhered to 5 and 10 for each 
point with this system, as it is impossible to get the right 
relative value of the points : 

The author's scale of points is as follows: 


'[\)\ DOCS AM) rilKlK AXCKSrOKS 

Kixr. AM) kriiY llLEXniiiMs Truoloi-rs 

Syninictry, condition, and 
^eiHTal appearance, in- 
clutlinj; soundness and 
(luality. also set of tail, 
wliicli should lie carried 

^'aily 20 20 20 

I~^i/.e and ruiene>s of hone. <S 8 8 

i lead an<l stop, including 

muzzle 12 T2 12 

Eyes 10 10 10 

Coat feather and ears. ... 20 20 20 

Colour 10 Colour and Colour and 

nlarkinJ^^s. markings. 

inclu(Hng including 

spot ... 10 s])ot 10 

Action 10 10 10 

I-lxpression 10 10 10 

100 100 100 

I'roportion head jioints. 7,2 to US 32 to ()8 32 to 68 

I'nsoimdncs.s should he an absolute clis(|ualihcatioii 
unless tlic (\o^ is otherwise entirely perfect; but if the 
unsoundness affects the shape, it should dis(|ualify. 


Nose comj^letely sunk into 
an enormous skull with 
strongly projecting un- 
der jaw 50 

Too much under jaw. ... 10 

Too little under jaw 15 

Unsoundness 50 up to complete 100 of disquali- 

Size 20 for 12 in.. 80 for 13 in.. icx5 for 

anything ahove this height. 

llulldog t\pe 100, i.e., dis(|ualitication. 

Blenheim Spaniel in Motion 

Showing prancing movement 


Ugly head and expression 50 

Too great depth of muz- 
zle from nose to chin. 20 

No coat or ears when 

over three years old. . . 50 

White streak on head of 

Black-and-tan 60 to 80, according to size. 

White streak on head of 

Ruby 10 to 20 

Ears set too low 15 

Harsh coat 15 

Oblique eyes 25 

" Excessive timidity 25 

Meyrick, 1842, gives the points of both King Charles 
and Blenheim as follows. This is the first standard of 
the breed: 

'' A short muzzle ; breadth over the eyes. A black 
nose and roof to the mouth, a round head, full, promi- 
nent eyes. The ears close to the head and fringed with 
long silky hair, and a similar kind of hair growing from 
the toes and reaching beyond the claws. In colour the 
King Charles should be of a rich black-and-tan, but 
some of them have white markings. The Blenheim 
is white, with markings or patches of red or yellow, red 
being the preferable colour, but there should be no white 
on the ears or head except a short streak running up 
from the nose between the eyes. The weight of these 
dogs varies from four to seven pounds. The smaller 
they are the more they are prized, but the King Charles 
is seldom less than five or six pounds. 

" It has long been the habit of London fanciers to 
cross the breed, when, strange to say, the litter is always 
composed of puppies some of which have the distinctive 
markings of the King Charles and some of the Blen- 



liciiii breed. Tlie object of the cross is to ^et a smaller 
Kiiii:- Charles by a mixture of Blenheim blood." ^ 

A »;reat deal more attention should be L;iven to all- 
round excellence, as opposed to what I ma\- call local 
excellence; but most judg^es think only of the head, or 
we may even say of the shortness of nose, and foro^et 
the body which sujiports it; and chami)ionships have 
occasionally been awarded without the doos beinc^ even 
walked once round the rini;'. Action is a terribly 
nei^lected thins;-. It should be li.^ht and sprins^y. and 
the (loo- should be smart and alert, and not crint^^ini^^. 
lie should be bold and active, takinj; siiuilL (piick steps, 
and ha\inL;- a prancini;'. rocking-horse movement, not 
that, howexer. of the Italian (ireyhound. as recently 
suo-^ested by a foreign writer. The action should not 
be lar_<;e. loose, or slo\enly. but C()mi)act and smart, and 
the tlos;- should jump about and be full of life and vii^our. 
A Toy Spaniel should be built like a miniature cob. yet 
when he dances about and plays on a lawn he should 
look as lij;ht as a handful of thistledown blown about 
by the wind. This is the ideal movement, and has only 
to be seen once to leave a lastinq- impression even on 
those most ignorant of the breed. 1 ha\e said that a 
Toy Spaniel should be bold. l^xcessi\e timiditv, except 
in a youui;- ])U])py. is a serious fault, and should j^o 
a,i;ainst a doj^' in the rini;'. It is impossible for anv iudi^^e 
to examine the body and mo\ement of a doi;" which sits 
shiveriuL;' and walks all huddled u]). with it^ tail invisi- 
ble, and an expression of terror in its face. 

I lia\e the s^reatesl objection to Tov Spaniels beinj:^ 
timid. 1 like what is called '" a merry little shower " 
— a doij' who comes into the rim*' as if the whole shmv 

^ This is incorrect. 




I. Bad Shoulder II. Good Shoulder 

Compare A with B in each of the figures, which are purposely exaggerated to accentuate the difference 


belong-ed to him and appears to enjoy it thoroughly. 
An excessively timid dog should l)e penalised, as it 
means a mental defect or affection of the nerves, which 
is generally hereditary, or else is caused by bad treat- 
ment on the owner's part, in which case, by losing his 
prize, he learns to treat his dogs better for his own 
sake. 1 am talking, of course, of adult, fully developed 
animals, not of puppies, as one cannot expect them to 
show well. T do not, however, approve of puppies being 
shown at all unless exceptionally strong and bold. 1 
defest a sluggish dog who takes no interest in life, or 
an imbecile who sits down in a heap, with his ears 
thrown back, and will have his head pulled off sooner 
than move, or slinks across the ring with liis l)ack 
humped up and his tail tightly jammed between his legs. 
It is impossible to judge of the shape of a dog of this 
kind, as one has to judge by allozvanccs and by an imag- 
inary picture of what the dog would be if he was quite 
different from what he appears. A judge should only 
be called upon to judge dogs by what they actually are 
in the ring, and to be told that '* you should just see him 
at home " is no help. It is excessively irritating, 1 know, 
to an exhibitor to find his dog suffering from stage 
fright, but unless the dog is radically a fool he will get 
over this if he is not shown too young. If he docs not, 
he deserves to lose. 

Some of our dogs are now so dei)lorably narrow- 
chested that their fore feet actually touch each other 
when standing; the backs are not level, and the dogs 
stand something in the attitude described in veterinary 
books as denoting incipient colic — the back arched, the 
stomach drawn up, and the tail tucked in. T am sure my 
readers will recognise the justice of this picture. I do 


'V()\ 1)()(;S AM) rilKlK ANCKSrOKS 

not iliink niir roportors know what a i^^od 1')Ocly should 
I)c, as 1 so often see hiLih-runiped, narrow-chested, 
pii^eon-breasted, straiij^ht-sliouldered doi^s spoken of as 
•* j^rand-lxxHed " ones. The modern shoulders are very 
straii^ht, and 1 strons^ly object to " ewe " necks. People 
may sav. " What do straii;ht shoulders matter in a pet 
doc:, as he is not a race horse? " To this I rej^ly, firstly, 
that a straii^ht shoulder is very ugly: secondly, that it 
spoils the movement and takes away from the pride of 
carria£::e which a do"; should have. Vnv an instance of 
a straii^ht shoulder. ])lease look at illustrations. 

I once had a Blenheim doQf with a very bad shoulder. 
This do.e: was continually falling upstairs — /. c, missing 
its footing and knocking its teeth out against the step 
above. It lost all its front teeth in this way. Another 
one with the same, defect not only fell ui)stairs. but 
varied it by falling downstairs. 1 lo once fell down a 
night of twentv steps and nearly killed himself, and all 
<»n account of this wretched shcnilder; and 1 don't see 
why pet dogs should fall downstairs any more than 
other dogs. 

A \ery ugly formation of muzzle, n<wv very C(^m- 
mon in Pdack-and-tans and Rubies, is the excessive 
de])th from the top of the nose to the under jaw. This 
is often accompanied by drooping lips and tear stains 
under the eyes. 

A i)oint that is greatly misunderstood is the proper 
formation of the modern Toy Si)aniers muzzle. A Toy 
Spaniel's nuizzle should not be flat on each side of the 
nose with a depression under each eye. The muzzle 
should be so thoroughly well cushioned u]) on each side 
of the nose that the nose should look almost embedded 
in fur, especially when the dog i^ exceedingl\- short in 


.-' "wi^^'y-^ ^vir^'' 

Mrs Lytton's Ch. The Seraph and Lady Hilton's Ch. Joy 

(Xote arch of nui//li-.) Photo, RusstU 

Miss Young's Tricolour Toy Spaniel Ch. Lord Vivian 


face. When looked at in front the outHne of the muzzle 
should form a perfect arch, which puffs out on each side 
of the nose, the topmost curve almost — sometimes quite 
— touching the underlids of the eyes. It will he noticed 
that when the " cushions " of the muzzle are properly 
developed the whiskers stick straight up out of them, 
like pins out of a pincushion. The under jaw must not 
protrude right out beyond the upper lip. The under 
teeth should just overlap the upper ones comfortably, 
but the nose should not recede, leaving the under jaw 
sticking out in Bulldog fashion, even if the teeth do not 
show. This is an exaggeration which is very ugly and 
now quite common. The whole face of a Toy Spaniel 
should have a round, chubby, furry appearance, and a 
sweet, pretty, lively expression, with no lines, furrows, 
or irregularities of outline. If a muzzle is the proper 
shape, there are practically no marks of tears on it, as, 
even if the " lachrymal duct is weak " (as stated in the 
Toy Spaniel Club standard), the tears running out on 
a rounded surface cannot lodge so as to form stains. 
Some dogs have a pretty habit of tucking in the upper 
lip on one side of the muzzle, which gives a very pleas- 
ing expression. Please refer to the photograph of 
Champion The Seraph to illustrate what I mean about 
the arch of the muzzle. 

The eyes must be set absolutely straight — i. e., hori- 
zontally — and should also be set very low down, being on 
a level with the nose when viewed straight in front — 
i. e., the top of the nose should be level with the top of 
the eyes. The skull should be perfectly round, on no 
account peaked or flat at the top, and the ears, as I have 
already said, should not be exaggeratedly low. In my 
opinion, Cottage Flyer's ears are set much too low and 


'Vi)\ DOCS AM) 'l'ni":il{ AXCKSTOKS 

too far I)ack (set- pliolo^rapln ; ilu-y sliouM liaiii;" for- 
ward, and not l)c tlirown hack and carried almost inside 
out, as in sonic specimens. I tliink also that Champion 
Red Clover's muzzle is exaj^i^Ljerated, hut she has a pretty 
exi)ression in spite of it. .\s an example of ])reltily set 
ears, a perfect skull, and eyes set splendidly wide apart, 
very low and i)erfectly strai.e^ht, and a heautiful expres- 
sion, see the photoi^raph of Mrs. Matthews's Roscoe; 
this is the modern type at its hest. If y(ni examine 
the ans^le of Roscoe's eyes, as compared to those of 
Wee Dot, you will see that the former's eyes are much 
more perfectly set than the lattcr's, as they are (|uite 
level, whereas Wee Dot's eyes are very slii^htly ohlique. 
.\n untrained ohserver would not notice this defect, hut 
it is there all the same, and is very noticeahle when 
exa.q;,^"erated, s^ivini;" an unpleasinj^" ex])ression. Many 
good dojT^s are spoiled hy this fault. 

As an ideal, T consider that the very hroad muzzle 
is not ri£i;"ht. hut icifli some types of 'I'ery sJiort nose it 
is rin^ht to have s^ood breadth, as a noseless (\oij^ with a 
narrow muzzle is not often i^retty. At the same time 
the expression of a ho^ or toad nuist he axoided. Any- 
thin^s^ in the world is better than that. 

In judi^ini;; a youni;" doi;'. it must not l)e t*orjT;"otten 
that the head coarsens and thickens very much with 
a.c^e, so that a youn.c^ do^ with a slic^ht coarseness will 
be three times as coarse in two years' time. It is. there- 
fore, necessary that youn^' do^s should err somewhat 
on the ^ide of over-elei^'ance rather than he too stroni;' 
in ty|)e. 

1 recently saw a Toy Sp.'Uiiel pupj)y advertised as 
haviui^ " no nose, the tightest of screw tails, and a 
thoroughly wrinkled face"; so this is what we are 

j^V oyniKIX I T^^^^^J 

Right and Wrong Types of Muzzle and Evps 


■pmi^ 1 


^^ 1 





_,..., ,- 



k , 

ij^f^^J ^1 

Noseless Atrocity bred by the Author 

Cottage Flyer, U.S.A. 

Perfect Blenheim " Spot " 

Toy Spaniel Marvel 

Showing Bulldog type 


coniinj^^ to — a Toy Si)aniel with a wrinkled face! This 
is, indeed, a mhaslly evolution from the lovely Watteau 

In looking- at a doi;" full faee, his eyes should not 
he set so that they seem to he round the corner of his 

Whether the noses are loni^- or short, the doi;- nurst 
he " u])-face(l " — that is to say, that there must he an 
upward tilt to the end of the nose. Without this the 
ex])ression cannot jxissihlv he ri^ht, no matter how the 
rest of the head is constructed. This can he overem- 
phasized, like every other point, as where the hnish is 
so excessive that the top of the nose reaches alwve the 
level of the to]) of the eyes. This, however, is a less 
objectionahle fault than the down-face. The expres- 
sion cannot he right, either, if the eyes are in any way 
obli(|ue or crooked. 

To test the straig"htness of your doq-'s eyes, put your 
head on a level with his and look him full in the face 
zvlicii lie has his eyes sliut. Carry an imat^inary hori- 
zontal line throui^h his nostrils. The slits of the closed 
eyes should he perfectly horizontal. Tf they deviate in 
any way whatever from it, they are wrong". 

For Blenheims and Tricolours smutty faces covered 
with brown specks are most disfiguring, and should 
not be encouraged. The muzzle should be pearly white 
and clean and entirely free from any admixture of 
brown or black hairs. 

A glance at the representation, in Cassell's book, of 
Mr. Naves's King Charles, Covent Garden Charlie, 
will show how much the modern type has altered for the 
worse. It will also be seen that the tan was very bright 
and extended right over the muzzle, and that the feet 



and tVatlicrini;- were also 1)ri.q;ht rod. 'I1ic do.i;- is full 
of a slvlc and (lualilv which is almost unknown in the 
])resenl day Kini^ Charles, and the same ai)i)lies to Mr. 
Xaves's Ruhy, " She])perl." Where do we see such 
ears nowadays? 

I would here point out that the coats of Toy Si)aniels 
are heini; ruined hy the craze for ahsolutely strai.^ht 
hair, which has hrou^ht upon us from America the 
accusation of resorting to Japanese crosses in order to 
secure the fashionahle coat. Now even the Toy Spaniel 
Club says that a Toy Spaniel's coat should he " soft, 
silkv, profuse, and zi'az'V." There is no dou])t whatever 
in mv mind thai the oriiij^inal ancestor of the lilack-and- 
tan was curly. The tendency there is in the l)reed to 
revert to curly coats is most marked. The deplorable 
result of the modern ragi^e for straii^ht coats is that they 
now are neither silkv, soft, nor jirofuse, and one sees 
doj^s come into ihe rini;' with harsh, spiky coats, or, more 
often, no coat at all. 1 wish breeders and judi^es would 
remember that the chief object of a i)et do^- is that the 
coat should l)e as soft as swansdown, and that there 
should be f^lcuty of if. 

W hen jud^ini;-, 1 have been astonished at the hard- 
ness of some of the 'Vox Si)aniel coats; they mis^ht have 
been Terriers. Instead of the deliciously soft and silky 
fur which should be there, one meets with a substance 
more like Harass or hay than hair. A Toy Spaniel's 
coat should feel like a mixture of lloss silk and swans- 
down; it should not feel like human hair under the 
fmj^ers, nor should the body coat be short, like that of 
a horse, and it must not be fapanese, either. This last 
form of a coat is a snare to iudi;"es, as it is \ery pretty, 
and. thou.L;h infinitely ))referable to no coat at all, is abso- 


Various Positions of the Eyes of a Toy Spaniel when Shut 

1 hu one marked -Jt shows the proper position 

Outlines from Photographs of a Bulldog and a Noseless Ruby Spaniel of 
THE Bulldog Type showing Likeness in 1'ormation of Skull 


Ititely wrong", unless we wish to go right back to the 
Chinese ancestor. This coat probably does come from 
the Japanese crosses, or is a throw-back. There was 
a similar coat in the breed of Toy Spaniel mentioned by 
Buffon, of which I have only been able to trace one 
specimen in England. This was a very interesting 
stuffed dog, about one hundred years old, which I had 
the pleasure of examining. It was black and white, with 
faint tricolour markings over the eyes ; the nose mod- 
erately short, very pointed and tapering; the ears im- 
mensely long and twisted into ornamental tassels, and 
about thirty inches from tip to tip. The bones were very 
fine and small, and the coat exactly similar to that of a 
Japanese dog. This specimen also had a perfect spot 
about the size of a shilling on its head; it was the pre- 
cise type of Buffon's Epagneul, only larger, being about 
twenty pounds in weight. 

Most of our dogs now are suffering from an inbred 
degeneracy of the hair follicles, and, if we want to save 
the breed from getting universal rat coats and losing 
the long, characteristic feathering beyond recall, my 
strong advice is to breed from the few profusely coated 
specimens which we have and leave the poor-coated 
specimens severely alone. Never mind curls; they are 
a sign of a strong growth of hair and a healthy skin. 
Curly coated dogs are, in my experience, infinitely less 
liable to skin diseases than those with straight coats. 
The growth of hair upon Toy Spaniels is getting weaker 
and weaker. Almost all the dogs whose coats are per- 
fectly straight have a type of coat which is of an en- 
tirely wrong texture, and I consider that a perfectly 
straight coat should be penalized for this reason. Coats 
should be very wavy and very soft, not wiry and 


'^()^' DOCS AM) riiKiK .wc ivsi'ous 

straii^lu. riic coats ol' our prcscni Ruhy Spaniels arc 
most ol)jcclional)lo. 

Sjicakinjj^ of the lilcnhcini, Dalzicl says llial il slioiild 
not he curly, and inherits this fault from the Kinj^ 
Charles ( /. c, the lUack-and-lan ). so he exidenlly knew 
that the Kini;- C'harles I'lack-and-tan was a curly doij;', 
though he persists in advocating' that its coat should he 

A writer in iSoJ speaks of the Kint;- Charles as 
beiuLi' " small, hlack. and curly." 

An old hreeder tells me that forty years a.c^o the Toy 
Spaniels had coats which swept the j^Tound, with im- 
mense ears and frills, but that they were often curly 
or very wavy. 

1 have been informed by experts on the subject that 
the formation of curly and straii^^ht hair is entirely dif- 
ferent; and that a straii^ht hair, examined under a 
stronj^ ma,q;nifvinj;" q'lass will be seen to be round, like 
a tube, whereas curl\- hair is llat. like a blade of i^rass, 
and has much the stronj^est growth of the two. In the 
only instance when I took the trouble to verify this 
statement 1 found it to be correct, but I will not be re- 
sponsible for its scientific accuracy, as I cannot gen- 
eralise on a single instance. 

The standard of the Toy Spaniel as given by Stone- 
henge in 1887. and adopted, with certain alterations, by 
the Toy Spaniel Club, is as follows, according to Stonc- 
hengc and Dalziel : 

" Head should be well domed, and in good speci- 
mens is absolutely semi-globular, sometimes even ex- 
tending beyond the half circle and absoluteh- projecting 
over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose. 

" Ilxcs. — The eyes are set wide apart, w ith the eye- 

1 V^ 

\\lM> |•A1U^■ 

St Anthony's Wee Dot 

Championship Winner 

Ch. The Bandi ■ij.i;i i 

Winner of 6 Championships anil 62 Firsts 

Fairy Windfall 

Puppy, 2 Months old Northamptox WHm.)].!; 

Some of Mrs Lytton's Toy Spaniels 


lids square to the line of the face — not o1)lif|ue or fox- 
like. The eyes themselves are lar,c,-e and dark as pos- 
sible, so as to be g-enerally considered black, their enor- 
mous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, in- 
creasing the description. There is nearly always a cer- 
tain amount of weeping shown at the inner angles : this 
is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct." (This is 
not in the original text, but taken from Mr. Berrie's 
points of the Blenheim. ) ^ 

The last paragraph is omitted by the American Toy 
Spaniel Club. 

" Stop. — The " stop " or hollow between the eyes is 
well marked, as in the bulldog, or even more so; some 
good specimens exhibit a hollow deep enough to bury 
a small marble. 

" Nose. — The nose must be short and well turned 
up between the eyes, and without any indication of arti- 
ficial displacement afforded by a deviation to either side. 
The colour of the end should be black, and it should be 
both deep and wide, with open nostrils. A light-col- 
oured nose is objectionable, but shall not disqualify." 

It must be remembered that this is only twenty-one 
years old, and was invented by Stonehenge, who had no 
historical authority even for his first standard, in 1867. 

" Jaii'. — The muzzle must be square and deep, and 
the lower jaw wide between the branches, leaving plenty 
of space for the tongue and for the attachment of the 
lower lips, which should completely conceal the teeth. 
It should also be turned up or ' finished ' so as to allow 
of its meeting the end of the upper jaw, turned up in a 
similar way, as above described. A protruding tongue 
is objectionable, but does not disqualify. 

' The sooner we get rid of this defect the better. 


TON DOCS AM) rill'JU A \ ( IvS !'( )KS 

" luirs. — I he cars imisl \)v loiiLi'. so as to approadi 
the i;roiin(l. In an avL' iloi;' tlioy incasurc 
twciily iiirhos from tip to tip, and some reach twenty- 
two inches or ext-n a trillc more. They slionld l)e set 
low ' ilown on the head and hani;' llat to the side of tlie 
cheeks, and hi- hea\ ily I'ealhered. In this last respect tlie 
r>lack-and-tan is expected to exceed the I'lenheim, and 
his ears occasionally extend to twenty-fonr inches. 

" Si.::c. — The most desirahle size is from seven 
pounds to ten pounds.-' Dal/iel sa\s: ' In si/e hoth \ary 
from five pounds to ten ])ounds, the smaller the hettcr. 
// oflicn^'isc Tv'(7/ f^rol^ortioiicd.' 

" Slia/^r. — In compactness of shape these Spaniels 
almost ri\al the Puj^'' ^'^^^ l^i'-' length of coat adds ^Teatly 
to the apparent hulk, as the hody. when the coat is 
wetted, looks small in comparison with that doi^". Still, 
it oui^ht to he decidedly * cohhy,' with strong, stout lei;s. 
short. hr(\'id hack, and wide chest. The symmetry o\ 
the Kini;" ("harles is of importance, hut it is seldom that 
there is an\- defect in this respect. ■"' 

" Coat. — The coat should he loni^-, silky, soft, and 
wavy, hut not curly. In the rdenheim there should he 
a jirofuse mane, extending;' well down in the front o\ 
the chest. The featlu-r sIkhiKI he well displayed on the 
ears and feet, .and in the latter case so thickly as to i^ive 
tlie appear.'uice of heiuL;' wehhed. Tt is also carried well 
up the hacks of the lei^s. In the I'lack-and-tan, the 
featlier on the ear is \erv Iimil;" and profuse, exceeding" 
that of the I'lenheim hy ;ui inch or more. The feather 

' Tliis tias no fi)mi(l;itioii in liistory. 

-' TIk' ,\nu'ri(.-;m Toy .S))anii-1 C'tuli liax the wiijilit from tiim- to twilvc 

' Tlu- last paranr.ipli omiitid Itv AnuTican Toy Spaniel I'lnh. 


Mks liARBER's 'J'llH MlC:i<f JliKs' AtOM 
Sin;, Cli Till- H:iii<loliTO 


Mjss Hall's J<ijiiY Si'ami.l ( ii. I<o\'al J<ip 


on the tail (which is cut to the len.s:th of ahoiit three and 
a half or four inches) should be silky and from four 
to six inches in length, constituting a marked flag of a 
square shape, and not carried above the level of the 
back." ^ (This is quite incorrect.) 

'' Colour. — The colour varies with the variety. The 
Black-and-tan is a rich, glossy black and deep mahogany 
tan ; tan spots over the eyes, and the usual markings on 
the muzzle, chest and legs are also required. 11ie Ruby 
is a rich chestnut red, and is whole coloured. The 
presence of a few white hairs, infcniii.vcd ivitli tJic black 
on the chest of a Black-and-tan, or intermixed zvith the 
red on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel, should carry weight 
against a dog, but shall not in itself absolutely dis- 
qualify ; but a white patch on the chest or white on any 
other part of a Black-and-tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be 
a disqualification. The Blenheim must on no account 
be whole-coloured, 1)ut should have a ground of pure, 
pearly white, with bright, rich chestnut or ruby mark- 
ings evenly distributed in large patches. 

" The ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze 
of white extending from the nose up the forehead, and 
ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. Tn the 
centre of this blaze at the top of the forehead there 
should be a clear " spot " of red, of the size of a six- 
pence. Tan ticks on the fore-legs and on the white 
muzzle are desirable." The Tricolour should in j)art 

1 The American Toy Spaniel Club, as quoted by Field and Fancy, 
give the length of the tail one and one half inches and the length of the 
feather only three to four inches. 

- This last phrase is taken from Berries' points of the r)k'nhcim and 
omitted by the American Toy Spaniel Club. They should be very slight 
and few in number, and on no account so thick as to give the face a 
dirty appearance, as this is most disfiguring. Their desirability is donbtful. 

rov i)oc;s and tiikik axckstoks 

have the tan of the lilack-and-tan. with markings like 
tlic lilcnhc'ini in black instead of red on a pearly- 
while ground. riie ears and under die tail should 
also he lined with Ian. The Trieolom' has no ' spot.' 
that l)eant\ hein^" pecnliarh' the ])ro])erty of the I'.len- 

" 'That in fntnre all Red Kini;' Charles he known hy 
the name of Rnhx' S])aniels. the colour of the nose to he 
hlack. The points of the l\nh\- to he the same as those 
of the l')lack-and-tan. dilTerinf;" only in colour." 

It would seem that when this was written the red 
\ariety was still a no\elty, and that the law as to its 
colour was made hy the Toy Spaniel ( "Inh. The law as 
to the white hairs or patches upon the Kini;' Charles and 
Ruhy is a purely arbitrary one, and is not found in 
Oal/.iel. the whole of the para,q"ra])h ahout the Ruhy and 
the white hairs on the chest of a Rlack-and-tan heini:^ 
interpolated, presumably by the Toy S])aniel Club to- 
i^ether with the laws as to what should disqualify a doi^. 
This is not historically correct, and T see no reason why 
iudp^es and breeders who are not members of the Toy 
S])aniel Club and therefore not bound to sujiport its 
ideas should i)av the least attention to it. and. in fact, 
the iud|L;es at other shows than those held in London, 
and who are not chosen by the Toy Si)aniel Club, are 
not hampered b\- any such red tape, and often award 
the ])ri/es to Rubies marked witli while. In my o])inion 
tlie unbroken Reds or Blacks are (|uite unnatural, and a 

' This statement is contradicted hy a coloured plate of i8io, which 
represents a Tricolour Toy Spaniel with a perfect spot; also a stuffed 
specimen I have seen of ahout iSoo which has a perfect spot. Mrs. Lister 
Kaye hred last June, l)y one of my dogs, a Tricolour with a perfect spot, 
and there is a Dutch picture of if)6o of a Black-and while with the spot. 
I h.ivi- at present a Iiilch witli ihe spot. 


Wife of Philippe i.e Roy 

Vandyck, Genoese Period, 1623. Wallace Collection. Photo, Mansell 


rule prohibiting all white leads inevitably to much dis- 
honesty and faking, and is, therefore, undesirable. 

The Black-and-tan had originally a white breast, 
and, the Ruby l^eing manufactured by crosses of Black- 
and-tan and Blenheim, the struggle to breed out the 
white does an infinity of harm to other much more im- 
portant points, and is most detrimental to soundness 
and stamina. Beyond the white breast, the Black-and- 
tan should not have white on the head or body, but the 
Ruby should not be penalised for white on chest or feet, 
but a white patch on the body as well should disqualify 
either variety, and white on the head of a Ruby should 
be penalised on the lines I have already set out under 
" ]:)enalties," unless we decide to show all dogs with 
white on the head in classes for " any other colour," 
which I think would be best. In my opinion, the Ruby 
may have light shadings, breast feathering and breech- 
ings very light, shading ofif and deepening into the body 
colour, with or without white tips to the toes. The orig- 
inal King Charles, I believe, was varied by orange with 
white shadings. ^ 

To this I must add a word or two about the colour 
of the present Tricolour. Almost all our best dogs are 
heavily loaded with black, and until I had studied the 
question of colour I was inclined to think that the outcry 
against them was justified. It will, however, be evident 
from a study of my table of colours that these black- 
backed Tricolours are the first outcome of the cross by 
which the colour is created, and that a second and third 
cross back to Red-and-white eliminates the heavy mark- 
ings altogether. It is, therefore, not a disaster, as it is 
sometimes considered, but merely shows that the breed- 
ers are exhibiting the first cross instead of the second, 



as the first cross is shorter in nose tlian the second. In 
the jT^eneration C there is always one hcaxily marked 
Tricolour to each well marked one (perhaps more), and 
the heavv markin,<^s. screw tail, and noseless head are 
g'enerallv what are called co-related characters. As 
ris^htly marked ones are only a (juestion of the nnmher 
of Red-and-white crosses, these heavy markings arc 
easily p^ot rid of. At the same time 1 do not consider 
that these heavy markings are desirable in the show 
rini;-. These dos^s are very like the chrysalis from which 
butterflies are to come, and should not be considered as 
perfect butterflies. 

There is a great tendency with breeders and judges 
to be run away with against their better judgment by a 
fancy tyjK which for some unknown reason becomes 
popular. Of late years, for instance, flat-sided, flimsy 
"Japanese" coated dogs have been the fashion and 
have fetched big prices for their short faces, (|uite 
eclipsing the more ty]Mcal specimens in the prize lists. 
This is, however, not likely to permanently affect the 
breed, as this t\])e is constitutionally delicate, and is 
also in the highest degree ejihemeral and breeds out in 
a couple of generations. Our serious danger among 
Toy Sjianiels lies in the latest i)hase, namely the Hulldog 
type, which, starting with I'lack-and-tan and Kubies, 
is gradually invading the " broken colours " as well, and 
if allowed to spread will destrov the 1)reed, as it is a 
persistent, prolific, and dominant type, almost impossi- 
ble to breed out when once a strain is contaminated by 
it, especially as it jirobably comes from a cross. This 
coarse, large, heavy-boned, vulgar caricature of a breed 
which should be fairy-like and ex(|uisite is gaining 
ground more and more, owing to its short face and 


Different Types of Head 

1. Bulldoglype. Short " down "-face. Flat skull. Tear marks. Eye small and obliquely set. Exaggerated under jaw. Wrinkles. 

2. Good skull. Short down-face. Imperfect finish. Ear set much too low. 

3. Good head. Cllobular skull. Short up-face. Ear correctly placed and wide at the top. Note crest and position of eye. 

4. A common type of " monkey "-face. Skull peaked. Nose long and narrow. 

5. Bulldog type. Wrinkled down-face. Eye small. Ear too far hack and bad leather. Muzzle disproportionately large and heavy. 

6. .Skull too high. Ear set too high. Nose too straight. 

7. Nose too long. Skull flat. Wrone type. 8. Ear set too far b.ack (compare 3). 
9. A common winning modern type. Very short face. Ears too low and too far back. Eye set obliquely. Droopnig muzzle. Bad 

expression. Note excessive distance between the corner of the eye nearest the ear and thecornerofthe mouth which droops, 
ro. Modern noseless type. Good expression. _ , -cm 

12 Exaggerated modern type. Bad expression. 11. Exaggeratedly wide under jaw. Good head. Frog s expression. Small eyes. 
13. Ditto. With pig eyes. > 


prominent jaw, over which judges have gone (let us 
hope temporarily) crazy. No doubt they vv^ill soon see 
their error, and the type will lapse into the disrepute 
which it deserves, but meanwhile grievous and possible 
irreparable damage may be done to our dogs. 

We do not want to breed Bull-spaniels any more 
than Jap Spaniels, neither do we want noseless cripples, 
or animals with heads like a Dutch cheese, or dogs like 
the deformed " golliwogs " which have recently been 
suqJi a favourite present for children. The result of 
the spread of the Bull-spaniel type, without regard to 
general prettiness and beauty of expression, is that only 
trained experts can see any attraction in the breed, and 
that Toy Spaniels decrease yearly in popularity with 
the outside pulilic. Heavy, massive, ugly animals will 
never be popular as pets ; what people want is a pretty, 
intelligent, dainty, lively little pet, with lots of fluff and 
feather, and not a burglar's terror, and as long as we 
persist in breeding these burglar's terrors, as evidence 
of our skill in outdoing our neighbours in special points, 
so long will our Toy Spaniels be a byword for gro- 
tesqueness with the general public, and appeal to none 
but specialists, or possibly to the children who have been 
trained to " golliwogs." 

The more noseless a Spaniel is, the more delicate 
his lines should be. The curves must be extraordinarily 
subtle so as not to ofifend the eye. Remember, there are 
only two canons of proportion possible in a noseless 
type; one is that of the Bulldog, and the other that to 
which the Japanese type is the nearest approach. Any- 
thing w^hich deviates from the laws of proportion be- 
longing to these two types is a mathematical abomina- 
tion. In one the curves are all strong and rugged, 



massixc. heavy, and impressive: in the other ihev slionld 
all he mnnd. solt, lull, delicate, and ex(|iiisite. llolh 
are e<|ually syninietrical accordinj^' lo their canons, hut 
mix the two, and yon pi'ct an antagonism of line which 
sets your teeth on ed^e. 

'i'here are certain laws ot" proportion which must he 
ohserxed. N On cannot ha\e a hii^h skull whicli is nar- 
row, or lari^e eyes set close, or an enormously 
hii^li dome witli ears too low to furnish it. Vow cannot 
have the under jaw of a i)rizeri,i;hter on the face of a 
cherul). The fault with hreeders is the fault of all 
modern art workers, that they are always trying- to 
imitate one thini;- with another, and are not content to 
dexelop each thing- along its own lines of ])erfection. 
The water colourist is always trying to make his work 
look like an oil painting, the cement worker is not satis- 
fied unless he gets a suhstance to look like stone. Deal 
boards must imitate oak, silk is made to look like fiu*, 
and everything is made to appear something which it 
is not. 

The result of all this is inferiority in everything. 
The imitation is never equal to the thing it imitates, 
whereas if its own possibilities were develo])ed it would 
excel in its own line. If, however, you set out to imitate 
oil with water colour or stone with cement, xou can only 
achieve success by observing the laws which govern oil 
paint and stone, and acting accordingly The King 
Charles I'.lack-and-tan Tov Spaniel, by rights, should 
not be noseless, and if we are determined to make it 
something which is not natural to it. we must make it 
conff)rm to the j)roper proportions of the noseless tyi)e. 

In his own line the lapanese dog conforms to these 
laws. The Japanese dog may or may not be naturally 

144 Bowr., Taokwang Pehiod, 1820 

By permission of Frau Olga Wegener 


noseless, but, even supposing he has been evolved from 
a larg'e pt^inted-nosed ancestor, which T emphatically 
do not believe, we must remem1)er that the Ja])anese 
have the j[>enius for producing" dwarfed specimens with- 
out j[^rotesr|ueness or distortion, as may l)e seen in their 
dwarf cedars, orange trees, and other miniature 
growths. These dogs have also been short in face for 
centuries, at any rate, and l)reed true to type. The 
appearance of the noseless Japanese dog is not de- 
formed. His short face settles into natural graceful 
cui'ves, each harmonising with the other. The feathery 
tail, the ])rou(l carriage and crest all make circular 
curves agreeing with circular curves of head, eyes, and 
muzzle. If we must make all our Toy Spaniels nose- 
less, they must, as I have said, conform to the laws 
which govern the noseless type evolved by masters 
whose artistic genius we are never likely to excel. 
There are no two roads to follow, and fanciers must 
fairly make up their minds on the matter. People 
talk of Japanese crosses. It is not necessarily a cross 
which makes some of our Toy Spaniels recall this 
breed. It is merely the evolution of the noseless type to 
its proper canons of proportion. Some fanciers are cer- 
tain that the evolution and reversion have been helped 
out by surreptitious crosses, in which matter they may 
be wiser than T am, but I would point out that the word 
" Jappy " is used much too loosely among fanciers. I 
have heard the word applied to dogs with P>ulldog under- 
jaws! As a rule, everything small, lightly marked, and 
with a straight, flaky coat, is called Jappy. When I 
speak of the Japanese type, I do not mean what is pop- 
ularly called " Jappiness," and before people talk of a 
Ja])])y type they should study the points of the Japanese 


'[\)\ 1)()(;S AM) rilKlH ANC KSTOUS 

Spaniel. The Japanese recos^nise llial, in order lo make 
a noseless type jjossihle. it must be diniinntive. delicate, 
and ex(|uisile. I'.nlar^e this type and y<»u will L^et i;ro- 
test|ueness. Think of a noseless Toy Spaniel on the 
scale o\ a rhinoceros. What more terrifying-, hideous 
monster could be i)roduced? Try and imaiiine my own 
C"h. W indfall as bi^- as an ele]>hanl. This mental i^ym- 
nastic will show \'ou the inai)prt)prialeness ol ha\ini;" 
thinj^s on a w ron*;- scale. 

A " typical " noseless Kini;- Charles is a contradic- 
tion in terms. The thinii- is imi)ossible. ( )ne miiiht as 
well talk of a typical robin with a ])arrol's beak. To 
make another analo,ii"v. if you breed a Shetland jiony 
with the head of a Clydesdale, it will be a deformity. 
^'ou could only maintain symmetry by breedini;' a body 
to match the head, but then it would be absurd to talk of 
it as a t\])ical Shetland! I'niess you allowed the Shet- 
land his own head, or the Clydesdale his own body, the 
result winild be iiTotes(|ue. This _qrotes(|ueness is just 
what we have j^ot to in the Tiw Spaniel. We have _q;ot 
a type which belongs to the lUilldoi;- breed, and ours is 
neither tiesh. ftwvl. nor ^(^(^1 red herriui^-. 

If noselessness is, therefore, a necessity of modern 
fashion, it is useless to try and kee]> the Kin*;- Charles 
characteristics, which beloni;- to a fairly short but 
pointed nose. Fortunately there are tw(^ chief types o\ 
noseless head, and we can choose the best. \\ ith rei^ard 
to the Pdenheim. as we cannot have the Henrietta of 
(Orleans type, which is now represented by the Papillon, 
we must i^o back to the lines of the I'hinese type. 

Some of our fanciers may indiq^nantly exclaim tliat 
they don't want t(^ breed "Japs." Let me assure them 
for their consol:iti<Mi that. iKnvever much they may try 



to imitate the good points of this noseless l)ree(l, our 
Toy Spaniels wiH retain an individual character of their 
own, which will remain perfectly distinct from the Jap- 
anese so long as flic breeds are not crossed. We all 
learn to write 1)y 1)einjL^ taught pot-hooks and hangers, 
yet which two of us ever have an identical handwriting? 
And so it is with dog breeding. We may all learn 
Japanese pot-hooks and hangers in the form of certain 
excellent rules for the production of noseless dogs, but 
it will not follow that we shall become Japanese ])hi- 
losO])hers. And as we shall never produce Japanese 
essays with an English al])hal)et, so we shall not ])ro- 
duce Japanese Toy S])aniels with French, Italian, or 
English blood. That we can with the material in our 
hands ])roduce a proper noseless Toy without Jajjanese 
crosses is an established fact, but the type must not be 
left to the haphazard opinions of fanciers who have not 
studied the question. 

I hope that no reporter will pick out one sentence of 
what I have said here and (|uote it without the context 
in order to accuse me of wishing to introduce Japanese 
crosses into Toy Spaniels. I do not wish it. What T say 
is that the noseless head is necessarily a characteristic of 
the Red-and-white Chinese ancestors or a Bulldog char- 
acteristic, and it is better that the whole dog should 
correspond with the best of these two types than to 
remain simply, so to speak, " amphibious." The Red- 
and-white, of course, is closely allied to the Japanese 
by its Chinese ancestor, and has a right to look Jappy. 
While w^e are in this amphi1)ious condition, expression 
matters far more than anything else, for if the expres- 
sion is wrong nothing else will make up for it; but it 
must be remembered that beauty of expression means 
30 147 


l^roportion and syniiiiclrv of line, rcsiillini;- in a certain 
harnionv which pleases the eye. so the thini^ resolves 
itself as T have already explained. 

Much, therefore, as T ohject to the actually sunken 
face, I shouKl certainly prefer to i;ive a prize to an ultra 
noseless dog with a i^^ood expression rather than to a 
moderate nose with a bad one. Unfortunately most 
iudges prefer the ultra-noseless type (///(/ the had ex- 
])ression, and this is the combination a.c^ainst whicli I 
stroniijly ]irotest. 

The proi)er type of a P.lenheim Spaniel to breed is 
that facing' paii'e 178: emphatically not the heads facin^: 
this page, which is what we are now doini;-. A I have 
said, there is nolliinLi' wron^" in .a l*lenheini looking' 
Japanese, as he has an ancestral right to do so. The 
Trici^lour is our own luigiisli manufacture, so we can 
give it what points we like. 

Mrs. R. Mallock, in lier retrospect for tcx)8. re- 
peated what T have ])revi(Uisly published on tlie subject 
of expression. I must, however, make it c|uite clear 
that what this lady understands by a good and tyi)ical 
expression is quite ditYerent from what I understand 
by it. 

I consider that T have every bit as much right as 
Stonehenge to lay down the jioints of a Toy Spaniel. 
In fact, T do not fancy he had studied the breed with 
half the attention T have given to it. ^^ly standard for 
the modern type is as follows: 


Head should be well proportioned t(^ size of dog, and 
not too ])ig. Skull perf(.'Ctl\ round from whatever jwint 

Heads to Avoid, with the Defects purposely Emphasised 

Drawings liy J. Lytlon 

1. Muzzle too deep and lippy. 

2. Muzzle too wide and froggy. 

3. Muzzle too low and .sunk. Eye.s oblique. 
4 and 6. Under jaw loo prominent. 

S- "Grand masi\e" type, with dewlaps. Much favoured 
by men judges. 

7. .Skull too high. Ears too low. Eyes obliqui-, the 

reverse way to No. 3. Muzzle loo deep. 

8. Another ma.ssive ly^e. 

9. Eyes set at corners of head, with hollows under them. 

Nose too I0.V. Bad muzzle and skuh. 


it is seen, and this necessarily entails projection over 
the nose when seen from the side; hij^h and wide, but 
not abnormally hij^h and swollen. It must not be 
peaked at the top or ru^^ed. I^yes cxceedinc^ly larj^e 
and as black as possible, not j^o^^led but widely opened, 
li(|uid and bright, and showing the whiles when turned; 
set very wide a])art, and low in the head, ])erfectly 
straij^ht across the face, and almost at rii^ht anj^les to 
the profile. Nose extremely short, and decidedly turned 
up, and nostrils broad and quite black. The top of 
the nose should be almost on a level with the top of 
the eyes when seen in front, and exactly in the middle, 
not {lis])laced to either side. The eyes of a Toy Spaniel 
should not only be very lar^e and dark, but where the 
dark joins the while of the eyeball the contrast should 
be as shar]) and clear as ])ossible. Iha eyeball should 
be ])erfectly clear and pearly white, not dirty brownish 
or fuzzy at the ed^e of the dark part. Lids of the eyes 
cd^ed with a broad black rim, ed^es of lips rpu'te black. 
Muzzle fairly wide, but not exaggerated, always well 
cushioned up, and jjuffed out so as to form an arch when 
viewed in front ; the upper edges of the cushions almost 
touching the underlids of the eyes. The lips should be 
close and firm, not loose and pendulous with irregular 
edges, nor should there be a dewlap. Under jaw turned 
up, and lower teeth just projecting beyond the upper 
ones, but not exaggerated as in the Bulldog or showing 
the teeth or tongue. The nose from its upward tilt has 
an exceedingly slight " layback," which should be hardly 
noticeable. The muzzle should not be too deep from 
the nose downwards, which is a very serious fault in- 
deed. I think the idea that it should be so is the fault 
of a misreading of the standard, which said the stop 


^()^' DOCS AM) rmwR axckstoks 

should l)C wide and deep. This, for sonic reason, ,t;ives 
many readers the inii)ression that the muzzle is meant 
to he deep, hut this is not rii^lu. The underneath line 
of the chin should he curved as in the photos4"raj)h of 
C"h. The Sera])h and Xortham])ton Wonder. h>x])res- 
sion very soft and pretty. The mouth nuist not he wide 
like a froi^'s or drawn down at the corners. A slohher- 
ing mouth is a i;reat hlemish. Ears very long and wide 
in leather, and profusely feathered with strongly wavy 
hair, and set rather high and carried forwards, framing 
the face like the curls of Leech's early Victorian young 
ladies, hut not set higher ahovc the eyes than the depth 
of the muzzle. Xeck well arched, especially in the male 
dog. Shoulder nicely slo])e(l. Uack short, ])erfectly llat, 
and wide, the (|uarlers also (|uite s(|uare and llat, seen 
from ahovc, and also as seen from hehind. The tail 
hrmly set into them on a level with the line of back, and 
carried gaily, though not straight up in the air at right 
angles to the hack, or curled over it. It should l)e well 
furnished with long hair, and, as the standard already 
says, constitute a ilag of a s(|uare shape. 

Body short, compact, and solid, and legs short, hut 
not so short as to make the body appear long. Chest 
wide and deep. Ril)s well arched and wide, bone very 
fine and delicate, not heavy as in a modern sporting" 
Spaniel. This fineness of bone is most important. 

Feet and legs well feathered with silky hair. Tni- 
mense frills on chest, neck and brccchings, also on tail 
and underneath the bodv. The whole dog should show 
an extraordinary style and (/uality. A (l(^g niav have 
almost every show jioint and yet lack (|uality, and if he 
lacks (|uality he should not win.' 

* For explanation of the word quality see above. 
I 50 

Ch. \\l.Nwr.Ai_i_ 
Photo, J. I.yttou 


Coat very profuse and feeling like something be- 
tween fioss silk and swansdown. In the Blenheim it 
should be wavy, and in the Tricolour it may be either 
curly or wavy (though I myself do not like a very curly 
coat), but not Japanese in quality or perfectly straight, 
though I w^ould not disqualify a straight-coated dog if 
the coat was soft and very profuse. 

The short hair on the forehead and muzzle of the 
Blenheim should not be too flat, but should rise very 
slightly from its roots so as to give a very furry and soft 

In the Black-and-tans the coat may be curly and have 
more body in it than the straight coat; the curl should 
be distinct and regular, not mixed and stringy or very 
tight ; the ears and feather should be very long, and the 
feather on the chest and breechings should be straight 
or wavy, not too curly. I myself prefer a wavy coat, 
as curls do not suit a very short face. The Black-and- 
tan is not the true King Charles, which has a long 

Si.'jC. — The best size is that where the dog is as small 
as possible without losing symmetry, strength, or com- 
pactness. The best height is from eight to ten inches 
at the shoulder, and a well-built dog weighs approx- 
imately rather more than one pound for every inch of 
his height. No dog should exceed twelve inches in 
height and must be well proportioned and short in body, 
though not leggy. Seven pounds to ten pounds is a 
sensible weight, but some ten-inch dogs weigh twelve 
to fourteen pounds. Though so solidly made, the dog 
should be wonderfully light on his feet, and a brilliantly 
active mover. 

Colour. — Colour in the Blenheim should be red and 


'\()\ 1)()(;S AM) rilKIK AXC KsroKS 

wliilc, and the while slioiild he of a pccuHar pearly qual- 
il\. not a l)hie or j^rey wliite. The red should he a very 
red, i^oldeii chestnul : Uiis is the i)reUiest ; Uie deep 
sienna is not so {^^ood. A i)ale or lemon colored hue is 
(|uile correct historically, though I do not like it niyselt. 
The niarkini^s should he exenly distributed in clear 
l)atches and as little mixed as possible. 11ie muzzle 
should be also ])earl}- white, and a white blaze should 
extend up the forehead, in the middle of which should 
be a circular spot of red, the size of a sixpence. The 
ears and cheeks red with a i^oldcn red sheen. The eye 
])oints, as I have said, perfectly black and broad on the 
lids. \'ery few ticks of red are allowed on the muzzle, 
forehead, and lej^s, but are not desirable in ni\- ojjinioii 
when on the face. 

The niack-and-tan should be a deep glossy l)lack 
with lil)eral tan markings over the eyes, round the 
cheeks, o\er the whole muzzle and ])art of the breast, 
in a fan shape, and also on the jiaws, all the featherings 
of the legs, and linings of cars, thighs, and tail. The 
tan should be a brilliant burnt sienna colour. A white 
breast should be no disqualification, but a large white 
])atch on the head or body should be heavily i)enalised 
to dis(|ualification. This is for the modern ty])e of 
r>lack-an(l-tan, but the true King Charles should be all 
black with white breast. 

The Tricolour should be marked like the r>lenheim 
(see above), only in black instead of red, and shouM 
also have the s])ot on the top of the head which is his- 
torically characteristic of the black and white. It was 
also a ch.aracteristic of the Springer. It should have a 
brilliant tan o\er the eyes, linings of ears, cheeks, and 
tail; and the leathering of breechings should be white 

Blenheim Spaniel Ace of Hearts 
3 Months old 

Winner of 8 First Prizes. Photo, and Property 
J. Lytton, Esq. 


Tricolour Toy Spaniel Equinox, 2^ Months old 

Life size. Photo, and Property of J. Lytton, Esq. 

Drying Pen 


or else composed of a mixture of red, white and black, 
the white, however, predominating. A few ticks of red 
and black on the legs and face are allowable, and the 
black markings, where they end on the inside of the 
fore legs and thighs underneath the body, should be 
also lined with red. 

The Ruby should be a rich burnt sienna red or a 
brilliant golden chestnut, which are both equally beau- 
tiful, but the colour must never be dull or dusty. It 
may have a white breast and feet, but those with 
white blazes might be penalised unless otherwise per- 
fect. A perfectly marked head should only win from 
an imperfectly marked one if in other points equally 

The rims of the eyes, as in other varieties, must be 
black ; also the nose, which must on no account be yellow, 
red, grey, or flesh-coloured. 

I think, to meet the question of so-called " mis- 
marked " dogs, that a class might be provided at shows, 
in addition to the regular classes, where these dogs 
might compete together under *' any other colour." The 
judge could, at his discretion, award challenge prizes 
to any dog in this class which he considered better than 
those in the regular classes. 

As to the question of registration, there would be no 
more difficulty about this than there is at present, when 
the dogs are always registered imder one of the varie- 

A circular white spot, the size of a sixpence, on the 
skull, as is sometimes seen, should be cultivated as a 
variety of the Blenheim spot. The Ruby being the out- 
come of a cross of Red-and-white, it must be remem- 
bered that it is an artificial colour, and that to produce 


'l()^ 1)()(;S AM) I'lIKIK ANCKSTOHS 

tl<\i;"s with no whilo ;il all moans inhrcodinii' to an nnde- 
sirablc extent, so that \vc should cndcav»»ur not to ehnii- 
natc the white aho^etlicr. hut to adapt it, it" ])ossihle, to 
the re(|uirenients ol" heautv. i^he tendenc\ to white on 
the head eould easily he utilised to j)roduee the spot 
instead (»t" a streak, which would he a i^reat added 
heautv. the plain red heinj^" a rather uninterestini;- colour 
in the oi)inion of nu^st ladies who are not trained fan- 
ciers. A Ruhy with while toes and the spot i;enerally 
proxes most attractive to the pet hunters, in spile of .all 
the rules of the Toy Si)aniel Cluh. 1 have seen se\er.d 
Ivuhies with the sjxit in while.' 

/ ^isf^osifioii. — \"ery hohl and courageous, .a merry 
shower, autl irre])ressihlv .icli\e, alwavs skipping' .and 
jumpiuLi" ahout as if full of hidden springs, and with a 
passion for i^ames. racini^" its companions anil llyins.:^ 
in jjursuit of a or a shadow simply for the sheer i(\v 
of hvini;\ 

l.oviuLi". atTeclion.ile, .and sweet-tempered, and deeply 
attached to its owner: in(|uisilive. watchful, husy little 
dos^s, interested in everythiui^- that ^oes on. hearty feed- 
ers, ready to eat anythini^". and never ailing- or depressed, 
they should he full o\ wiles and tricks and .imusiui;- de- 
vices, w ith an intelligence whicli must he e\j)erienced to 
he helieved. 

Dalziel wrote in iSjc): " 1 cm see no i^txnl L^round tor 
the .and more he.auliful shape of the head and 
muzzle of the orij^inal ( lllenheim) heins;' supersetled hy 
the one in v(\i^ue. It is an instance of the hreeder's skill 

' Tin- Ruin- li.ns one dm\vb.-»ck comp.irod to otluT toy Sp.Tiiicls in the 
fact tliat In- has not the swoct-scontod coat of tin- HK-iiluini and Tricolours 
Init is a|>t to he a-litth- "' foxy." 


exercised in a vvrrjno- direclic)]], for ilic noseless s])eci- 
mens with ahnonnally (levelo])ecl skulls I look n])on as 
the results of a ])erverte(l taste, obtained at the sacrifice 
of intrinsic f|ualities, and without sufficient redeeniinij^ 
points 1o ('(|ualise the loss." lie also mentions Mr. 
Julius's joke in \<^/7 in ridicule of the fashion. 

Idstone says: " 1 wmild allow — indeed, 1 would in- 
sist upon — a deep indentation between the eyes, added 
to the him'h skull and a moderately short face, hut the 
projectinjn" k)wer jaw, the froij;" nu)Ulh, and the broken 
no?e, free from all cartilajL^e, 1 decidedly object to. \ 
should ex])ect to see a S])aniel with a pretty face, well 
coated all over, lar<^e-cared, largc-cyed, rich-coloured, 
with a bush}' tail, welbfeathered feet, and diininuti\'e in 
stature, in preference to the snufHinir^, a])ple-headed, 
idiotic animals too often bred by the V'ducy, and which 
ought ic) be discouraged, though, if judging, I would 
riot put them aside until some definite conclusion 
had been arri\'ed at, as .an adverse decision would 
be unfair to the exhibitr^r during the ])resent state of 

Stonehenge s]jeaks of the King Charles of 1H2H as 
resembling " a Gordon Setter reduced in scale, being like 
that flog not only in colrmr, which was in that breed 
black-and-tan, with or without white, but also in the 
shape of the body and head." He is here confusing the 
King Charles with the Pyrame. Tie considers, in spite 
of the extraordinary things that can be done In' the judi- 
cious selection, that the noseless type is the result of a 
cross. T entirely agree with him. 

Is it not curious that a type introduced as a joke 
should actually have become the serious aim and object 
of serious breeders? One is tenijjted to wish that Mr. 



Julius liad had uo such sense of humour, as the previous 
KiiiL^ Cliarles tyjie was pretty and worth ]ireservin.i;\ 

W lio can seriously maintain that the plK^to^-raj)!! of 
my do£*", ** Spotted Lily," is an ideal representation of a 
" fairv anion!:;" doi^s "? ' ^'et she is a valuahle specimen 
and has hred first-prize winners. 

breeders and indices must he careful not to allow the 
eye to hecome perverted ])y accustominix themselves to 
Ui^liness and exai^j^eration. I nuself, in a somewhai 
natural anxiety to outdo my neijL^hhours in exhihitinj;" 
marvels, have occasionallv kept doi^s which my cc^mmon 
sense, artistic sense, and hygienic sense have told me 
were all wrong;" inside and out, and I have si)oken and 
written with enthusiasm of do^s which were merely 
wonderful productions of amazing" ])eculiarities. Never- 
theless T have always had an uncomfortahle feelino- of 
shame in givine;" or receivins^' a prize to or for dogs 
which 1 felt would he cc^nsidered ,<;"rotes(|ue hy saner 
judi^ment. and the unHatterin|L;ly candid opinions of the 
puhlic at lari^e on some of my winners have struck me 
as hoth just and reasonahle. Of late years, however. 1 
have resisted the tenijitation to huy wron<;- tyi)es simply 
because 1 knew thev were m'oins;" to win \ahial>le prizes, 
and would rather take second ])lace w ilh the rij^ht type 
than first with a wron^' one. 

There is method in the j^roper selection of the short- 
nosed type, and if mv readers have folli^wed me suffi- 
ciently carefullv. it will not he necessarv for me to ])oint 
out to them which of the types of winninj^ doqs puhlished 
in these ])as"es are the wron_<^ ones. There are doi^s with 
])eaked or flat skulls, drawn muzzles, crooked eyes, and 
had expressions, which my readers must discover for 

> Quotation from "The Field." 

Mks IIopk Paterson's King Charles Ch. Royai. Clyde 

'J'he Lest type of King Charles. Photo, Russell 

Mrs Sonneborns Sneider's Ruby Toy Spaniel Ch. Red Clover 


Compare with sbove 


1]k'11isc1\'cs. 1 liavc i^ivcii llicin an ideal ty])e for refer- 
ence, and if this is carefully coni])ared with llie oilier 
types the dilTerences will heconie obvious to critical 
minds. There are several illustrations of noseless doj^s 
— Champion The Advocate, Cham])ion 1lie Dragon Fly, 
Champion Red Clover, and Champion Captain Kettle. 
All of these are noseless, and each represents a different 

I strongly object to the ])resenl absence of uniform- 
ity and conviction among specialist judges as to what 
they consider the right ly])e. There is no settled ty])e 
to which I can point and say, " This is the type which 
will win consistently under Toy Spaniel Club judges." 
This is very hard on 1)reeders, and especially on begin- 
ners. They find it impossible to please the judges or 
to learn what points they must breed for, and even ex- 
perienced breeders, with all their skill, cannot keep pace 
with the fluctuations of judicial opinion. 

People talk of " the Noseless Type " as if it were one 
type, whereas it is at least half a dozen different types. 
That most judges do not seem to be even aware of these 
different types, but class them all together as one, shows 
that they have not begun to study their points. 

However much a judge's ideas may differ from mine 
as to type, T respect his awards, if they are consist- 
ent, though possibly his taste may ap])ear to me odd ; 
but when they vary from show to show and, alas, often 
from class to class, I cannot respect the opinion they 

The Toy Spaniel Club judges, though working by 
rules of their Club under a uniform standard, to which 
they are expected strictly to adhere, do not favour a 
uniform type, and we have championship winners of 



c\vv\ cnncci\al)lc shape, type, and size. Yet the 
" Standard " is (jnoted to supptn't them all! 

A paraj;rapli in one of the newspapers recently de- 
fended the awarding' of highest honours to doj^s of the 
wroni;" type hv pleadinLi that there were often no do{:;;s 
of the ri^ht tvpe in a class. 1 lad I ventured on such a 
statement. I sin mid ha\e heen Lireeted with scorn, hut 1 
am glad that the truth has at last heen acknowledged! 
The writer asks, derisively, for a remedy. There is a 
Show rule which runs: " The judges will he emjiowered 
and instructed tn withhold the Prize or Prizes in any 
class if. in their opinion, the d(\g or dogs exhihited do 
not show sutlicient merit." 

To a strong judge the remedy is obvious — and 
strong judges are what we want. 

I contend that there is something radically wrong 
in a system which ends, as it has done this year, in 
persistently em])ty or cancelled classes, or classes in 
which there are nothing" hut dogs of the wrong 

Whether my readers agree with me or un{ alx^ut the 
undesirahilit}' of the " smashed noses " as leading to 
grotes(|ueness of type and unsoundness of constitution, 
I hope they will, at any rate, deternu'ne once for all to 
get rid of vulgarity of type, sluggishness, cringing, 
timidity of nature, and unsoundness of limh. At present 
weak loins, rickety joints, wheel hacks, shelly bodies, 
and miserable, shivering dispositions are all i)asse(l over 
Inr the sake of a noseless head, and a needlessly ugly 
one at that. \\ hatever our indixidual opiniiMis ma\' be 
as to the proper length of nose, let us all combine to in- 
sist upon having pretty expressions and a really profuse 
coal, and let those who judge at shows have the courage 


Blenheim fishing in a Pool 

• (Tail undockcd) 

Good IVIodickn Maklhokougii 

Blenheim Puppies 

Duke of Norfolk's Sussex Spaniel. (Men- 
tioned in Bazaar correspondence.) Repro- 
duced by permission of The Bazaar 

King Charles immediately after the 


Blenheim playing with Ball 


never to award a championship to a coarse, ugly, or 
unsound dog, however noseless. 

In conclusion, it must be held up as a golden princi- 
ple in the minds of all breeders that Toy Spaniels must 
be bred for beauty alone, otherwise there is no excuse 
or justification for their existence. In deciding what 
type to buy, look for beauty. In judging the dogs, look 
for beauty. In breeding, choose beautiful dogs — 
beauty of expression, beauty of form, beauty of coat, 
beauty of colour, beauty of movement. Try in every- 
thing for beauty, and again beauty, and always beauty. 
It cannot be repeated too often. Ugly dogs should be 
ruthlessly exterminated from the shows. 

Points of the Miniature Toy Trawler Spaniel 
WHICH NOW Represents the Old Type of Curly 
King Charles 

Head small and light, with very pointed, rather short 
nose, fine and tapering, with a very slight curve up- 
wards of tip of nose. The " sto]) " deep and well marked 
and the skull rather raised but flat on the top, not 
dome shaped. Muzzle just finished not overshot. Long 
ears set high, and carried pricked forward. Extremely 
large dark eyes set wide apart, and showing the white 
when turned. They must be set perfectly straight, not 
obliquely, in the head. Whatever colour the dog may 
be, the nose and lips must be black. Neck arched. Back 
broad and short. Tail set on a level with the back, and 
carried gaily, though not straight up in the air, or curled 
over the back like a Pomeranian. It should be docked 
to about four or five inches, and well furnished with 
long feathering. General carriage very smart and gay. 
Legs reasonably short, and perfectly straight, bone light 



tlinui;"li sIioiil;. lUiild S(|u;irc. sturdy, and compact, but 
iicNiT lu'a\ \'. Tlic action slionid l)c smart and i)ranc- 
ini;", coat \crv cnrly. Imt not woolly. It slionid l)c rather 
siIU\ in texture, and \cry j^lossy. I.ibcial t'cithcrinj^, 
waistcoat, and liii'cclnn<;s. Shape is .all inijjortant ; col- 
our a secondary matter. lU'st colour a hrilliant black, 
with white waistcoat. Next oranj^e red. with white 
waistcoat, and lii^ht shadinj^s. lU'St size t'rom ele\en to 
thirteen inches at shoulder. Any tendency to weediness 
should he carel'ully avoided, and the height at slioulders 
should just about e(|ual the length trom top of slioul- 
ders to root of tail. The size should not be judged by 
wei|L;ht but by height, as they should weii;h hea\ily for 
their size. A doi;' about thirteen inches hij^h should 
\\ei_L;h about fifteen pounds. \'er\- small sju'cinicns — 
/. r., imder nine inches hij^h — arc only desirable if the 
type, soundness, compactness, and sturdiness are un- 
impaired. l'\'et close, linn, and hard. They and 
the lower part o\ the le_i;"s should not be too heavily 

The expression of face should be very alert, and very 
sweet. The dos^s should be very bold and courageous. 
Timidity is a i^reat fault. 

As to proportion {•>{ head, if the total len<;"th of head 
be about six inches, the ears should be set about four 
inches .apart. The whole head, seen from a bird's-eve 
point of \iew. should be a tri.ini^le, with the tip {->{ nose 
as .apex. (leneral should be that oi ;m ex- 
(|uisitely pretty little sp(M*tini;- doi;, very slroni;, and ex- 
ceedingly smart .and comp.act. 


From a drawiiivc liy N<'vill<; I,yll'iri 

Toy I Kawi.I'.k I'lii-i'iics 

i'lioto, J. I,yll>jii 


Measurements of a Good Black Specimen 

Breadth of skull at eyes from each outside corner of eyes inches 

across head 5 

Length of skull 4 

Length of nose 2^ 

Circumference of skull 10^ 

Circumference of muzzle under eyes 6f 

Space between eyes i| 

Length of ears (leather) 4 

Space between ears when not pricked 4I 

Height at shoulders 13 

Length from top of shoulders to root of tail 13 

Length of forelegs to elbow 7I 

Breadth at shoulders 6 

Breadth at quarters 6 

Girth 19 

Feathering on tail flag 6 

Waistcoat feathering 4 

The Reds are usually smaller and have less curly 

Scale of Points 

General appearance, including condition and smartness.... 15 

Coat 10 

Head and expression 15 

Eyes 5 

Curve and proportion of muzzle 5 

Set-on of ears 5 

Legs and feet 5 

Colour 5 

Action and soundness of limb 10 

Size 5 

Compactness, levelness of back, and set of tail 10 

Boldness and alertness 10 

Soundness of teeth is a consideration, but they are usually good. 



A description of the I'apilloii or lUittcrlly Spaniel is 
^ivcn in llic " Kennel luicycloiKcdia," J 'art 1 1. \ ol. 1, and 
I reprodnce hy the lulilor's kind ])erniission t\\\o pliolo- 
i^Taphs which rejjresent the prick-eared varietx and the 
drop-eared \ariety. The former shows the inlluence of 
the Melit;ens or Pomeranian hlood and the latter has 
an extraordinary resemhlance to the lienrielta of ( )r- 
leans S])aniel. These doi^s are the link hetween the 
Chinese S])aniel and our modern I'lenheim. Mi^nonne 
retains the precise type of three hundred years ai;'o and 
is not far off the Veronese S])aniel. The other s])eci- 
mens, Ripo, I'ipo. and Susettc, illustrated in the " h'ncy- 
clojuedia," show a different type altogether, hut Carlo is 
very like Mii^nonne. The smaller these dog's are the 
more they are valued, especially it they are under four 
]X)unds in weii^iit. The averai^e wei.^ht is four to seven 
])ounds. T also reproduce a photoi^ra])h of Mrs. Fran- 
cis' ^'vette. a tiny scrap of a dog showing exactly the 
same character. 

Italian Greyhounds 
Sabtarello and Asta 

Photo, Russell 

Miss Armitage's Toy Poodle 
Punch of Winkfield 

Photo, T. Fall 

J\lME. Delville's Papillon Cybille 

I!y permission of E. Cox, Esq. 

Mme. Delville's Papillon Mignonne 

Ky permission of E. Cox Esq. 

!llon Yvette 

T. Fall 

"White Toy Spaniel 

From the picture of The Children of George HI. 
by Benjamin West 



I MUST begin with the disagreeable statement that 
none of the Rubies (including my own) are typical of 
wh^t I consider Rubies should be. The majority are 
very poor in coat and body and lack refinement and 
quality. There has been very little competition for the 
last few years both as to quantity and quality, open 
classes often containing only one or two entries, the 
'' open dog " class at one of the last Crystal Palace 
Shows (the most important show of the year) having 
only two entries for competition. One of these was an 
American dog and the other a puppy. In eleven open 
classes at big shows I have counted an average of two 
entries to each class. When this is the case, Challenge 
certificates are won far too cheaply, and now that the 
Kennel Club has decided to amalgamate the Rubies with 
the Black-and-tans by offering only one challenge prize 
between them, we shall not have many more Ruby cham- 
pions unless we improve the quality of our exhibits. 
This will not be a bad thing. I cannot call to mind a 
single really well-made small dog with profuse coat and 
ears, and I hope that our breeders will turn their atten- 
tion seriously to improving the Rubies, as the classes 
for this colour are most unsatisfactory. This will best 
be achieved by allowing show specimens to win with 
white breasts. The white breasts are natural to them, 



and 1>\ bi'iiiL; so ah^urdly particular about |L::cttin.L; rid of 
cvcrv white hair the best specimens are exckided from 
the shows. The Ruby with the best head now exislini;- 
is Miss 11. (i. Parlelt's American doi;- Ch. Rl\\ Rival, 
b'rom his piiotoj^raph 1 judi^e him lo be ot' the hig-hest 
type. We lia\e nothing- (ner here to touch him. 

The lilack-and-tans are much better in quality than 
the Rubies, thous^h here a.c:ain the craze for eliminatin.L^^ 
the white breast does a g^reat deal of harm, and from 
the incessant inbreeding;- to secure complete absence of 
any white hairs, as well as the noseless face, there is 
hardly a single strain which is not radically unsound. 
The coats are much better than in the Rubies, and this 
has led to a false idea that the Rubies are not required 
to have nearly so much feathering as the Kine^ Charles. 
A recent de])utation to the Kennel Club mentioned this 
as a reason for gi^'i^'if? them separate challenge prizes, 
which seems a wrong princi])le. A glance at the pict- 
ure of Mr. Xaves's Sliepperl, of about 1880, will show 
that at that date the Ruby w^as as well coated and feath- 
ered and had as long ears as any of the other Toy Span- 
iels, and one can only w'onder what has brought abotit 
the deplorable change for the worse which has come 
over our j^resent dogs. It is true enough that the 
modern Rubies have not got as much coat as other Toy 
Spaniels, but this would be a reason for discontinuing 
the challenge prizes until the coats have improved, and 
not tor adding fresh ones because the d<\gs cannot reach 
the ])roper standard. The three best Rubies T have ever 
seen had white breasts. W'alkley Mac is one of our best- 
headed Rubies and a lo\ely all-round dog. with stvle, 
action, and (|uality. .\t least, he was so when I saw him 
a \car or tw(» ago. .Mrs. LloN'd's Midget is one of oin* 



best-coated dogs. Champion Royal Rip has made a 
great name for himself as a sire, and his son Champion 
Royal Clyde is perhaps the most lavishly coated dog I 
ever saw. The American dog, Ch. A. M. Baronet, is 
one of our most consistent winners in Ruby classes and 
has a beautiful head. 

The greatest fault among the Black-and-tans is un- 
soundness. The coats are better than is the case with 
the Rubies, and Mr. Hope Paterson's Champion Mac- 
dufif and Champion Royal Clyde stand right out from 
the rest. The profusion of their feathering and ears 
cannot be surpassed. Mr. Hope Paterson also has a 
great fancy for pretty faces, and both these dogs have 
beautiful expressions, though I have found it impossible 
to get a photograph of Champion MacdufT which does 
him anything like justice. Champion Highland Lad, 
the property of Mrs. Cooper, is a handsome dog, and 
Mrs. Larking's LAmbassadeur has a head second to 
none, and ought to have been a champion long ago. 
His size, quality, and beauty have not given him the 
fame which is his due. His daughter, Myrtle Blossom, 
is one of the best bitches now on the bench, and his 
expression is inherited by his stock. 

The chief faults of the Blenheims are either defective 
stamina or coarseness. The absence of coat and its 
harshness are also prominent defects. The best-coated 
dogs are Champion Little Tommy, Little Jock, and 
Seetsu Prince. Roscoe is one of the prettiest Blenheims 
on the bench. He has a beautiful expression and great 
quality, and has not had anything like his deserts on 
the show bench. The Tricolour Champion Casino Nov- 
elty has also an excellent expression. Champion The 
Troubadour (once my own property) had a lovely face, 

22 165 

'l'()^ l)0(;s AM) TTTKIK ANCKSTOKS 

which his (h^l)(»sili(tll (hd not l)cho. There arc many 
winners wliich I consider (|uile nnlxpical. e\en from 
the modern standpoint. Anions;- lliese are dui^s wliose 
praises have been universally suni;'. A c<)m])arisnn be- 
tween the various ])h()tojj;'rai)hs in this book and the type 
\\hich I ha\e _i;i\en as a model will show an_\- observant 
person my reasons for disajj^reein^ with the i^eneral 
xerdict. notably in the case of ("h. The Advocate, Ch. 
The Draiion Fly, Cottag-e Flyer, Ch. Captain Kettle, 
and Ch. Clevedon Mai^net. 

Champion Joy (now dead) had a beautiful head. 
Mrs. Mitchell's I'andora is one of our best Tricolours. 
She shows qreat (|uality, and so does Mrs. r)ri^ht's 
Caris, both (laui>iUers of Champion The Cherub. This 
doj^- has. 1 think, sired more winnin"- stock than any 
other Toy Spaniel, lie has been much discussed as to 
type. Jn my opinion, he has one superlative merit — i.e., 
that of transmitting- quality to his stock. Xo other dog 
has this merit to such an extraordinarily marked det^ree, 
and, though his own ex])ression is not altogether pleas- 
ing-, his stock are (juite remarkable for their pretty faces. 
Cherubel. Champion The Seraph, I'andora. CMiampion 
Casino Novelty, Seraphina, Fairy Cherub, Fairy lUos- 
.som, and many others, all have lovely faces. There are 
now noyouni.^" Tilenheim do^s with what 1 consider lovely 
faces. The younger i^eneration are almost all of the C 
type, which lacks the delicacy and style which are abso- 
lutely essential to a first-class show siiecimen. In some 
instances these doi^s mav be ^'ood to breed from it judi- 
ciously mated, but shows are intended for the exhibition 
of the " finished article " only, and not for the component 
parts before thev are amali^amated. The " spot " is too 
rare amonjLi" I'.lenheims. It is seldom seen in any |)er- 

Captain Kettle 

IMrs Lytton's Blenheim 
St Anthony's Flying Cloud 

Mrs Bright's Blenheim 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Percy's Tricolour Ch. 
Casino Girl 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Lytton's Tricolour Rose Petal 

Mrs Potter's Tricolour Ch. Zana 

Photo, Russell 


fection. Seetsu Prince, Cupid, Lovely Spot, and Cham- 
pion St. Anthony's Featherweight are those which have 
it most perfect. 

Hardly any dogs have the right expression. Among 
the best are L'Ambassadeur, Champion Royal Clyde, 
Champion Macdufif, Champion Ashton More Baronet, 
Champion Little Tommy, Roscoe, Pandora, Myrtle 
Blossom, Haeremai Cyclone, Walkley Mac, Champion 
Casino Novelty, and Fairy Blossom. I consider Fairy 
Blossom one of the best Blenheims now living. Myrtle 
BFossom and Nina Advocate are among the best Black- 
and-tan bitches and have as good heads as anything 
alive. I also have a high opinion of My Beauty, now a 
puppy, Billiken Advocate is our most perfect young 
dog of the same colour. The Usher is our best Ruby. 

The best movers are : The Butterfly, Champion Royal 
Rip, The Mermaid's Nymph, The Mermaid's Cherub, 
Seetsu Prince, Champion Grande Tete, Vicky, Haeremai 
Cyclone, and Mr. Gutteridge's Tricolour dog Barnsbury 

The smallest dogs are: Champion Casino Girl, 
Champion Cara, The Orchid, L'Ambassadeur, Nina 
Advocate, and Carline, the loveliest Blenheim puppy 
in England. 

In the following dogs the noseless face has reached 
its utmost limits: Champion The Advocate, Caris, 
Champion The Cherub, Champion Captain Kettle, Stew- 
art King, Champion Cara, Champion Red Clover, and 
Champion Casino Girl. Wee Radium, Sergeant Dick, 
Babel of Haeremai, Ninon Nitouche, Ashton More 
Shepherdess, and Lady Jean of Cockpen are worthy of 
special mention. Judging from his photograph and the 
description given to me of the dog by Miss Todd, Miss 



>'()ii!ij^*s C"liain])i()n I .nrd X'ivian must have been a most 
hcaiilifiil Tricolour. Any unbiased j^erson, looking;; at a 
Ivpe like Lnrd N'ivian, must realise how i)erverte(l our 
e\es must liaxe become if we are i^oini;" to tolerate the 
distortions that ha\e sprung- into t'axour in the last few 
years. I think and hope that it is not U)0 late to breed 
luanv more Lord X'ivians. He was (|uite a tiny scrap, 
vet his points were ])erfect, his expression rii^ht, and he 
showed (|ualit\' in the highest decree. 

For instances of the variety of type liked by differ- 
enl owners, i)lease refer to the illustrations. 

It is an extraordinary thinj;- how people who appear 
to know Toy Spaniels, and who have kejit them for 
vears, \\\\\ i^ive themselves away occasionally by hold- 
ini;- up to admiration or givini^ a first prize to a " rrmk 
bad " doi^, which either proves that they are really 
ignorant or that their judgment is biased. 

At the last Kennel Club Show the three first dogs 
in broken colours were Champion The Bondman, Cham- 
])ion Captain Kettle, and Champion The Bandolero. All 
these dogs 1 consider too l)ig to be ideal in the show 
ring, and I should like to find the male counterpart of 

If Carline fulfils her present promise, she will be the 
embodiment of my ideal of type. Roscoe and L'Ambas- 
sadeur are, as T have said before, two very ill-used dogs. 
Both should be cham])ions. L'Ambassadeur especially 
has been ignored in a way that would have sickened me 
of showing had 1 been his owner, lie has been reserve 
at shows where he ought to have taken champion hon- 
ours with ease. Other dogs have been pro])ortionately 
lucky, notal)ly Ready Money, Prince Carol. Champion 
\'ida. A. M. Turcpioise, and (."hampion Red Ranee. 


CH. Speckled \Vren, ILS.A. 

Bred by Mrs Lytlon 

Ch. Little Tommy (Rkihtj 


Modern Example of Old Iype of 
Curly King Charles 

, , I ; ^ .;, , U I I ^ Admiral 

WL-i.,'lit, D^ 11,.^. E.^purlcd, U.S.A. 

Blenheim Puppy, io -Months old 

Mrs Bright's Blenheim Ch. Cara 

Photo, Russell 





Tip of nose from pro- 
jection of forehead . 

Nose to stop 

Width muzzle 

Girth muzzle 

Width nostrils 

Girth skull 

Length eyes 

Distance eyes apart . . 

Length back from top 
of shoulder to root 
of tail 

Girth brisket 

Height at shoulder. . . 

Height at loins 

Height at elbows 

Height at stifle joint. . 

Width at loins 




Hair on tail 

Length tail (cut) 

Width blaze 



3 years . 
9 lbs. 


I in. 




12 in. 

ij in. 


4 years . 

145 lbs. 



3 in- 

1 in. 

13 in- 

2 in. 

13 in 

17 in 

II J in 

iif in 


6f in 

4 in 

52 in 

Cham- C^.^"^- 

Cm ^^"^ 

Seraph Tommy 



6 years . , 2 years . 6 j'ears 
65 lbs. i 9^ lbs. 10 lbs. 

^ in. . 

5 in.. 


iot in. 
15 in. 



jin. . 

sin. . 
2jin. . 
I in. . 
ii^in. . 
I J in. . 
I 'As in. 

II m . . 
14 in. . 

9 in. . 
lojin. . 

6 in 

n. . 

n. . 
n. . 
n. . 

35 in.. 
8^ in.. 

n . . 

n. . 


10 ozs. 

3 ; 


2-2 in. 
6^ in. 


12 in . 

ij in. 

I iin. 



1 5 years 

I if lbs. 


3 in. 
8 in. 
2 in. 

Hi m 
i6f in 
II J in 
iij in 

6 in 

7 J in 


2 years 

1 1 lbs. 



2f in. 
6f in. 

i in. 

12 in. 

I J in. 

if in. 

Marks. — Champion Windfall — Seven rich patches, clearly cut 
and evenly distributed, and the spot. Coat wavy. 
Exceedingly long, thick ears. 

Champion Cara — Three perfectly even, clearly cut 
patches, rich red, on each flank, and one in middle 
of back. Coat wavy. A^ery long ears. 

Champion The Seraph — Well marked with even patch- 
es. Head evenly marked, with narrow blaze. Coat 
straight, but rather mixed. 

Champion Little To)nmy — Very evenly marked rich 
red, and spot. Coat strongly wavy. Amazingly 
long ears and feathering. 


Champion The Tronbiuioitr — \'ctv evenly marked 
head, brilliant tan, small hlaok saddle. \ ery long 
feathers, and the i)rettie>t possible expression. Coat 
on hack curly. 

T was una])k' In procure the measurements of Cham- 
pion Macdnff (Kini^- Charles) and Chamjjion Casino 
(lirl (Tricolour) or Champion Royal Ri]) (Kuhv). I 
omit the measurements of Cham])i()n The Cherul) hy his 
owner's special ref|uest, 1)ut they were very similar to 
those of ChanijMon The Seraph. 

It will he noticed that Chami)i()n The Seraph was 
two inches lower at the shoulders than at the loins. This 
is a very great defect. 

CJuunpion Royal Yaiiia flifo w^as perhaps the hest 
Japanese do.c: T rememlier seeing- in the lui^lish shows. 
In st\le. sha])e, and head jjoints he was more than per- 
fect. I have also puhli.shed the photograph of Champion 
Dai Ikitzu II, an excptisite little dog. Champion Daddy 
ja]) was another lovely dog. and so was the heautiful 
I'rince Komatsu, whose hrilliant show career was cut 
short too soon hv distemper. Marquis Ito of Kobe I 
much admired, and Mrs. Solomon's Dara is a tiny dog 
and one of the prettiest we now have. 

The only red-and-white Jai)anese dog T ever admired 
was Champion Tora of P)raywick. lie had a black nose 
and eye points, a magnificcnl coat, and was altogether 
a first-class dog. 

The quality of the Japanese tyi)e is altering under 
the influence of F.nglish breeders, and at one of the 
last big London shows there was nc^t a single Jap- 
anese dog worth a challenge certificate. Qualitv has 
become very rare indeed, and breeders nnist try and 


The American King Charles 
Cliveden Mascot 

Miss Spofforth's Ch. The Cherub 

Winner of lo Challenge Prizes. Photo, Russell 

Mrs F. L. Schubert's American 
King Charles Ch. Sonny Bruce 

AIks Hope i'AitRboN's Ch. Ivuval Llyde 

Photo, Crowe & Rogers 


realise this and apply the remedy before their breedini^ 
stock becomes ho])elessly inferior. I know how diffi- 
cult it is to breed them at all on account of distemper, 
but there is no reason why those l^reeders who have 
money enoui^h to be independent of the heavy losses 
which are inevitable should not breed from dogs of 
really good type, instead of paying big prices for un- 
typical specimens. 

A perfect puppy is shown in the beautiful photo- 
graph of Miss Steevens's " White Queen." I wish there 
wefe more like this one. 

Toki of Toddington is a marvel of loveliness. 

There are many beautiful Pomeranian dogs now in 
the shows. Of all the Pomeranians I have seen I con- 
sider Champion Offley Honey Dew one of the most per- 
fect. There is no need in his case to approximate his 
points to an unattainable ideal, because he is the living 
embodiment of the ideal for which everyone should 
breed. I also greatly admire Shelton Mercury, a very 
lovely dog. I never cared personally very much for the 
head points of the famous Champion Shelton Sable Atom 
and Champion May Duchess, though the body points of 
these dogs were perfect. Champion Mars is also per- 
fect in body, style, and coat. Champion Dragon Fly is 
another well-known dog, which, unfortunately, I have 
always missed seeing. Champion Venus of Offley and 
Champion Haughty Oueenie are other well-known win- 
ners. One of the loveliest dogs in the world is Cham- 
pion The Sable Mite. He has a most typical little head 
of the best expression and modeling. I do not care for 
the type of Ch. Marland King. 

Among our best Pekingese winners are Champion 


Cioodwood I'liiui. llu' prcpnty of Mrs. Torrcns ; l.ady 
Dccios's (■h.iuipion Maucliu C'licni^- Tu. champion Tcarl. 
and Clianipioii Tckin Tojjpy: Mrs. .Vsluon Cross's 
(hanipion C'lui-crli of Aldorhoiinic. Mr. l.cfoy Dcans's 
(lianipioii I liin 1 -U, Mrs. Douj^las Murray's Cham- 
pion (ioodwood Lo. I do not care for several well- 
known doi^s, and do not consider that they represent a 
good type. llo\ve\er. ni)- readers can jud.^e for them- 
selves from the ]ihotop^ra])hs and compare them with 
ideal from a Chinese i)()int of view. 

Mr. IVtti.^rew, Mr. Tweed, Mr. Arnold, Mr. Ais- 
trop. and Mr. Nixon are some of our oldest and best 
breeders of Toy Si)aniels, and many .G^ood doc^s have 
het-n hred hy Mr. (iullerid^e. Mr. Savai^e, Mr. Dean, 
and Mr. 'I\'ers. \\'ith the exception of Mr. Nixon, 
these i^entlemen seldom show, hut they all know the 
doi^s thoroui;hly, .and if we liad some of them in the 
judi^in^" rinq", instead (^f a])pointin^" ])eo])]e who know 
httle or notliinL;- of their business, it would be a _<4reat 

Miss Hall, ^liss \'oun^-. Miss Grantham, Mrs. W. 
Hopkins, Mrs. Jenkins, Mrs. I'rivett, Mrs. Pinto Leite. 
Miss Carter, Mrs. Percy, Mrs. Ihi^lu. ^Irs. Mitchell. 
Mrs. Webster, Mrs. Russell Lloyd. Miss SpolTorth and 
Mrs. Reed are amoni;- our Southern fanciers: and in the 
Xorth are Lady llulton. Lad\- de dex, Mrs. Pordai^e, 
Mrs. R. Stewart, Mrs. Malheson, Mrs. I'urnival. Mr. 
Hope Paterson. Mrs. Cliff. Mr. Milne^, Mr. ^■ates. and 
.Mr. ( ummini^s, and last but not least Mr. 1 lervey Xixon 
and Mr. Crank. 


Mk AlSlKop's KlN(. CllAKKK^ 

Miss Bessie Fife's Cupiu (U.S.A.) 

INIks I'iNTo Liii<ri;s' Kin(; Charles Cm. The Advocate 




Champion Duke of Bow. — A lemon-ancl- while dog, 
with large dark eyes, but long-faced according to pres- 
ent standard — i.e., about three-quarters of an inch — 
and not as well finished as we now have them. He was 
a pretty shape (nine pounds), cobby, low on the leg, 
with a lovely, profuse coat. 

Jiarl of Chester. — A red-and-white dog, with a line 
head and a good skull, extremely up-faced and well fin- 
ished, lie had the s])ot perfectly placed right in the 
front of his forehead, instead of on the top of the 
head. A lovely coat and well-feathered feet and long 
ears. Weight about ten pounds. An extremely ])retty 

Champion Bozvsie. — A good-coated Blenheim. A 
short face, but not short enough to win nowadays. 
A long back. Low on the leg. About eleven pounds 
weight. Beautiful eyes. Long ears. 

Champion Pompey. — A very lightly marked dog, 
with long ears. Full of style, and with a good head and 
large eyes. Weight about ten pounds. 

Champion Polo. — A large dog, with quite a plain 
head, but a pleasing expression. His strong point was 
his coat, which was magnificent. His mane hung right 
down to his feet, so that one could not see his toes. The 
feather on his legs was remarkable, and he had masses 
of coat all over him, so thick and long that it surpassed 

1 I am indebted for these descriptions to old fanciers who have seen 
the dogs, and I quote their actual words. I therefore decline any respon- 
sibility for the opinions expressed, as I am only recording the opinions of 
individual fanciers who saw the dogs. 
23 1 73 

TOY I)()(;S AM) rilKIH A\C KSrOKS 

tli.'it of all the (loLis of his day l)y many iiu'hcs. llis 
expression was extremely sweet. 

llaidcc. — A very small bitch, with a ])crfect head, 
beautifully modelled accordinj^- to modern standards. .\ 
nose touching;' her forehead. A charniinL;- exi)ression 
and most beantiful e\es. I ler l)o(l\- markings were poor, 
as she was nearlv all white, ("oat fair. Al)ont six 

Pi'i'ii. — A verv tiny ])itch. not nearly so short in face 
as i laidee, and not so pretty. About four ])ounds 
weight and used to be shown in a tiny i^iass case. 

i'roiii-iv'cll. — A small, stiu^dy, well-marked doq-. ITis 
face was smutty. 1 le had the spot, but had little (|uality. 

Clnnnfyioii Tiiiv Tots. — A very small, dainty, well- 
marked ])itch, but had a horrid temi)er. and looked it. 
She had a wonderful head for her size (about four 
])ounds ) : very short nose; j^ood eyes and ears. 

CJiaiupion RoUo. — As described by his breeder, was 
"a noseless ])Uppy, cobby and smart, lie had the s])ot 
and a short back, and was full of style. I lis onlv faults 
were a very small eye and a rather sour expression. 
His brother C":esar was better than Rollo. lie had 
lovely eyes and a beautiful expression, and was just as 
noseless, lie was killed bv a bicvcle at twelve months 
old. Caesar weighed three ])ounds, full j^rown." 

CJunnf^ioii Joy. — .\ beautiful head, with lovelv ex- 
pression and most beautiful eyes, .^lie won the i;"old 
collar for the best champion of an\- coknu" at the 'l^n* 
dojL;' show in n^oj, where the author was one of the 


Conrad. — .\ lj(^o(1 fnu' head; not quite as noseless as 
the best modern doj^s; short face, i^ood eyes, and good 


Cherub Junior (Blenheim) 

Rdught by Mrs Lytton at Crufts Show for ^^165. los., 
and sulxsequently sold to Mr Raiisoii Caygill of 
New York 

Mrs Jenkins' Ch. C"i.I'.\ I-D 

)N Maum-;!' 

Mrs W. Hopkins' Haeremai Cyclone 

Photo, T. Fall 

Ch. Feather Wing, U.S.A. (Blenheim) 

Mrs Lytton's Tricolour Little Sambo Lady de Gex's Blenheim Little W onder 

Toy Spaniels 


expression. A flat-sided, weedy, and Icg^y doj^-, with 
a poor constitntion. 

CJiainpion Prince of Tcddiiii^fon (Prince J^). — A 
fine (lo£^'; very l)ii;" head, jL^ood eoal and frills and ears, 
Al)Out twelve ]xmn(ls weiji^ht.^ Well marked. 

Tamerlane. — A most heanlifnl doi;-; fair head, small. 
y\hout eis^ht pounds. Wonderful ears. Masses of very 
fine coat, like floss silk. 

lieulali. — Lart^c hitch, ahout twelve i)oun(ls. Mod- 
ern type, with heautiful ex])ression. Very stylish. 

Cliainfiioii Cock Robin. — A g-ood head; very short in 
face ; very small. Showed toni^ue. 


Champion Ben cVOr. — A small doi;'; lovely head; 
(juite noseless; g'ood hody and plenty of feather. Ahout 
eight pounds. Tan rather clay-coloured. 

Champion J nmbo II . — Vim head, good hody; low on 
leg; straight coat, very dark tan markings. Weight 
ahout ten pounds. 

Golden Ben. — Small, good head; rich tan, curly coat. 

King. — Extraordinarily well feathered. The feather 
on his feet was so long that it used to be plaited up and 
tied to his forearm with braid. 

Frederick the Great. — Perfect modern-type head. 
Good skull, large eyes, entirely noseless, and extra broad 
nostrils. Splendid muzzle, screw tail, bad body, curly 
coat. Ears small and high ])laced. h^M'ty pounds was 
refused for this dog. 

Lucifer. — Eike Frederick the Great, but a better 

Champion Laureate. — A beautiful dog and the foun- 
dation of our best strains. 



Rii; ii-:s 

Riihy A"'.:,'- — A nindoratc doi;': lon.i;' nose. l;'0(k1 coat, 
and ricli colour. 

/\///'V rrincc.—\\'\y like Ruby Kini;-. 

/v///'\' rriiiccss. — Tiny and i)rctty little bitch; fairly 
short face. W'eii^ht al)out four and a half jiounds. 

.\ii:asiri:.mi;.\'is of .somi: .vor.M'.i.i-: doc.s 

CoTcnt Liiinioi Charlie {Black-aud-tau). — \Veig:ht. 
l6 pounds; nose to stop, Yj^ inch: len^lh of back, 14 
inches; i^irth of muzzle, 75^ inches; girth of skull. 13 
inches; height of shoulder, 15 inches; height of loins. 
14 inches; ears from tip to tip. 22 inches; feather on 
foreleg, 6 inches; brisket, 18 inches. 

Conrad ( Tricolour). — Nose to stop, •;4 inch; length 
of back. iJ' J inches; girth of muzzle, ^^^2 inches; girth 
of skull. II inches; brisket. 17 inches; height of shoul- 
der, 10 inches; height of loins, 10J/2 inches; height of 
elbows, 5' J inches. 

Shcf'f'crl or Scpf^crl (Red). — Weight. 15 pounds: 
nose to stop, i inch; length of back, 16 inches; girth of 
muzzle, 7 inches; girth of skull, 13 inches; brisket, 18 
inches; height of shoulder, 15 inches; height of elbows, 
73/2 inches: height of loins, 14 inches. 

BaiK'bcc [Bloiliciiii). — Weight, 10 pounds 2 ounces; 
nose to stop, -ji inch; length of back. 10 inches; girth (^f 
muzzle, C) inches; girth of skull. 1 1 ' _> inches: brisket, 
i<> inches; height of shoulder, 12 inches; height of el- 
bows, 5-)4 inches; height of loins. io^{> inches. 

Cluuiif^ion Prince of Tcddini^fon. — Fcnu- years; u 
pounds; 10 inches high; length of head, occiput to tip of 
nose, 5 inches : ears, ti]) to tij). K) inches ; length from nose 
to set on of lail. J^ inches: girth of liead. 1 :; inches. 


Miss J)n,i.oN's Blenheim Spaniei. 

(Noll- llir InMutifuIIy nniiul skull ami niiizzii;) 

I'.l.Miheiiu Sp;.i 
;iii<l sliort II. 


I. Iiilcrincdiali; type lii;t wri-ii Idiij; 
A jH-rfi-i t (fxaiiii)l(; uitli thr lic-st 

Mrs Phillips' Ch. King Leopold 

JMiss Gilpin's bEKAPiiiNA 
Photo, Russell 

Miss Carter's Tricolcjik Mimosa 

Photo, Russell 




In l)r ceding for the shortest faces we can get, in- 
st^\Tcl of accepting anything and everything which has 
no 1)ri(lgc to its nose and in(Hscriniinately making cliani- 
])ions of all the ragtag and bobtail of the Bulldog cross, 
let us bear in mind the laws which should govern llie 
short-nosed Toy type and breed Toys with the pretty 
expressions that come only with harmony of line and 
the observance of mathematical canons of ])ro])ortion. 
I was the first to offer prizes for expression, as also for 
action, and there has since been a lot of talk about 
both, but some of the fanciers who have taken up the 
catchword most in the press do not understand expres- 
sion as I understand it. They overlook things that I 
hold in abhorrence — obli(|ue eyes, hollow cheeks, and 

1 It will be seen that throughout this work I shall refer to the sexes 
as " dog " and " bitch " respectively. This would hardly seem to call for 
comment but for the habit which " lady breeders " have of referring to 
their dogs as " the little lady " or the " little gentleman," " my little boy " 
or " my little girl," to the great bewilderment of the uninitiated, and to 
crown all, the new-fangled word "matron" has been introduced among 
the would-be genteel. I did once hear of a society lady who referred 
to a foal as a " horse child," but I have not heard that the expression has 
come into general use among horse breeders, nor do they refer to their 
mares as " matrons ! " Yet, as I have said l)efore, we talk of dog-children. 

I greatly object to the spurious gentility which makes impropriety 
where none exists, so I shall use plain unvarnished English words. Honi 
soil qui iiial y pcnse! 





nuiz/.k's that .'irc far l(^<) deep t'roni nose to under 

S<) that tlierc may 1)C no niiMindcrslandini;' as to 
;//v views on the subject, ])lease refer to the coloured 
l)late. This is my idea of the ideal we ha\e to keej) in 
mind f(M- a short nose. Look at the cushioned muzzle, 
the lovely Unv-set eyes, the round skull, and the sweet 
ex|)ression. C^mipare it with the other heads in this 
hook ])oini ])\- point. Make up your mind to see where 
the differences lie and why it is i)retty, while equally 
short-faced doos are often so u.^ly. Tt is not the result 
of chance, and if y(Ui study it enoui^h you will never 
ai^ain he able to tolerate the ugliness which fills our 
Show benches. 

I ])roposc to show the best way to breed the ideal 
short-nosed head, as I understand it, and. with the mar- 
\-ellous facility shown by our breeders in producin.c^ 
what thev are tryini^^ for, as exani])led in some of the 
amazing deformities of our day, I am sure that when 
they try for what is the rii^ht type they will very soon 
get it. 

Remember that the curves of the head and face 
must harmonise one with another and must not be vio- 
lently intersected by meaningless angles and irregulari- 
ties. Lips must not be jagged in outline, but the curve 
must be perfectly soft and even, as though drawn with 
one swee]) of the brush. The skull must also be in a 
I'irm, circular cur\e, unbroken by peak>, knobs, or de- 
pressions of any sort. The cushions of the muzzle must 
be likewise semi-circular in outline. The eyes must be 
large, wide, and full, but not goggled, like those of a 
man with (Iraves's disease. The under eyelids ha\e the 
same marked curve. The neck is .arched, and the cir- 




■»'■' ^ 





jJiM^^^^^^^^^Btaj^ ^^1 










^^^^^^^^H. .S>*^^^H 








A Perfect JtIead and Expression 

Life size. Photo, J. Lytton 


cnlar syslcni is carried on hy (lie iiiarkini^s on (lie liead 
and the s]K)t in the broken colours and in each variety 
by all the lines of the face. 

Idle I>lenheini should never compete aij^ainst the 
Black-and-tan. It is (|uite absurd. /\ IJlack and-tan 
fancier would ,i;"ive the ])rize to a bad I51ack-and-tan 
against a ])erfect IJlenheini ninety-nine times out of a 
hundred, as also would a variety ju(l,i4e. 

The breed.s are emphatically not the same, and, just 
as a l>lack-and~lan is im'cr s^'oi from two lileiilicims, 
so," as a general law, a lUenheim will never be bred 
from two l>lack-and-tans. Neither will a Tricolour be 
bred from two TUack-and-tans or two lilenheims. Ru- 
bies, however, will a])pe.'U" — so T am told — from two 
Black-and-tans, though I have never bred one this way 
myself, but I do not think two Rubies ever bred a lUack- 
and-tan — certainly never within my observation. Mr. 
Milnes has given me the only instance on record of two 
Black-and-tans alleged to have bred a Blenheim, and 
vouches for its authenticity. In the case claimed there 
was a cross of P>lenheim in the immediate ancestry of 
both sire and dam.' ddie crossing of the breeds ])ro- 
duces in the first generation a mixed ty])e and colour. 
It will be noticed that from this mixed type are bred the 

^Before the case coulfl he accepted as scientifically proved it would he 
necessary to eliminate all possibility of a mistake and there are too many 
unknown factors to make this a conclusive instance. 1 have had only 
two cases submitted to me of two Tricolours alh'f^ed to have jirofluced a 
Blenheim. Of these one of the ])edigrees is based on a dog that is no- 
torious as a non-stockgetter and the other is equally unreliable as the 
identity of the sire is more than doubtful. 

I have, however, come across an authentic case of two blne-and-tan 
puppies bred from black-and-tan parents. Tt is curious to note that a mis- 
marked Ruby if whole-colour bred will get all mismarked pui)i)ies to a 
Blenheim just as if she were whole coloured herself. 


Ruby on llic T'lcnlK-iin side and 'I'ricoldiir on the I'lack- 
aiul-tan side, and thai Ixtth these varieties l)reed true to 
tlie new colour wlien hred eacli one to itself, hut when 
])red l(ii;elluT re\ erl to the mixed tvpe and colour, \vdch 
of these \arieties hears a stamp of its o.wn. The Tri- 
colour is nearest the lilenheim in conformation, and the 
Ruhv approximates the lilack-and-tan, thou.i^h neither 
has (|iiile the same tyi)e as either ^grandparent. This is 
\-erv cm'ious indee(l. as it would seem that the colour and 
the general conformation i^o 1)\' inxersion, each ,<;-rand- 
])arent sui)plvini;- one of the main characters, the Tri- 
colour i^ettini;- the black from the I'lack-and-tan and the 
lighter t\])e from the lilenheim. and die Ruby Lieltinj^ 
the red from the lilenheim an<l the heavier type from 
the lilack-and-tan. J>ofli. howexer, are inclined to re- 
])roduce the noseless head, and the Blenheims of the 
same i^eneration also reproduce it, and take the heavier 

The Kemiel Club has amal.^aiuated the varieties on 
the plea that " they ]^roduce all four colours in the same 
litter." ^ Condemniui;- l)lack-and-tans and I)lenheims to 
com])ele for challeni^e cerlilicates too;cther, or with Tri- 
colours, because the proi^^eny of the hybrids occasion- 
all v ])roduce all colours, is exactly as though horses and 
donkeys were to comj)etc together on the plea that mules, 
if fertile, would jiroduce a given ])ercentage resembling- 
each of the parent stock, just as I understand that you 
get black .Xndalusians and white Andalusians from Ulue 
Andalusian fowls. The fact that horses and donkeys 
when crossed together produce mules is no reason that 

' Ttinngh thi- KiiiR Charles generally compete against Rubies, and the 
lUi-nlu-inis against Tricnldurs, there is occasionally a challenge prize offered 
for the hest Toy Siianiel of any variety. 



Colour Chart 

i In generation C there is a high percentage of webbed feet and screw tails, and also nf males, especially on the black and tan side 


llicy sliould conipelc loj^ctlicr or vvilli their ( sajji^ositi- 
li(^usj i)r(>^eny. 

The lilenlieim and the IJlack-and-t.'in arc almost as 
(h'fTerciit in type as tlie liorse and tlie ass. 'Hie mis- 
niarkecl 'l\»y S])aniel liyhrids of the first generation have 
a hlended type hke mules and a hlended colour like IJhie 
Andalnsians, and the Tricolour is the cfjuivalent of the 
])roduce of a horse and a mule, were such a thini^ pos- 
sihle, and it is only in this generation (said to l)e impos- 
sihle in mules, hut which is general in Toy Sp.aniels) 
tlfat we can ever j:^et the four varieties in the same 
litter, and T must ])rotest aj:(ainst this law of cross- 
breeding heinj^- made a reason for amalj^amating the 
parent stock, which in my opinion is most undesirable. 

It must, however, nf)t be assumed at once that the 
Tricolour is, ])ro])erly speakinj:^, a monj:^rel. It ap])ears 
to be the formation of a new blended color and type 
which breeds absolutely true, and is a diderent ty])e 
from either o^ the ty])es from which it is bred. The 
Ruby is the ecjuivalent of the ])roduce of mules bred 
together without a^ain out-crossinj^, this also forms a 
new colour, and the effect of ])er])etually crossinj.^ and re- 
crossing- with the niack-and-tan ])arent is to get rid of all 
white markings. It is, however, a curious fact that, just 
as in the Tricolour, which breeds true when bred to itself, 
the Ruby breeds no I'lack-and-tans when bred to itself; 
but, unlike the Tricolour, it often reverts to the hybrid 
(/. c, mule) ty])e and markings. Vor this reason the 
Ruby cannot be considered a true type like the 'fricolour. 
The l>lack-and-tan hybrid re-crossed with the l*lack- 
and-tan ])arent stock will sometimes produce Rubies.' 

' I have hoard of one rase in which a red-anfl-vvhitc crossed with 
hybrid mismarkcd Ruljy produced a Tricolour puppy. 
24 l8l 


Tlu- Ucd-and-whitc is a distinct and historical l)rcc(l. 
Tlic r>lack-and-lan is a composite breed wliicli, by force 
of constant inbreeding-, lias become a type. The Tri- 
coK)ur is the otTsprini; of the hybrid on the I'lack-and- 
tan side re-crossed to the Ked-and-white parent stuck, 
and the Rnbv the offspring of the hybrids on the Red- 
anil-white side interbred. 

This sounds very complicated, but it is really per- 
fecth- simple. A reference to ni}- table of colours will 
be of great assistance in understanding what 1 have 

The circumstances in which the actual type and con- 
formation of head will or will not blend also appears 
to follow definite rules, and it is just this blending of 
t\pe that we must avoid, ddie tyjie of r.lenheim in gen- 
eration C' is always a blended type, and often has a 
screw tail, and one out of every few d'ricolours of the 
same generation has the same characteristic. T am 
assuming that the lilack-and-tan of generation .\ is 
very short in the face. The Rlenheims of generation 
C have almost always very ugly faces, and are coarse 
in type, but the Tricolours are refined and good in type. 
1 must say a word more as to the challenge prizes for 
different colours. If ever a breed deserved separate 
challenge prizes for itself and for both sexes, the Blen- 
heim docs. It is very similar still to the type of 500 
years ago, but if it is systematically crossed with Tri- 
colour it will be merged into the same undesirable t\pe 
of coarse noseless dog which is so fashionable in the 

It must be remembered that the type of the r.lenheim 
should remain distinct. The varieties must be crossed, 
as the rricol(»ur depends on the Red-and-white llrst for 


Picture by Morland 

About 1700 


its existence and afterwards for its markings, but the 
I^»Ienheini does not depend on the Tricolour. The altera- 
tion I should suggest to the present rule of challenge 
certificates is this: 

Two challenge prizes for Blenheims, one for each 

Two challenge prizes for Black-and-tans or Rubies, 
one for the best Black-and-tan or Ruby dog, the other 
for the best Black-and-tan or Ruby bitch, as at present. 
The Black-and-tan and Ruby cannot fairly compete to- 
gether, but at present there are hardly enough Ruljies 
to justify se])arate challenge prizes. 

One challenge prize only for Tricolours (dog or 
bitch, until they are more numerous, when they might 
have one for each sex. 

Under no circumstances should Blenheims or Tri- 
colours compete either against each other or against the 
whole colours, otherwise the difference of the type w^ill 
be sacrificed by the Blenheim's head ])eing coarsened and 
shortened to the Black-and-tan standard. 

The difference in type wdiich exists at present be- 
tween the Black-and-tan and Blenheim is most marked. 
In the Black-and-tan the body is longer ; the hind f|uar- 
ters often sloping ; the ribs flatter ; chest narrower ; back 
not level, slightly rounded ; tail carried very low, often 
between the legs; huge skull, ewe neck; muzzle very 
deep from nose to underjaw and coarser in quality; ears 
set at the base of the skull; nose squashed into skull. 
Its nature is entirely different and much more apathetic 
and timid. Action of the hind legs is very distinctive. 
It may be considerably larger than the Blenheim. The 
Tricolour takes somewhat after the Black-and-tan in 
body and set of ears, but is a better shape. 



'Vhc r.k'iilK'iui lias a loxcl, l)r<)a(l back; short, cobby 
body, arched nock, and more nose. His expression is 
quite different, and his nature l)()ld. The crossinj^ of 
the breeds encourai^ed l)y the Kennel C'lul) new rules 
is spoiling; the r)lenheini type, as the true lUenheini is 
beinj^" replaced in the ])rize rinjn" by the coarse noseless 
lUenheini of i^eiieration C (See table of colours.) 

The T)lack-and-tan, liavinj^- no historical standinj^, 
is a i)urely fancy type, but even a fancy type should not 
be allowed to violate certain rules of proportion. It may 
be allowed more underjaw than the Red-and-whitc and 
a rather lower ])lacenient of ear, but the more pro- 
nounced the ])oints the smaller the doi^ should be. 

The Red-and-white is essentially a Toy. not a sport- 
ing" .Spaniel, and should be a fairy type, dainty, ethereal, 
and excpiisite in characteristics and small in size, though 
strong, solid, and healthy in make and constitution. A 
Red-and-white should never be massive, heavy in head, 
or " grand," and 1 must repeat, ad nausea in, that a mas- 
sive grand type is utterly wrt^ng. Oo not breed weeds 
either, but elej)hants are simply intoleral^le. 

T^reed from larger specimens so as to get the large 
litters which l)ring the small puppies, but the show ring 
is not the i)lace for the big ones unless we have special 
classes for them. The great difticulty is to make people 
see the difference between a big dog with quality and a 
big vulgar type. The big vulgar type shmild never be 
bred from at all. if a male. As an instance of the differ- 
ence between a stud dog type and the show type I may 
(juote my own C*hani])ion H^lie Tuuidolero, who has often 
been held U]> by others as a perfect shinv type. Tn my 
opinion he is not as delicately made and excjuisitely 
modelled as a perfect show dog should be, nor is he 



small enough, but he shows quality and is a good breed- 
ing type because all his points are so strongly marked. 
For the show ring I prefer a small fairy type never seen 
now, with a less massive head and much finer bone. 
The same thing applies to Wee Dot. Exhibitors have 
only one thing to think about, i. c, the perfection of their 
dogs for exhibition. For breeders the question of type 
is more complicated, as the perfect show specimens do 
not get the most perfect puppies, and to get perfect stock 
the type of sire must go beyond perfection into exag- 
g'eration. Perfect dogs get a large percentage of weeds. 
Exaggerated dogs get a large percentage of per- 
fect types unless mated to equally exaggerated types, 
when the result is often simply monstrous. It is these 
monstrosities which we must keep out of the show ring. 
A perfect short-faced dog should have a fascinating 
little face with a tiny bridge to its miniature nose. 
There is a certain fat, chubby look about the face of a 
good dog which is not found in bad ones. The modern 
dogs oscillate between the elephantine, rugged heads, 
and little, mean, wizened rats of things which are truly 
only fit to be drowned. 

The Red-and-white Toy Spaniel always had a domed 
skull and comparatively short nose as far back as I can 
trace the breed. We are, therefore, not going much 
out of the historical traditions for their colour in 
breeding to the type of the head in the coloured illus- 

If, however, we continue to breed Black-and-tans 
with short face and tan markings, they cannot be con- 
sidered King Charles. In reality the Red-and-white, 
as well as the Black-and-white (now extinct) were the 
actual King Charles Spaniels, and the King Charles 


^()^ i)()(;s and tiikiu axcksioks 

so-caIlc(l, of tlic seventeenth centnrv. was a 1)lack, curly 
(1()«^, i)resunial)ly identical with the rrulUe doi;-. The 
present I'lack-and-tan has nn more connection with Mis 
Ma jest V Kini;' Charles than the Sanioyede. it is a com- 
posite animal and should he j^iven a name ot its own. I 
should su^s^cst its heini;- called only hy the name of 
r.lack-and-tan Toy Si)aniel. I stronj^ly advocate that 
the oriL^inal curl\- hlaek Kiu!^- Charles should not ])e tor- 
jL^otten. This curly Kini^ Charles or Truftle doi;- must be 
considered the i)ro])er rejiresentative of the old breed, 
while the present l>lack-and-tan can only be treated 
as an interesting evolution of a new variety; but that 
it should rcprcsoif the old breed, while the i^enuine rep- 
resentative is unrecognized, is rather ridiculous. It 
must, however, be understood that when 1 speak of the 
type l)ein£^ interesting]^ I am referrinj^ to the ideal type 
of short face, and not to the awful abortions and de- 
formities with which our shows are inundated — do^s 
with faces like j^^nomes, cross, sulky, and sullen, or hai^- 
jj^ard and imbecile; heads that outrage all laws known 
to mathematics and violate every possible canon of pro- 
])ortion ; tyj)es which could only be produced by a morbid 
taste for monstrosities. That our fanciers should tol- 
erate and, in fact, admire animals so stamped with vul- 
garitv and mongrelism as most of our Black-and-tans 
and Rubies is a thing which astonishes me more and 

T propose, therefore, that, as we have noseless dogs, 
we set our minds to breeding them according to the type 
I have indicated .and that we also revive the curly all- 
black King (harles. which would be i|uile ])ossible 
b\- breeding w itli the dogs that still exist. I should also 
like to ri'produce the Italian Spaniel by breeding the 


Mrs Lytton's Tricolour 
St Anthony's Shadow 

Mrs Doig's Ch. Walkley Vic (U.S.A.) 

Mrs Furnival's Blenheim Ch. 
Little Tommy 

.Sire of Ch. Windfall 

The ISIisses Clarkson and Granthan's 
Blenheim Doncaster Comet 

Mrs Hill's Blenheim, the late 
Little Mafeking 

Lady de Gex's Blenheim Ch. 
St Anthony's Featherweight 

Age II months 


Papillon according" to the type in the portraits of Hen- 
rietta or Orleans. 

I give a table to show how the Red-and-white has 
been known to breed out in a certain strain. 

Tricolour Red-and-white 

Black- ^ Tricolour, 

and-tan n Red-and-white 

All Mismarked 




Out Red-and- 
Cross white 






All Tricolour 

All Tricolour 

And now I will turn to the practical side of breeding 
the short-nosed variety. If you wish to breed small 
specimens, do not breed from very small stock. This 
may sound absurd, but experience will prove that small 
bitches are often most unsatisfactory breeders, and that 
it is not always the smallest sires that get the smallest 
puppies. Smallness must not be attained by defective 
growth and a poor constitution, but it must be bona fide 
smallness. The best plan is to get a bitch which has 
large litters. If you get a litter of five puppies you are 
far more likely to get small ones than with a litter of 
one or two. Very small bitches usually do not breed at 



all. It is cither impossible to j^ct them served or if 
served ihey are barren. Should they i)rove in whelj) 
the ehaiices are there is only one puppy, whieh, havinjj^ 
absorbed all the nutriment to itself, is unduly lari^^e and 
the bitch dies whelpinj^^. When a breeder has had the 
distressiui;- exi)erience of sceins;- his bitch die in this way, 
he will not be anxious to renew the exi)eriment. I have 
had three exceptions to this rule, and, of course, when 
one does find it. nothing could be better. 

As I have already said, there is a right and a wrong 
tvpc of noseless dog, and my advice is directed to secur- 
ing the prettiest of the noseless types. In breeding 
r.Ienheims and Tricolours, my advice is, breed primarily 
for shape, and in the second ])lace for markings. When 
you ha\'e got a stock which breeds true to type, with 
sound bodies and good heads it is comparatively easy 
to get the markings right without losing the type. Do 
Tiol be in a hurry. A mismarked King I'harles IMack- 
and-tan bitch (that is to say, the offspring of a Blen- 
heim or Tricolour with a King Charles), is the best 
possible mother for breeding Tricolour champions. 
Mated to a Blenheim you will probably get one perfect 
Tricolour (])erhaps two) out of each litter, and the ex- 
cellence of head will be well worth the sacrifice of breed- 
ing a couple of others in the same litter which will not 
be well marked enough for show under ordinary judges. 
./;;v Black-and-tan bitch will not do. The one you 
choose must have the round face, round skull, and pretty 
expression which are essential to success, and she must 
come of short-nosed stock, even if she is not short 

It" ynu breed Blenheim to I'lenlu'lni time after time, 
it is impossible lo keep up the monstrous ])oints now con- 


Miss Ives' Pomeranian Ch. & Pr. 
Boy Blue 

Miss Bi'Rton s Pomeranian Ch. 

The Sai;i e Mite 

Iiss H. G. Parlett's Ruby Toy Spaniei 
Ch. Rosemary ReiJ Rival 

Mrs Pinto Lertes' Toy Spaniel Ch. 
BiLLiKEN Advocate 
Photo, Piccaailly Arcade Studios 


sidered good. If left entirely to themselves they will rap- 
idly and surely revert to the original short but pointed 
nosed type, but owing to the Marlborough cross it will 
probably not be the right pointed nosed type. They can, 
however, be kept quite " noseless " enough by careful 
selection. It is a very remarkable fact that a Blenheim 
when mated to a Blenheim will never produce anything 
but a Blenheim, however much Black-and-tan, Ruby, or 
Tricolour blood may be in the pedigree. I have never 
come across an authentic instance of this, and people 
have often asserted the contrary, but the evidence pro- 
duced has not been evidence one could accept as con- 
clusive. Where a lot of dogs of all varieties are kept 
there is always a possibility of doubtful parentage, and 
in all the cases brought to my notice I have found that 
the breeders owned a Tricolour dog as well as the sup- 
posed Blenheim sire. If two Tricolours ever get a 
Blenheim the case is so rare that I cannot quote a single 
proved instance of it. The two cases brought to my 
notice can only be classed as unproved assertions. 

The Blenheim is the oldest and dominant breed. In 
Blenheims other colours never reappear so long as 
individuals bred in this way are mated to the same 
colour as themselves. For instance, a Blenheim mated 
to a Tricolour will get both Blenheims and Tricolours, 
but should one of the Blenheim progeny be mated 
exclusively to Blenheims it will never produce a Tri- 
colour. A King Charles mated to a Blenheim or Tri- 
colour will produce Black-and-tans with white patches 
on chest, feet or head; or equally mismarked Rubies. 
Mate the offspring to a Blenheim, and you will get some 
properly marked Blenheims or Tricolours and a good 
many mismarked puppies, and this is certainly the best 



wav oi ^otliiii^" show points in Tricolours.' A lilack- 
and-tan mated to a Ruby or Rlack-and-tan will o^et 
whole coloured |)U])i)ies, but if you wish to keep the tan 
briji^ht on the Kiii[;' Charles you must select the tan 
or occasionally cross with Ruby, otherwise the tan 
j^ets gradually darker and is eventually lost altoj^ether. 
lUack-and-tans when mated to Black-and-tans always 
show a tendency to produce white markine^s, and this 
comes from the (^riq^inal breed. The original colour was 
not all black, but had a white waistcoat, and in breeding 
there is always a tendency to reversion in colour as well 
as in type. It will be seen, therefore, that when breed- 
ing for show points it is necessary to cross the two 
\arieties with judgment so as to obtain the best 

But, though the Tricolour \vould probably be too 
much inl)re(l to continue on its own account unless peri- 
odically re-created and rexived by a P)lack-and-tan and 
lilenheim cross, yet, as far as colours and type are con- 
cerned, it is a perfectly true breed. I wish to make it 
(|uite clear that the Blenheim Red-and-white breed is 
])erfectly independent of any other variety. It is the 
trueness with which Red-and-white breeds to Red-and- 
white and Tricolour to Tricolour which marks them as 
worthy of separate challenge prizes. Black-and-tans do 
not exhibit the same trueness, and therefore can justly 
be classed w illi the Rubies, The Ruby with w bile marks, 
liowever, also breeds true. 

Good coated strains arc essential. The Champion 
l.illle Tommy strain is far and away the best coated 

' Tricolours always cxliil)it the red or fire markings in the orthodox 
])attern and are never hound-marked or indiscriminately red, white, and 
black like a guinea pig. 



Groups of Toy Dogs 

Photos, J. Lytton 


Blenheim strain, and the Champion Royal Clyde and 
Macduff the best coated King Charles strains. 

There are many good coated Tricolour strains, but 
no Ruby strain that has what I consider even a second- 
class coat. Choose your strains with great care. The 
Cherub strains combined with Deepdene, Charlie Peace, 
Hiawatha, Wild, Rococo, and Marvel blood are some of 
the very best for type, but Marvel is not good for coat. 
Miss Witt's and Miss App's strains are my favourites 
for all-round quality and small size. These breeders 
hard a great eye for pretty expressions and never owned 
coarse dogs. In King Charles the best strains are 
Rococo, Highland Lad, Royal Clyde and Macduff, and 
in Rubies, Champion Royal Rip and my own Marvel, 
but I consider the former a better all-round dog than the 
latter. If you should breed a very good puppy from a 
certain sire and dam, do not on any account break the 
connection. This would seem almost superfluous advice, 
but it is astonishing how often people having succeeded 
once with one sire will try another perhaps handsomer 
sire, thinking to do even better, with the result that not 
only do they not get as good a puppy as they did before, 
but on reverting to the original combination they fail 
even to repeat their first experience, whereas, if they 
steadily stick to the original connection, they may go 
on getting a first-rate puppy in every litter. I can ad- 
vance no theory to account for this, in fact, I am quite 
aware that it sounds unscientific. I can only say that 
it is the result of experience. Certain combinations of 
blood seem to agree with each other, and a bitch will 
sometimes produce finer stock to a quite plain dog than 
to the best champion that she can be sent to. It is im- 
possible to make beginners realise this, especially as the 



fact has often hccn made use of unscrupulously to trick 
hci^inncrs into buying bad dop^s on the false representa- 
tion liiat ihey t^et i^ood slock. Nor will novices believe 
that the smallest doqs are .s^enerally bred from large 
bitches and more often than not from larg^e sires as well, 
and they persist in wasting much valuable time in mak- 
ing disheartening attempts to breed from the smallest 
slock they can procure, and then condemn the breed as 

It is easy enough to breed flat-skulled ])uppies from 
small bitches, but you will never breed the proper skulls 

The largest dog I ever bred was sired by a dog six 
and a half j^ounds in WTight and of the smallest strain 
in England. His dam was the smallest brood bitch I 
ever saw, and even smaller than the sire. 

We used to call two of the puppies the Giant and the 
Dwarf, as at three months old the dog weighed eight 
pounds and the bitch one and a quarter pounds. 

The average weight of a Blenheim juippy should be 
from two to three pounds at two months old. If lighter 
than this they are not likely to grow up strong or 

In judging puppies in the nest, if you want a very 
short face look carefully to its finish of muzzle, i. c, the 
lower teeth (or rather gums) should be in front of the 
upper ones, otherwise the puppy's nose will drop as it 
grows older and so lengthen out. Puppies " shoot " 
their noses at about five months old and sometimes later, 
and the noses go back in some few months more. This 
is a \ery .anxious moment, as, if the nose has a down- 
ward tendency, it will never shorten right u]) again. 

You can always tell a real " llyi'r " from the \ery 


Mrs Russell Lloyd's Blenheim 
" Stuart King 

The best Blenheim sire living 

Mrs Mitchell's Tricolour Pandora 

Blenheim Spaniel in Motion 

^Irs Lloyd's Ruby Spaniel 

Mrs W. Hopkins' Black and Tan 
Toy Spaniel Pinner Smut 


moment of its birth. Its head is perfectly globular, 
almost like a ball with a face on it, the nose is broad, 
with a wrinkle over it. Tiptop flyers are unmistakable. 
The semi-flyers are rather difficult to judge in Blen- 
heims at the moment of birth, but, roughly speaking, 
the broader the head and the higher the skull, the better 
the dog will be; and occasionally a seemingly narrow 
head will come all right if the under jaw is decidedly 
protruding and the skull rises from the nose at a right 
angle. If a puppy is not an obvious flyer at four months 
old it will never be perfect. If you are doubtful about 
a puppy's face at three or four months and think it might 
be a flyer, and yet are not entirely certain, look at its 
paws. If it has small, fine feet, it will be all right, but 
if it has heavy, thick paws it will grow too fast, and its 
nose will lengthen. I am speaking here of picking out 
a future champion of the highest class of Toy Spaniels. 

Puppies are always born with pink noses, but they 
turn black gradually, beginning about the fourteenth 
day. A small, black spot appears on the nose. If this 
is well in the middle, the nose will be completely black; 
if at the side it is doubtful. They open their eyes about 
the ninth day. The eyes are at first clouded and blue, 
but the cloudiness clears as the puppy advances in age. 

The markings of Blenheims when born are so faint 
as to be hardly visible, but this need cause no more 
anxiety than the pink nose, as they both darken later on. 

A Toy Spaniel does not often sire his best stock till 
he is about four years old. Toy Spaniels are often ex- 
tremely difficult to mate, and it is most inadvisable to 
mate a valuable stud dog with a very small bitch, as, 
once injured or frightened, he may never be induced to 
mate again. Keep your own stud dog, or if you send 


T()\ 1)()(;S AM) I'llKlK AXCESTOKS 

awav your hitches, cillicr sec the services yourself (two 
services are customarv ), or j^el a friend to do so. In 
this \\a\ much (hsapi>ointnient is avoided, and no 
hreeder of an\ repute \\ould ohject to \<)ur doini;' so, as 
if vour hitch then fails to hreed you cannot hlanie the 
stud doj^' or suspect its owner of sharj) ])ractice. Do not 
let \-our hitches j;et too fat or they may cease hreedini;. 
1 ad\ ise hreedinj.;' at the hrst heat, as, if the hitch is 
immature, she will miss, whereas, if she is stroni;- and 
t'orward, she will hreed without difficulty. 

Toy Spaniels c^o on hreedins:^ very late. Miss Annie 
Todd had a hitch called Oucenie that had her last 
l)Uppies at the ag^e of twelve, and had litters of three 
and two ])U])pies the two previous years. 

The doi.;s will s^o on hreedinti^ to any a.c^e, and, 
roui^hly s])eakini;'. the older the doi^ the hetter puppies 
he gets. There are seldom more than three or four 
l^uppies in each litter at any age, though 1 have known 
a Blenheim rear a litter of nine. This is, however, very 
inadvisahle, as it is far too exhausting, and the rearing 
of an enormous litter often prevents a hitch from hreed- 
ing again for a couple of years. 1 know of a I>lenheim 
hitch who is still alive and well at eighteen, hut she has 
stoi)ped hreeding. 

Vov a hitch that is persistently harren I can suggest 
no hetter remedies than jilenty of exercise and not very 
rich feeding. In desperate cases where nothing seems 
of any use hreeder s can try the old hreeding recipe of 
mating to a thorough cur or a totally dilTerent species 
and of a suitahle size. If the hitch hreeds to this con- 
nection the puppies can easily he got rid of. and the next 
time the hitch is ])ut to a thi^roughhred dog she will 
almost certainly hri-ed to him all right. The more inhred 


Mrs Matthews' Blenheim Spaniel Koscoe 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Lytton's Blenheim Ch. The Bandolero at i8 Months 
Photo, J. Lytton 


and highly bred the bitch is, the more hkely this is to 
succeed, the coarser breeding being more prohfic than 
the inbred stock, and once the bitch starts breeding, she 
will generally continue to do so, the great difficulty 
being to get her to start. This method was, I believe, 
first suggested with regard to horses by a Persian 

As I shall presently show, I do not consider the 
question of telegony to be of any practical importance 
to the breeder. 

•Among Toy Spaniels there is an enormous percent- 
age of dogs that are incapable of reproducing their 
species. Buyers should be careful to have nothing to 
do with those dogs which are entirely imperfect in con- 
formation, but those that are partially imperfect are 
often the very best stud dogs possible. The most de- 
ceiving are those who to all appearance are perfectly 
formed, but which have an active dislike to any female 
which is in a condition to breed. 

In the case of a perfect dog which, though oc- 
casionally keen, fails to mate, it is often the fault of the 
owner if he cannot be got to succeed. I have bought 
more than one dog given up as entirely hopeless by its 
owner and the vets, but which has proved a most valu- 
able sire in my possession. 

As to the danger of infection by a previous sire, it 
is certainly not one that need be taken into consideration 
by breeders. If it occurs at all (which I am inclined to 
think does occasionally happen), it happens so seldom 
that no one has ever been able to collect evidence enough 
to prove it. In any case, it would only affect isolated 
individuals, and probably only as to a single character, 
and, considering the way in which the characters of an 



actual cross can be eliminated by a knowledge of the 
principles of breeding, I do not think breeders need 
trouble themselves about so small a matter as the pos- 
sible influence of a previous sire on a single puppy. 

As to the vexed question of in-breeding, if it is de- 
sired to perpetuate and decide a certain characteristic, 
close in-breeding will secure it, but care should be taken 
to exercise the greatest moderation and judgment in 
doing so, for if there is a flaw in the constitution this 
also will assert itself and become more pronounced with 
every repetition of the incross. Inflammation of the 
brain, blindness, and rickets are the commonest results 
of any abuse of in-breeding. It must be remembered 
that the Toy Spaniel stock in England is limited, and 
that it has already been very much in-bred, so that 
breeders should try and get strong out-crosses rather 
than in-breed still farther. Owing to the quarantine 
regulations, no outside stock is likely to come into Eng- 
land. I think it should be made easier for breeders to 
import prize stock from abroad by allowing the local 
veterinary surgeons to look after the imported dogs for 
the regulation period, as many breeders cannot possibly 
afford the charges made by big veterinaries, and the 
breed deteriorates for want of fresh blood. I entirely 
approve of quarantine, but I think it should be more 
rationally managed, so as to avoid injuring the breeds 
in this naturally restricted island ; and the charges made 
by veterinary surgeons for the detention of dogs in quar- 
antine should be supervised and limited by the Board of 
Agriculture, which should also carefully avoid creating 
anything like a monopoly in its choice of places of deten- 
tion. It must be remembered that detention for six 
months at a veterinary surgeon's away from its mistress 



is certain death for a Toy dog, and under some circum- 
stances provision should be made so that ladies with pets 
should be allowed to keep their own dogs under daily 
supervision from a vet., and, if necessary, under lock 
and key in a cage with a locked run to it. This would be 
perfectly easy with very small dogs, and perfectly prac- 
tical. The Government Inspector could transport the 
dog to its cage himself, and the local veterinary could 
see it daily. 

SI low INC, 

Do not ever send Toy doll's to a show unless you 
yourself or a friend ean acconi])any ihem. Small dogs 
eannol stand knocking- about on railways alone. Have 
a warm blanket, and start in plenty of time. You will 
re(|uire decorations for the pen. Take a piece of white 
or blue washin,!;" material, three yards by one yard, run 
a tape along the top from one end to the other (long- 
ways), and have a dozen safety-pin hooks. Also pro- 
vide yourself with a cushion about fourteen inches 
square, with a washing cover, or, if you wish something 
cheaper, take a clean Turkish towel, which can be folded 
and placed in the ])en on the top of some straw, instead 
of a cushion, and which looks very nice. The curtain 
you have made will hook round inside the i)en at the 
back and sides, and can be drawn up to the proper size 
by the tape. Before placing your dog in the pen you 
should dip a piece of cotton wool in strong Pearson's or 
Jeyes's Fluid and rub over the bench, as benches are not 
always satisfactorily disinfected. 

\\ bile at the show it is advisable to give your dog 
very little water unless you fetch it yourself from the 
taj). as you never know what dogs have been drinking 
out of the show vessels. Never use the pans provided 
by the show, as one dog after another drinks from them, 
and some may have infectious diseases. In this way \(>u 


Training a Dog to stand for Show 

CovENT Garden Chartie 
Berrie's Bawbee Shepperl 


From Cassell's Book of the Dog 

How to Show 

How to Show 

Ir Cummings' Speculation of St Anthonv 

Showing a Level Back 


run as little risk as possible. When taking your dog 
into the ring, have the number given you by the ring 
steward pinned in a conspicuous place. Remember that 
the judge has only the number for identification. It is 
most annoying and confusing for him not to be able to 
see each number easily, and it may conceivably cost you 
a prize. \Mien holding your exhibit in your arms, if a 
Toy Spaniel, keep his head well facing the judge, and if 
you know that the dog is excited by the sight of a ball or 
a biscuit, have one in your hand so as to induce him to 
shflw himself ofif when on the ground. If you take your 
dog into the ring rather hungry, he will show much 
better than after a meal. Bring him home with you at 
night, as he has a far greater chance of avoiding disease 
than if left all night at the show. You can train a Pom- 
eranian to stand well in the ring by having food in your 
hand and making him look up at it with his back or side 
to the judge. But this will not do with Toy Spaniels, 
who should pull a little on their leads towards the judge. 
There is a great deal of nonsense talked about the 
mysteries of getting a dog up for show. Do not alter 
your ordinary treatment if you keep your dog as a house 
pet. If he is in good health, rationally fed, and getting 
plenty of exercise, and if you wash him often, he will 
always be more or less in show form ; and if you like to 
give him a little more brushing and combing than usual, 
before a show, it will do him no harm. Avoid all con- 
dition powders and other nostrums, also overfeeding. 
A very backward coat may need a little hair stimulant 
to the ears and breechings, but do not allow the hair to 
get matted and clogged, or you will do more harm than 
good. " Peter Returns " is an excellent preparation. 
Cut your dog's hind claws short with a pair of wire 
26 199 


nippers, so tlial Ik- iiia\- not calch ihcni in ihc hair of bis 
cars and i)nll bits onl. as sliow doj^s arc rather lond of 
doinL^".' ^ «»n can pnt tlic hind feet into httle ha.^s tied on 
with tape, so as to he on the safe side. I \ery nuicli oh- 
icct to ihc oNcrdecoration of pens and the o\er-\veii;lU- 
in^- of the doi^s with ininiense hows. ( )ver-(lcc()ralion of 
the ])ens shows lack of taste, and cnornions 1)ows make 
doii's ri(hcnlons. Pens should he draped with while or 
pale hhie i^'iishiiii:; iiiafcrial, with sky-hlue wadded wash- 
in.Li ^ilh or cotton (|uilts, or a washahle cushion. lUen- 
heinis look hest with small hlue hows and blue cu'^hion 
and white curtains : sky hlue or royal hlue are hest. i'ri- 
colours and Kini; Charles look hest in red or oran.ii^e 
hows, with red cushion and white curtains. Rubies may 
have ])ale i^reen bows, with i^reen or cream-coloured 
cushion and curtains. Do not have anythinj^^ which can- 
not be washed and disinfected. Always run your bas- 
ket through strong- disinfectant on i^X'ttins;- home from 
a show. White romeranians look well on almost any 
colour, but Reds should not be benched on red. 

Ik' amiable and oblii^in^' to your neighbours at the 
show pens and in the rini;". but do not allow anvone to 
feed or handle your doj^s, or to ])oke them throui^h the 
bars of the cai^e with umbrellas. 

When in the rini;\ be sure the judL^e does not over- 
look your do,^'. and do not allow vourself to be crowded 
out 1)\- the other exhibitors, but, of course, do not ])ush 
rudely. Mold xour lead at arm's length, and if another 
exhibitor persistently i;"ets in front of you and continues 
doin^ so in spite of a recjuest to allow you room, then 

' In (ioinp this he careful not to cut the quicl<. ^'ou can see tlic dis- 
tance the (|uick cunus down hy hohlin^ tlie claw up ay;ainst the hght. The 
horn is ir;ins|>ariiit and llu- (|iiiil< (ii)a(|iie. 


The Duchess of Urbino 

Titian, 1477-1576. Uffizi. Photo, Hanfstaeiigl 


call the attention of the ring steward or the judge, and 
firmly but politely insist on having fair play. 

The man who has once tasted the excitement of ex- 
hibiting will seldom really give it up again. It is closely 
allied to the gambling instinct, and, let him lose ever so 
often, a fatal fascination lures him back to the ring to 
try his luck once more. When he can no longer afford 
to keep dogs he will hang about disconsolately, watching 
other people in the ring with envious eyes. As an old 
fancier once said to me when I talked of giving up my 
dogs : " When you once get bitten by the show microbe, 
the disease generally lasts your life." 

JV ashing. — If you wish to get good coats on your 
dogs do not be afraid of plentiful washing. In spite of 
all advice and warnings to the contrary, I find this plan 
far the most efficacious for producing a strong and pro- 
fuse growth of coat, especially on Blenheims and Tri- 
colours. Black-and-tans do not require so much wash- 
ing, as it tends to make the colour temporarily rusty. 
Wash your Blenheims regularly once a week. There 
will be no harm whatsoever either to health or coat if 
my instructions are carefully followed. Washing must 
not be done in a haphazard sort of way, with the soap 
suds only half rinsed out, and the dog only half dried 
and left to catch cold. Before you begin, let your dog 
out for a run, so that there will be no necessity to let 
him out very soon after washing. Prepare two clean 
bath towels, soap, sponge, and a fire. Have two vessels 
(any kind of foot-bath will do). Put hot water in both 
— not tepid, but Jwt — and have also ready a jug of hot 
water just the right temperature for the dog. As to 
temperature, anything which feels pleasantly hot when 
tried with your bare arm will be about right. Have the 



water in iho jui;- just a tritic hotter than tli:it in the foot- 
baths, as it will have time to cool a little. Do not put 
too niiich soda with the water, as it tends to l)leach the 
red and l)lack markings, but it the water is hard add a 
little borax or Scrubb's ammonia instead of soda. Use 
common white soap or jeves's Perfect Purifier, or Gar- 
stin's dog soa]). Put the bath before the tire, and put 
the dog in the bath and sluice him well over with the hot 
water, except his head, which should be left to the last. 
Then soap him thoroughly, getting a g'ood lather and 
rubbing well in all the corners, under the arms and 
thighs and between the toes. Then wet the head, soap 
your own fingers and rub well, giving special attention 
to the muzzle. Don't soap and rub the dog's face as if 
it were a kitchen table, as you will injure the eyes and 
half choke the poor animal with suds up the nostrils. 
Do it carefully, as if you were washing" a very brittle 
bit of china. Remember that unless you clean your 
dog's face thoroughly, remove all tear stains, and make 
it as white as snow, he will never look his best in the 
ring". Take care not to get any soap into the eyes if 
you can possibly help it, as it tends to inflame them, and 
never allow soap or water to get inside the ear. The 
great secret of success in the appearance of a dog when 
washed is to rinse out all the soap. 

After you have soaped him and rubbed him all over, 
sponge well in the same water, then transfer him to the 
other bath and sponge again, taking care to ^\'ash out 
every trace of soap. If the faintest trace of soapiness 
remains in the hair, it not only gives the dog a dirty, 
grey look instead of the snowy, dully appearance he 
should have, but it also makes the hair fall out. There- 
fore, I repeat : Ritisc your doi:^ zi'clL To insure this, you 


Ked and White Spaniel 

Fn.iii portrait of an Old Lady, by Franz Pourlius (the Old; 
Al>out 1589. Dresden. Photo, Hanfstaengl 

Paie Veronese 



By Landseer, showing proper type of sporting head, 1866. Property nf H.R.H. The Duchess of Kent 



should put him through a final rinsing from the jug. 
Use the water hot, on no account cold, and be sure it is 
not tepid, as tepid water causes colds, while hot water 
never does so. By this I do not, of course, mean that 
you must boil your dog. I almost hesitate to give this 
advice because some people are apt to fly to extremes. 
I knew a woman who could pick a potato with her bare 
fingers out of a saucepan that was actually bubbling and 
boiling over the fire, and her ideas of what is just com- 
fortably hot are probably slightly dilTerent from mine. 
Be-very careful to get the soap out of the stop, and this 
is no easy matter. Do all this as quickly as is compatible 
with thoroughness — don't turn round and talk to a friend 
while washing and keep your dog shivering, and don't 
wash him in a draught. Take the dog out of the bath, 
and remove the first moisture with the sponge. This 
will greatly hasten the drying. Then wrap him in a 
warm towel and dry him by the fire, with smart but not 
rough rubbing, beginning by drying the face, rubbing 
chiefly the wrong way of the hair. In drying the ears, 
rub them also the wrong way of the hair, but do not hold 
the hair down while doing this. Leave it quite loose. 
As soon as he is fairly dry, finish him ofl' with the second 
dry, warm towel. Give special attention to all the 
crevices of his face, and finish them with a pocket-hand- 
kerchief, rubbing still the wrong way of the hair. In 
drying the stop, rub across from one eye to the other as 
well as up and down, and also rub up and down the 
crease between the sides of muzzle and the eyes. Be 
sure not to neglect the ears and all round the neck. 
As soon as he is as dry as you can make him, put 
him in a basket or chair close to the fire, and let him 
get thoroughly hot and have a good, long sleep. Please 


'H)\ 1)()(;S AM) rilKIK A\( KS'i'OKS 

a\<>i<l. linw cxcr. the terrible circlcssncss which h;is rc- 
siihfd ill the huniini;" to death of sonic ])iii)i)ies in tlieir 
l)asket, a liot cinder falHnj;' on them while their mas- 
ter had .L^onc away. Never let a do^" lie on the l1oor 
after washiiii;'. It" Non pnt yonr hand near the tloor vou 
will he siiri)riscd to find what a hnrricanc of cold air 
rushes aloni^" it even in summer, l^xcej)! on a l)roilin_L^ 
summer day, a doi;" should not <^"o out of doors for sev- 
eral hours after washing", certainly not until the coat 
and ears are perfectly dr\-. When completely dry, 
siiould the do"- still have any discoloration in the stop 
or show tear marks, apply (h-y boracic powder, and you 
will be astonished at the doi^'s improvement and smart 
appearance, lirush "entl}-. take all tans^les out of the 
ears and frills. Don't do this in a hurry, as it is kinder 
to the do£^, and you will reaj) the benefit by the extra 
amount of hair that will be left in for the ring. Never 
pull the hair after washin^^, as the pulling strains it 
beyond recovery, until it becomes like an overstretched 
elastic band and eventually breaks off. Do not brush or 
comb the hair when wet. If the dog" has much stain 
from tear marks, wash his muzzle every day with a 
small tooth brush and Monkey brand soap, and then 
apply a mixture of oxide of zinc powder and peroxide 
of hydrogen. 

Champion W indfall has had no other treatment since 
he w^as about eighteen months old, and a look at his ])ic- 
ture will comince the most sceptical that whatever 
treatment he has had has been completely successful. 
^'ou cannot grow coat on a deal board with any prepar- 
ation or treatment in the world, and some dogs, like 
deal l)<»ai"(ls, are incai)able of growing thick hair. This 
is very noticeable among the \ery straight coated 






^> 'i ^ 





(l - 














Wife of Admiral van Baalen 

Teiiipel, 1640. Cambridge Gallery. Photo, Hanfstaeiigl 


strains. I consider the very long, thin, straight coat 
a sign of consumptive tendency and an incHnation to 
chest weakness. It has certainly been my own experi- 
ence that this particular kind of coat means extreme 
delicacy of constitution. A dry biscuit immediately 
after washing and drying will be much appreciated, and 
will reconcile the dog to the idea of lying still by the fire 
and going to sleep instead of romping about and getting 
in a draught. 

It is a good plan to put him before the fire in one of 
Spraft's wire runs or in one of the pens. Cover the 
back of the pen with a dry bath towel, and he will soon 
be quite dry. If you find that the weekly washing makes 
your dog's coat too dry and brittle, apply some anti- 
septic oil or ointment. Do not use carbolic as a disin- 
fectant, as it is very poisonous to dogs, and so is tur- 

For the amusement of exhibitors I have collected 
some tenses of the verb " to show," in which they may 
recognise familiar scenes. 

The Verb " To Show," as Conjugated by Fanciers 
Infinitive Mood 

Indefinite (and very uncer- 
tain ) tense To show. 

Imperfect tense To be getting V. H. C. 

Perfect tense To have won the championship. 

Perfect continuous tense To have been running through 

all your classes. 


Present Showing. 

Past Dis(|ualified by the Kennel 


T()^ i)()(;s AM) riiKiK ancestors 

rrcsrnt Acik'C 

I >ll(>\V 

'I'lioii jiuljjjcst 

lie j^cts first prize 

She ])r<>tests 

We make a row 

\'e j(et into Imt water 

Tliev complain to the Secretary 

It ( the (loj^f ) has a lit 

Pvcsciit Imperfect 
I am showing 
Thou art winning 
He is a scountlrel 
She is disgusted 

We are writing to our sohcitors 
^'e are swindlers 
They are at daggers drawn 
It (the hotel hill) is scandalous 

Present Perfeet Coiitiiiitoits 

I lia\e heen showing 

'ilioii hast given the judge a black eye 

lie has gone to the Kennel tliib 

She has l)een (|uarrelling 

\\'e have heen fools 

Ye have made a ha^h of it 

They have called us names 

It has been a pandemonium 

Past Unpleasant 

1 waited (to show in my class) 

^'ou stole his customer 

1 le swore 

Slie trod on its tail 

We both claimed the same dog 

Ye looked on 

They lo(lged an objection 

It barkeil inct'-santly 


Terra - cotta Model in the 
LorvRE, Paris: " Chien de 

Italian I'late, 200 b.c. 

iSth-Centurv Ki\l,lish iStKULEwoRK Tapestry worked by the Five Wives of 

Thomas Foley 

By permission of Mrs Foley of Stoke Edith 


Retrospective Unsatisfactory 
I have shown (and lost) 
Thou hast gone without kinch 
He has mislaid his catalogue 
She has been caught without a ticket 
We have run short of cash 
Ye have caught cold 
They have lost their last train home 
It has not been a success 

Future Pessimistic 
I shall certainly arrive too late 
ThoTt shalt make matters worse 

He shall make a scene (unless I am much mistaken) 
She shall apologize (N. B. — but she won't) 
We shall miss our class 
Ye shall call a committee meeting 
They shall do nothing (as usual) 
It will get distemper (of course) 

Future Improbable 
I may give up showing 
Thou mayest regret it 
He may be a Champion 
She may agree with us 
We may pay them out 
Ye may go to Jericho 
They may resign 
It may be a blessing in disguise 

Present Unsatisfactory 
I have shown the wrong dog 
Thou hast got my number 
He has revoked 
She has lost her temper 
We have quarrelled 
Ye have interfered 
They have sent for the police 
It has all come to nothing 

27 207 

T()^ i)()(;s AM) riii:iH a\c kstoks 


If I should win 

If thou shoultlst lose 

If he should be fair 

If she should be polite 

If we should get a bargain 

If ye should be honest 

If they should have a sense of humour 

If only we hadn't conie 

riiif^i-rfcct Rcijrctful 
I had shown a faked dog 
Thou hadst iriniined 
He had bribeil 
She had blaekmailed 
They had judged their own dogs 
Ye had published defamatory libel 
W'e had knocked each other down 
It had been ])oisoned 

Future Defiant 
I shall not show any more 
Thou shalt not have my pen 
He shall not sit on luy basket 
She shall not take my chair 
W'e sliall never sj^eak to each other again 
^'e shall not get hve hundred ])er cent 
They shall nc^t get the class re- judged 
It shall not be poked b\- that wonians umbrella 

Subjiiiictiic lih'tilist 
I might show and win 
Thou mightest sell it cheap 
lie might not have an ulterior motive 
She might offer us three figures 
We might make a profit 
\q might be pleasant 
They might act in good faith 
It might be worse 


If it had not been for the 
Kennel Club 

Early Victorian Type of Toy Spaniel 

Attrilnitc-d to Landseer. Fholo, E. Walker 


J m per feet 
I was showing 
Thou wast hindering me 
He was drinking at the bar 
She was a nuisance 
They were making sarcastic remarks 
Ye were getting in the way 
We were (hiven (hstracted 
It was biting the ring steward 

Unattainable Tense 
I show (25 dogs) 
Thou guarantees! all the classes 
He judges (with perfect knowledge and fairness) 
She wins everything (and (juite right, tooj 
We congratulate her 

Ye give several 100 guinea cups to be won outright 
We all shake hands 
It is the JMillennjum 

Show (thou) 
Try again 
Go on showing 

The Yeri! " To Show," Conjugated by the Dogs 

I shall be shown 
Thou shalt be washing me 
He shall be in a hurry 
She shall have hysterics 
We shall be cross 
They (the whole house) shall be in an uproar 

Present Exciting 

I am being admired 
Thou art being brushed 


'V()\ i)()(;s AM) riiKiK ANc i:s'rc)Ks 

1 k' is comhiiii; my tail 
She is giving mc a l)i>ciiil 
W'c arc shut in a haskct 
They are taking u> l>y train 

Liiiitaiikcrinis I'lif'f'y Triisc 

1 .shall not allow myself to ho washed 

Thou shah not smuggle nie in the train without paying for mc 

lie shall examine my teeth at his peril 

She shall not touch my tail on any consitleration 

We shall iu)t catch tlie judges" eye if I can help it 

Ye shall n(,)t stop my harking 

They shall on no account know that 1 am soiuid 


I shall sit down in the ring 

Thou shalt coax me in vain 

lie might as well talk to the wind 

She shall pull my head off. for all I care 

We shall ohstruct the traffic delightfully 

^'e shall intimidate me to no purpose 

They shall be kept waiting for hours 

It will be great fun 

Past {from tlic i^'iitiwr's stinuif'oiiit) 

I took First Trize (whate\ei that nia\ he) 
Th«»n wert astonished 
lie said I showed beautifully 
She kissed mc 
We made quite a sensation 
They were nowhere 
^'e ofFcred a whole hea]> of money 
It was all published in the newspapers 


W "S 


Present {stonny) {from the other dog's point of viezv) 

I think something has gone wrong 

Thou art impossible to please 

Master seems terribly put out 

She has slapped me 

We are dog tired 

They are saying some one has been disciualified 

It is a shame 

N. B. — 1 shall certainly bite something or somebody in an- 
other minute 

• General Reflections 

Passengers arrk'ing at lozv-lcvel station, Crystal Palace 
" Excelsior ! " Five minutes later. " Excelsior ! " Ten minutes 

later, " still Excelsior! " 
The IVinners — "Delightful show, this; come and see my dog." 
7 he Losers — " Go to blazes ! " 

The Judges — " Let us see if we can't sli]) out the back way." 
The Ring Stezvards — " Stand back, ladies and gentlemen." 
The Gate Keeper — •" Five shillings, please." 
The Secretary — " Don't let me hear another word." 
The Committee — " Another guinea ! Your objection is frivo- 
Chorus of Small Boys — " C'tlog — C'tlog." 
The Public — " Rotten show; did you ever see such judging! Let 

us come back to-morrow." 
Everybody together at lo p.m. — " Let us go home, for goodness 
sake ! " 

ciiAi''n:K \ ii[ 

K i:.\ x i:i. M A x .\( -.I'-M i:xT 

Till-: tloors of tlic ideal kciincl should he asphaUed 
and kept sprinkled with sanitary sawdust. Such ken- 
nels will cost ahoirt ±20 to £60, accordins;- to size, and 
are s])ecially suitable where a very larj^e number of dogs 
are ke])t. fhev should he ])rovide(l with a stove at each 
end to he lighted during- the cold winter nii^hts. The 
dojT^s should he shut into the inner compartment at nij^lit, 
and the sliding- door into the outer run opened duriui;- the 
day so that they can get plenty of fresh air and see out 
into the world. For a smaller number of dogs nothing 
could he more ideal than my kennels, the dimensions 
of which are 35 ft. x 13 ft. x 6 ft. ( to the caves). I de- 
signed the arrangement of them myself, but got the 
sm.'dler building from Longbottom of Xafferton Works, 
Mull, for £13. At my re(|uest the}- ]hU in two doors and 
five large windows. 1 added an extra thick roofing of 
felt, also cupboards, tables, a sink, ])ens, and a stove. 
This kennel could not possibly be more convenient, nor, 
I \enture to think, less expensive for its large size. I 
should he ])leased to show all mv arrangements to anv- 
one who wished to build a similar one, as experience has 
pro\ed it i)erfect in ])ractical workableness. 

Ihiilding Xo. j is raised from the ground on brick 
piles, and has a wooden lloor. It is well tarri'd outride 
to keep awa\' damp and draughts, and can he match- 






boarded inside if the extra expense is no consideration. 
The windows are very pretty with no horizontal iron 
bars but only the perpendicular ones. Each pane of 
glass overlaps the other, indicating the cross lines. I 
consider that large windows are essential to the well 
being of the dogs. They must have light and sunshine, 
and the kennels should be built facing south. Kennel 
No. I is of wood, with small brick foundation and cor- 
rugated roof. Kennel No. 2 is of weather boarding, 
with tarred felt roofing. 

- Boulton and Paul, Rose Lane Works, Norwich, have 
many splendid designs of kennels and runs at most rea- 
sonable prices. I illustrate two of these which are par- 
ticularly good. There is, of course, no heating ap- 
paratus in these. 

A. Neaverson, of Peakirk, Peterborough, sells a 
beautiful puppy-run on wheels in several sizes from 
5 ft. X 2 ft., or a very useful size 9 ft. x 3 ft. 

To avoid mice in a kennel, keep a cat. If a kitten is 
reared with the puppies and knocks about with other 
dogs they will all get on together splendidly. Nothing 
keeps off rats and mice like the presence of a cat. They 
get too artful to go into traps. 

If there is a large open space that can be wired in 
outside the kennels, so much the better, as the dogs can 
then run all together on fine days, and bask in the sun. 
Do not let them out on rainy days, as damp is very bad 
for them, much worse than cold. Should they acci- 
dentally get wet, they must be rubbed thoroughly dry 
immediately on coming in. Give as much exercise as 
possible, and change the drinking water often. Except 
as a fetish, it is useless putting lumps of sulphur in their 
water, as sulphur is as insoluble in water as a lump of 



china. Vvcd twice a day on brown bread, hound meal, 
Melox, biscuits, boiled sheep's heads, or meat, as vou 
lind ihey do best. Xe\-er allow a doi;' to take a bone 
into its b(.-d. as nuu-li ill temper and lurious lij^htiuL;' will 
be the result. Toy .*^])aniels ha\e \er\- delicate e\es that 
are soon injured in a liL^ht. and. once disfigured by a 
white film over the eye, a doi;- is i^reatly handicajjped for 

I"'or intbnnmation of the eyes a weak solution of 
saltpeter and water is most beneficial, or. better still. 
ShirK'y's eye ointment. I^tr cases where a while speck 
forms. ;i minute ([uantity of powdered calomel, as nuich 
as will jL^'o on the extreme jxiint of a small penknife, may 
be ^"entl\- (lro])ped into the e\e. which is then closed, and 
very softly but thoroui^hly rubbed for a few minutes. 
I jT;ot this prescrii)tion from ]\liss l)illon. who had it 
from a welbknown b^-ench \et.. and. though I ha\e been 
re])ealedl\ l<»ld b\- iuiLilish \-ets. that it would injure 
the e\es. 1 ha\e lound the reverse to be the case. This 
treatment once daily often succeeds with chronic white 
films, where all else has failed, but should not be used in 
acute cases. .\ crushed poppy head boiled in a pint of 
water for fi\e minutes and strained through line muslin 
with a small leaspoonful of boracic acid added is a i^ood 
thiuL;- where the inllammation is severe. It should be 
api)lie(l hot to the eve several times dailw The do<^ 
slmuld Ik' kept as much as possible in the dark, and its 
teet /////.s7 be lied uj) in ba|L;s. as the e\es are so \ery that the doi;- will tear frantically at them and 
olteii destroy his sij^ht permanenth'. ( )f course, there are 
some injuries the scars of which nothini;" will remo\e, 
as whni llu- tissiu- oi tlu- ew is ])c'rmanenll\ damaL^i'd. 
It max be Cfiu^idi-red absurd, but I adxise all owners 



15. CO 


< I 


•I I--- 

Vr w r-A 

1 : :. ^ 



----- A 

! ' ' 

, ' 

lllhllMM ^^ 


who wish to preserve their clo.e:s to a good old age to 
brush their teeth every day with a soft badger's hair 
tooth l)riish. Toy dogs are very hable to a decay of the 
teeth, which is the cause of unpleasant breath and in- 
digestion. Powdered bicarljonate of soda is a good 
tooth powder and is perfectly harmless. In fact, it can, 
if accidentally swallowed, do nothing but good. After 
brushing, the teeth should be wiped over with a pad of 
cotton wool wrung out in some good, non-poisonous dis- 
infectant. I use chinosol. If the teeth are 1)rown with 
tartar they should be properly scaled by a veterinary 
surgeon, unless the owner is very skilful and can trust 
himself not to cut the dog's gums with the instrument. 
The great secret of healthy dogs is plentiful disinfecting 
and perfect cleanliness. 

If the kennels smell " doggy," they are not properly 
scrubbed. A l)arrel of disinfectant should be ke])t al- 
ways ready and liberally used. The money sj^ent in this 
way will not be wasted, for an epidemic of skin disease 
is far more costly than any amount of disinfectant. 
Use a lot of sanitary sawdust, and scrub your ken- 
nels like the decks of a ship, and you will never have 
much disease to complain of. Fleas and lice may be 
successfully eradicated by applications of a powder 
called Insect Death, to be obtained from Rowland Ward, 
The Jungle, Piccadilly. No well-kept dog should have 
either of these pests, which are always a sign of neglect, 
though all dogs are liable to pick up an occasional 
specimen of both, especially in the spring, but they are 
easy to get rid of and need cause no alarm. 1 have a 
special preparation of my own for lice which destroys 
both them and the nits in one dressing. 

Let me here warn breeders and exhibitors asfainst 


28 215 

'l'()^' i)()(;s AM) riiKiH ax( Ksroits 

(Inigi^iiii;' ilk'ir «1»»l;s. .\c\ct i;i\c llirm tonics of any sort 
unless tlicv arc just rccovcrini^ from a severe illness, and 
then not for loni;' at a time. Xci'cr j^ive condition pow- 
ders for show, or _L;i\'e any medicine whatever unless it is 
rendered iniperatixe h\- some emergency. T never g^ive 
my doi^s any druiis, and they do not rcHiuire any. Even 
aperients are not rcfiuired for a do^ that has proper 
food and exercise. I cannot too stron<;ly condemn the 
practice amonc^ some breeders of q-ivinpc arsenic to im- 
pro\-e tlu'ir doi^^s' coats. Whether tliis pernicious ])rac- 
tice has any effect on the do^s' coats I cannot say, hut 
T am inclined to doubt it. Tn any case, it certainly would 
impair the health of the individual, and eventually the 
l)reed would suffer. 1lie finest and best coats can only 
be got by washinc^ and keeping the dogs in perfect 
health; and 1 venture to say that perfect health is in- 
com]iatible with constant drug taking either in dogs or 
in human beings. If you are obliged to use medicines, 
use Shirley's ])reparations, and do n(^t spend large sums 
on vets. Some Toy Spaniels cannot eat bones without 
getting stoppage, and in matters of diet owners nuist be 
guided by in(li\idual peculiarity. 

Wx'd kennel dogs on ( )soko, JMolassine biscuits, soup, 
meat, l)oiled paunches, a little green vegetable, and 
wholesome scrai)s. .Vvoid salt and i)otatoes. ]\Iolassine 
biscuits are particularly good for delicate feeders and 
Spratt's malted meal is excellent for jmppies. 

.S7v'/'// Piscascs. — Toy Spaniels are, like all S|)aniels, 
so liable to skin disease that 1 cannot write on general 
management without dealing with the (|uestion, as an 
outbreak of spots ruins their appearance entirely for a 
long whik'. 

In the " i'.ook of Ivdconrie or llawking." \C)\i, M. 

J If) 

Cr^^u! U^ 

' ~ bee 190/. 
Two Good Kennels made by Boulton & Paul, Norwich 


Francesco Vicentino speaks of the diseases of Spaniels, 
especially the " Mangie " ; for " a good Spanell is a 
great jewel." A " Spanell " with " the Mangie " is, 
however, anything but a jewel. 

Remember that, roughly speaking, all skin disease 
should be considered extremely contagious and be 
treated as such. There is such a thing as non-con- 
tagious eczema, but let me entreat owners of Toy Span- 
iels not to say: " Oh, he's only got a touch of eczema," 
but to deal with all irritations and eruptions as their 
mostly deadly foes. Owners of these dogs should keep 
by them the following preparation: Oily dressing — i 
pint castor oil, olive oil, and paraffin, mixed in equal 
quantities, 2 ozs. sulphur, yi oz. turpentine, ^ oz. salt- 
petre. Oxide of zinc dissolved in hot water to a satu- 
rated solution and mixed with half the quantity of a 
similar solution of boracic acid is a good lotion. Before 
treating for skin complaints, treat for worms, and then 
give a dose of castor oil once a week as long as the erup- 
tion lasts. Rub the dog well over with dry boracic 
powder. You may, if you prefer it, give one teaspoon- 
ful of cattle salts twice a week instead of the castor oil. 

The dogs should be carefully looked over every day, 
and the slightest redness or irritable spot or roughness 
immediately touched with one of the mixtures. The 
favourite places for spots are on the forehead (this is 
the most disfiguring, and should be instantly checked), 
under the arm pits and joins of the legs, and between 
the toes. A young dog never scratches persistently 
without cause, though old ones that have had eruptions 
sometimes continue the habit after the eruption is gone. 
If a young dog scratches continually, he is either 
troubled with insects, fleas or lice, or he has skin trouble 


T()^' D()(;S AM) I'lIKIK AXC'KSrOUS 

(»r wnnus. In ;in\ case il is well to hc^iii by IrcatiiiL; lor 
worms, ami lo make sure that tlierc are no external 
jjarasites. in case ol general eruption, llie (loi;" must 
he (h'essed (/// o'irr from nose to tail with the oily dress- 
ing, which must he lel'l on for twenty- four hours and 
then washed olT and repeated. In loni;- standing- cases 
o\ the worst kind it will he necessary to shave the do<^ 
completely hefore treatment. The strons^est contrihut- 
inji;" cause of skin disease is damp. Ooi^s kept on a low, 
dam|). cla\ soil will al\\a\s he hreakin;.;" out, and it 
must he rememhered that hoth tleas and rats will con- 
vey mani^e. 

Another excellent remedy for skin disease is oxj^^all 
and sulphur. Aho\e all, however, remeniher that your 
(loj;s will always he breaking" out unless \-ou cure them 
of cpnker in the ear. Cure the canker with dry powders, 
such as horacic acid or oxide of zinc worked well into 
the interi(H- of the ears, and clean out with spirals of 
cottonwool. Xcrcr wash the inside of the ear with soap 
and water — il is deadly. Canker in the ear, if not act- 
ually the same microbe as maniLje, api)ears to be its twin 
brother. Cure the canker, and the skin disease will go, 
loo, as loni;' as the doi;- is free fn^m worms. 

The best skin lotion o\ all, which 1 ha\e found a 
certain cure, ihouj^h the smell is somcthiui;- fearful w bile 
il is beini;" made, is made up as follows: 

Mower of sulphur J lbs. 

Cnslaked lime i lb. 

Water j gallons. 

Slake the lime in a little water. .*^tir in the sulphur, 
adding water gradually until it is as thick as cream, then 
add the rest of ihe water and boil down to one gallon. 

J 18 

Daughter of Roberto Stkozzi 

Titian, i477-rs76. lierlin. Photo, Hanrstaciigl 


Let the mixture stand till cold. Pour off the clear 
liquid and make the quantity up to five quarts with cold 

For Toy Dogs, half fill a six-ounce bottle with the 
lotion, add two teaspoonfuls of oxide of zinc, and fill the 
bottle with lime water. 

Shake well before use. This is Miss Todd's recipe. 

It should be used with great care, as it blisters if too 
strong. If the dog blisters apply olive oil immediately, 
as it arrests the action of the dressing. The blisters 
fiever destroy the roots of the hair, so if one should acci- 
dentally be caused by too strong a solution, do not be 
alarmed but apply the oil. 

It is a great pity that some show veterinary surgeons 
are so lax in admitting to the shows dogs which are 
suffering from skin disease. I do not refer to a few heat 
spots, which sometimes break out on the stomach of 
healthy and thrifty dogs, but to long standing cases of 
what the owners call " eczema." I defy the cleverest 
vet. alive in a few seconds when the dog passes through 
his hands at the entrance of the show, to pronounce cer- 
tainly that eczema is not mange. This is, in fact, often 
only possible with a microscope. Therefore, all cases 
of skin eruption over the head and face, elbows and 
thighs, ought to be turned back at the doors. It is not 
fair to the other exhibitors that one of these erupting 
dogs should be handled by the judge, who immediately 
passes on to the next dog and conveys any germs 
directly to it. A dog which is so bad that it cannot stop 
biting and scratching itself even in the ring is not fit 
for show. The surest sign of a contagious form of skin 
disease in Toy Spaniels is the appearance of the fore- 
head and eyebrows. If these look moth eaten, and es- 


'H)\ DOCS AM) 'l'lli:iU ANC KSrOHS 

pcciallv it the skin ;i|>|K';irs wrinklrd and scaly or pink 
and the iloi;' has a cciiain mousy smell, you may slake 
vour rcputatiou on iho ilisoasc hciui; coutai;ious. This 
is iust the kind that many vets, pass into the shows. It 
is more neeessarx to he eareiul with .Spaniels than with 
anv other hreed ol" doi;\ as they are liahle to he a par- 
tieularlx persistent and desperately eontajLiious kind of 
maui^e whieh docs not often alTect otiier l)reeds. 

Miim'Ai \oi"i:.s 

("linieal thermi>meters for doii's can he had from 
Sherlev \- Co. \ doi;'s normal tempeiature under the 
arm or thii;h is just over ux^ \ In the rectum it is loT' 
to mi ' J . i(.\^ is fe\er, u>5 is \ery hi,Lih fe\er. 

Normal respiration is J5 to 30 a minute. 

Normal pulse o\ a Toy d(\i;- is alxnU oo to the minute. 
The pulse is alwavs somewhat intermittent. 150 is very 
t|uick, 70 to (>o is very slow. 

l\\treme restlessness, when a doi^" keeps i^ettin^" up 
aiul Iviu!.; down, ov sittini;" hunched up. or standing" w itli 
his hack arched, is a sii^u of pain. Many owners do not 
notice when their do^s are ill till the mischief is far ad- 
vanced. If a doi: won't eat. ov seems une\pecte^lly elull 
and sleepv. mo\es lani^uidly ov is anxious and restless. 
there is .somethins^" wrouL^. 1 can always tell when the 
least thins; is wroni;" with a di^i; hy the expression iti the 
face. It j^ets a pinched, rather drawn lot^k. and the 
muzzle appears narrower than usual. Pretty doi^s he- 
C(»me suddenly plain. After the animal has heen asleep 
vou will notice when he lifts his heail that the side oi his 
face on which he lias heen restinj;- remains llattened. 
and docs not recover its usual outline for some minutes. 
If vou ha\e no means o\ knowini; the nature o\ .1 case, 


6 £ 


you can judge the progress and severity of the disease 
by the " look " of the dog. There is no more reHable 
guide as to the seriousness of a case than the expression 
of the dog's face. It will often warn you of complica- 
tions which the pulse or thermometer would not indicate. 
There is a certain look which always means death, but 
unless it is present, there is Still hope, however bad the 
symptoms and however high the temperature may be. 

For fits, give one-quarter of a teaspoonful of bromide 
of potassium in a little water every two hours. Dogs 
will stand an enormous quantity of laudanum. Eight 
drops in a dessertspoonful of lime water is an ordinary 
dose, but I have known as much as thirty drops to be 
given to a small unweaned puppy with success. Up to 
thirty-five and forty drops may be injected with starch 
into the bowels for a twelve-pound dog in cases of dysen- 
tery. To feed a dog by rectum, use a syringe (not one 
with a glass nozzle, as it is dangerous if it 1)reaks) and 
inject slowly once every three hours one dessertspoonful 
of peptonized milk. Meat suppositories may be used as 
a change. Be careful in filling the syringe not to draw 
up any air with the food, and before inserting the nozzle 
oil it with olive oil so that it will pass easily, or you may 
set up irritation which will prevent the dog from retain- 
ing the food. 

As soon as the dog can swallow and keep anything 
down, feed on milk and soda water. For persistent 
vomiting give one teaspoonful of brandy, one teaspoon- 
ful of water, and one-half teaspoonful of essence of 
ginger. Half of this makes one dose. Do not let a dog 
drink when he is sick. He always wants to, and it always 
makes him worse. Let him lick ice. A teaspoonful of 
Pond's Extract also succeeds very well in sickness. 



Ergot of rye is dangerous in my opinion for Toy 
Spaniels, as it is inclined to set up sickness which is often 
fatal in whelping cases. For an emetic, give one-sixth 
grain of tartar emetic, or, if not available, mustard and 
water, in proportion of one teaspoonful mustard to a 
tumbler of water. For strychnine poisoning, give one- 
twentieth grain of apomorphia in a couple of drops of 
water injected under the skin, or double the dose in half 
a teaspoonful of water by mouth, but a dog with strych- 
nine poisoning often cannot «;wallow. The svmptoms of 
strychnine poisoning are violent convulsions of the body, 
alternating with fainting fits and severe panting. Dur- 
ing the fainting fits, the heart and the breathing appear 
to stop altogether. Emetics should be tried, and all 
noises should be avoided, such slamming doors, as they 
tend to increase the convulsions. If you cannot procure 
apomorphia in time, give large doses of laudanum. 

Doses for Toy Spaniels 

Pulsatilla Nigricans. 5 to 10 drops every two to three hours for 

Tincture of Aconite, 3 drops every three hours for distemper, 
chills and fever. 

Glycerine and Carbolic. 15 to 19 drops every four hours. 

Brandy, for very quick pulse, i teaspoonful or more as required. 

Digitalis (2 drachms). Xux \'omica (i drachm). | a teaspoon- 
ful to a teaspoonful every three or four hours for verv slow 
pulse. (This medicine is only to be used in emergencies.) 

Gregory Powder, i eggspoonful. given fasting, for internal up- 
sets and bilic")usness. 

Naldires Powders. ^ of a powder for an adult and as much as 
will lie on the extreme point of a penknife for a puppv six 
weeks old. 

Castor Oil. i good teaspoonful is a dose, but it is best to give 
^ teaspoonful of castor oil and \ teaspoonful of olive oil. 


« The Best Way of Docking Puppies' Tails 

I, 2. Make a clove hitch with strong surgical silk. 3, 4. Insert puppy's tail in noose. 

(When drawn le\el, a sharp, strong pull across the tail will take the end off without spilling a drop of lilood. 

Bird's-eye View of Kitten and Puppies asleep on a Cushion 


Often a iiiild dose of olive oil alone is sufficient, or 
a banana, which most Toy SjKiniels will eat greedily. 
If the castor oil is too thick anrl will not run properly, 
warm the bottle at the fire. 

People make a threat mistake in <(ivin<^ their doi^s 
constant doses of ajjerients. Constipation should never 
be dealt with by druc^s, least of all with castor oil, which 
has the powerful reaction which makes it so useful in 
cases of diarrhea. Give whole meal bread soaked in 
gravy and a few green vegetables added to the food. 
Girf^erbread is useful, and much liked. Boiled liver is 
also a laxative. For stoppage, use injections of w-arm 
water with castor oil, one dessertspoonful to one-eighth 
pint of water. 

For rheumatism, cut off meat and sugar and sub- 
stitute milk, brown bread, biscuits, and a moderate 
quantity of cheese and vegetables. Do not overfeed. 

Beware of Razv Meat. — The kennels of owners wdio 
use it much are sure to be infested with worms and 
mange. The dog, like the vulture, is by nature a scav- 
enger w^hich feeds on raw flesh and offal. When per- 
forming their natural offices in luistern countries two 
more filthy creatures could not be found. Both are 
mangy to the last degree. Anyone who has seen dogs 
and vultures living on raw food, as I have, and observed 
the results in both, will never again recommend " the 
dog's natural food," I may say that the most healthy, 
well-kept Toy dogs regard it with obvious disgust. Cer- 
tainly none of my own healthy dogs would ever touch it. 
In some cases where the a])petite is depraved and where 
a ])uppy is in such a condition of weakliness that you 
are at your wits' end how to keep life in it, you may try 
it as you might try any other dangerous remedy, but T 
29 223 


can oiil}- say that 1 have been far more successful with- 
out it, than when using it. It is never worth while, 
moreover, to rear puppies that are fundamentally un- 

For indigestion, give ingluvin, live grains in each 
meal, and give the dog nothing but hot water to drink 
instead of cold. 

For l)ad coughs and colds, make pills as follows: 
Each pill contains : 

Extract of Hyosciamus i.O gr. 

Podophyllin a trace 

Potash Nitrate 0.5 gr. 

Potash Chlorate i-O gr. 

Powdered Rhubarb 0.5 gr. 

Extract of Colocynth 0.5 gr. 

One pill twice a day for a couple of days. 

Puppies often have navel ruptures, and, unless very 
bad, these usually cure themselves. If unusually bad, 
they may be cured as follows : Cut ofif a slice at the end 
of a large cork. \\'arm some strips of Mead's adhesive 
plaster (this is a soft tape plaster), get the puppy on its 
back, and gently push the swelling into the aperture 
which you will feel under the skin. Place the slab of 
cork over the place and fix it there with the strips of 
plaster. If the protrusion of the intestine is thus pre- 
vented the sides of the opening will gradually grow up 
together and close it. The plaster must be occasionally 
changed, as it shows a tendency to come off. 


As this is not a veterinary book, I shall only say a 
few words on distemper. Should your dog show signs 



of (lislcmpcr, do not delay lo put him in a warm ])lace. 
Put him at once into a flannel coal with a llannel chest- 
preserver. You can make the latter by cutting two 
oval holes in a piece of flannel. I\it the doj^'s forelegs 
throui^h the holes and ])in the flannel over his back with 
two stout safety ])ins. him be as (|iiiet as possible. Feed on milk, raw^ 
white of eg-g-, and meat jelly and fish. ]f you cannot 
afford this diet, g^ive him milk and white of egg only. 
Begin by giving a good teaspoon ful of castor oil. 
Should there be diarrhoea afterwards, give occasionally 
a teaspoonful of Symes's preparation of lac bismuth, and 
let all food be quite cold. Let the dog 1)e in the same 
temperature day and night. Should the diarrhcea turn 
to dysentery, or be black and streaked with blood, and 
very persistent, it may very often be stop])ed by equal 
parts (about a teaspoonful of each) of raw brandy and 
port wine, mixed with enough powdered arrowroot to 
make a paste, and given just as it is. 1 ha\'e seen 
miraculous results from this. In desperate cases where 
sickness makes it impossible to give anything by the 
mouth, an injection into the rectum of six drops of 
brandy, four to eight drops of laudanum, and a table- 
spoonful of thick boiled starch will sometimes bring 
a dog round from the very jaws of death. Sherley's ^ 
diarrhoea powders, also, are marvellous. For severe 
vomiting, give half a teaspoonful of essence of ginger, 
one teaspoonful of brandy, one teaspoonful of \vater. 
Mix, and give half for a dose. Should the dog become 
very much collapsed, brandy should be liberally given, 
either burnt or raw. He must absolutely be kept out of 
all suspicion of a draught. All unpleasant discharges 

1 Shcrley &- Co., 48 Borough High Street, London. 
00 :: 

'^()^ DOCS AM) riiKiH axckstoks 

musl Ik- iiiinn.'(li;itt'l\- rcuioxcd. Should tlic distciiipcr 
!)(.' <>t' pin'unionic form willi liii^ii lever, j^ivc I Ioiikco- 
palliic tinclurc of ;icoiiik>. three (h'ops every three hours. 
I have fouud this iuwihiahle. The other uie(heiue tliat 
eau he i;i\eu as well is ^iyeeriue of earhohe sohiliou. 
oue part earhohe to teu of Lil\eerine: fifteeu (h'ops every 
four hours. 

Sliould the quills heeoine iullained and tlie teeth 
hlaek. thev should he eleaned with a soft ha(li^"er tooth 
hrush. and the mouth swahhed out e\er\- two hours, day 
and ni_L;"ht, with eotton wool dipped in a weak solution 
of chinosol. 

Careful watehini;" and nursini;' and perfeet eleanli- 
ness are praetiealK- the onl\- eure for distemper. A 
day's forget fulness or a eareless allowing" of any great 
change of temperature will prohahly cause the d(\g's 
death. 'The room should he kept at ahout (^^\ and plenty 
of fresh air should always he let in without lowering 
the temperature. This is hest achieved hy ha\ing a 
window eonstantlv open at the top and a lu'e going day 
and night. 

When he is convalescent do not gi\e nnx exercise 
lor ahout two months. .Man\- \aluahle dogs are killed 
hy taking them for a walk too .soon. Their hearts are 
weak, .and the exercise overtaxes them. 

In administering li(|ui(ls. rememher it is not 
necessary to force the dog's mouth open. I lold his 
head up .ind pull the loose corner of the mouth aw.av 
trom the teeth so that it m.akes a sort of funnel into 
which you can slowly pour the medicine or li(|uid food. 
which w ill he e.asily sw.allowed as it trickles down hehind 
tlu- h.ack teeth. ( )n gixing ;i pill, open the dog's mouth 
and put thr pill on the h.ick of the tongue .and push it 

Mrs Solomon's J)aka 

Miss Serena's I'vc.i ok Koue and 
Nippon ok Kobe 

Tliese tlogs are a great contrast in lyi"', lli<: nm: on llic 
left being the proper type. I'lmlo, UnsM-ll 

Mrs M'Larhn Morrison's Japanese Puppies 

Plioto, J. R. Clarke 

tRS H. Andrews' Aka of Ioddington 
Photo, T. Fall 

Mrs Lloyd's Japanese 

Photo, Russell 


right down the throat with the forefinger. It will not 
make him sick as it would a human heing. llie mouth 
should be instantly closed as the finger is withdrawn, 
and kept closed. You will know directly the pill has 
been swallowed, because then the tongue will be pro- 
truded to lick the nose. 

Treat all symptoms according to their relative im- 
portance. I know a man who, having brought a young 
puppy successfully through distemper so that it was con- 
valescent, finding it had got some lice, rubbed it all over 
with a ])arafiin dressing, killing it within a few hours. 
The insects should have been picked off every day till 
the puppy was (juite well, and then treated with insect 
powder for a while. 

Dogs can have distem])er more than once, but very 
seldom do. Nor do they often have it after four years 
old, though T know of one dog that did not have it till 
the age of ten years. Ordinary distemper is, however, 
no safeguard whatever against Japanese distemper. I 
have heard of dogs having two attacks of distemper in 
twelve months. One died, but the others recovered. 
I do not believe in anti-distemper inoculation and can- 
not advise it for really valuable dogs. Also, in spite of 
all that authorities say to the contrary, a dog may break 
out with Japanese distemper twelve hours after being 
exposed to infection. 

After an outbreak of distemper in a kennel, the place 
is not safe for new dogs under a month, and after thor- 
ough disinfection. 

Distemper in Toy Spaniels is usually followed by a 
desperate attack of suppurating oi)thalmia, which, if 
unchecked, often destroys the eyesight permanently. 
The eyeball bursts and then shrivels up like a dried 


^u^' uu(;s and tiikik axckstous 

apple, or at llic best kavos a L^rcy, jelly-like eye, which 
is sickeiiini; t<> l<><»k at. In cases ot" this kind use Sher- 
lev's eve-cure oiutuient three <»r four liuies a day t'roui 
the ver\- lirst sxuiptonis. aud keej) the do^- in the dark. 
W hen the e\es are ver\' much inllanied, use a lotion ol 
alum, t\\el\e grains, and water, six ounces, mixed to- 
i^elher. Appl\- with antiseptic cotton wool, usini;- llie 
wool as a si)oni;e, and see that it really t^els under the 
lids. The ])aws iiiitsl he tied up in hai^s, or there is not 
the slightest chance ol' saving- the eyes, the irritation 
being' so excessive that the dog" will madly tear at them. 
0])hthalmia ajipears to he extremely contagious. 

ICvery kennel of valuable dogs should be i)rovided 
with a room (a ])ortal)le hut on wheels will do) where 
newcomers can be isolated for three weeks on arrixal. 
There should also be a room in which visiting l)itches 
can be kept. 1 louse i)ets, such as are often sent to good 
dogs, cannot be ])ut into kennels. However comfortable 
their (|uarters may be, they fret if left with strange com- 
])anions. It is \erv dangerous, moreover, to intrcxluce 
among healthy stock bitches which may come from un- 
sanitary surroundings. 

I must earnestly warn my readers who keep Toy 
Spaniels never to be tem])ted into keeping Ja])anese 
S])aniels as well. The latter have a ])eculiar kind of 
distem])er — not always called distemper 1)\' vets — but 
variously treated as i)neumonia, gastritis, inlluenza, or 
Stuttgart disease. W hether or not it is. technically 
speaking, distemj)er, is of no conse(|uence to Toy dog 
owners. It is Ixith int'ectious and contagious, and far 
more deadly than ordinary distemper, being fatal in 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, no treatment be- 
ing of the slightest avail. It is unknown among Toy 


Pekingese Dog, Chu Ty of Alderbourne 

Pro|)L-rly of Mrs A. Cross. I'lioto, '1'. Fall 

Lauy Samuelsun's Japanese MARguis Cheno and Ikeua of JJkaywick 

Photo. T. Fall 


Spaniels except when contracted frcjni a Ja])anese, and 
it ends in virulent mortification of mouth and lungs or 
intestines, so that the dog- is in a state of putrefaction 
hefore its death. So terrible is this frightful scourge 
which annually sweeps and devastates Japanese kennels, 
that 1 would strongly advise all other Toy dog clubs to 
unite in getting the Japanese restricted to a separate 
roc^m in all shows at which any other small breed is 
exhibited. For it is chiefly through the shows that the 
disease is propagated. This measure should be taken 
in Tlie interest of all our Toy breeds, lest they, also, be- 
come subject to the same amazing mortality and die out 
altogether. Our own distemj^er is bad enough, but the 
other is as fatal as the " Black Death," which, indeed, it 
closely resembles. A curious feature of this disease is 
that a dog with the pneumonic form of it may pass it 
on to another dog in the typhoid form. 

In conclusion, I cannot too often im])ress u])on my 
readers the necessity for perfect cleanliness in every- 
thing connected with the dogs. Constantly wash all 
sponges and brushes and combs with the Army and 
Navy sponge and brush powder to be procured from the 
Army and Navy Stores, Victoria St., S. W. 

Never go near or handle other people's dogs without 
changing your clothes and shoes before returning 
amongst your own. ^'ou will have reason to congratu- 
late yourself if you adopt these simple but tiresome pre- 
cautions, as you may often hear afterwards that the 
dogs which looked well and free from illness were sick- 
ening for distemper, and you will be spared the regret 
of having imported the disease into your own establish- 

If you get a letter from a person who has disease in 



liis koniH'ls. I)urn it imnKHlialcly, as it may comov _i;vniis 
to voiir (los^s. 

.\\()i(l trailing" skirts in your kennels. They also 
pick up and convey sperms. 1 consider that tleas and 
thes are ^reat carriers of di^leniper. 

If you have no separate huildintvs in which you can 
isolate sick doi^s, and are ol)lii;ed to attend all your do^s 
yourself', si^niethint;' may he done hy han^iniLr a sheet 
soaked in antisei)tic over the door ot' the room in which 
you keep the patients and doinij;' all your nursing- in a 
\vateri)roof overall and gahxshes. Finally, if you take 
otY these on leaving; the room and wash your hands in 
strong disinfectant, there is much less chance of infec- 

\\"lli:i.l'l.\C. AXl) RlCARlNG ^ 

A hitch will he due to whelp sixty-three days after 
mating;-. See that she gets regular exercise without o\ er 
exertion and has ordinary food. Feed twice a day, 
once at noon and once ahout seven p.m.. with as much 
hread and meat as will just cover the hottom of an 
ordinary ilinner i)late. Should it he her first litter, 1 
strongly recommend the use of Pulsatilla Nigricans, 
(order of James Epps) in the " Mother Tincture." 
Give two to four drops in a teaspoonful of water daily 
night and morning for three weeks hefore whelping, or 
when lal)t>ur has hegun give live to seven tirops every 
hour until delivered. It is an exasperating fact that 
most litters are horn at night, so that each litter proh- 
ahly means a sleei)less night for the owner. 

Have a wooden hox prepared with hay. A rough 

* For the details contained in this chapter I am indebted to the most 
experienced and successful of Toy Spaniel breeders. Miss Aiuiie Todd. 


Sj,J,J,i'I.M, I'h 

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box may be made like the one illustrated. The door at 
the side is to enable }ou to reaeh and help the bitch 
should she require assistance. The bit of board in front 
is to prevent the puppies falling out when they begin to 
crawl. ^ 

Let her have the box to sleep in about a week before 
she is due, so that she may get to like it and look upon 
it as her own property. \\'hen she is about to whelp 
slie will begin to be very restless, and will scratch up 
her bed and often scatter the hay all over the room in a 
most annoving wav. This may go on for many hours 
before the pups are born. There is generally an interval 
of half an hour, or sometimes three or four hours, be- 
tween the births of puppies. Between whiles the bitch 
must then be allowed to sleep quietly. So long as 
she does this, you need not alarm yourself if the whelp- 
ing goes rather slowly, but if she is very restless, in 
great pain, and often sick, send for a veterinary sur- 
geon, though I cannot promise much good from it, there 
being very few who understand Toy dogs.- 

A little help is all that is generally necessary during 
whelping, though very strong measures are sometimes 
inevitable in the case of dead puppies, and then the bitch 
should be put under chloroform. \Mien a bitch which 
has been in labour is just about to have a puppy, you can 
tell by the change from whining and barking to a sort of 
deep grunt or gasp. When this begins the puppy will 
soon make its appearance. Sometimes there is a sudden 
complete silence after a great deal of scratching and 

1 Spratt's terrier travelling boxes at 15.J. are first rate if you care to 
buy instead of making but the top must be made to open. 

- The diminutive size of the animals prevents effectual assistance with 


noise, and this also means a pnppy is close at hand. As 
soon as a puppy is born, be sure the afterbirth comes, too. 
This is usually attached to the puppy by a cord, but 
sometimes the cord breaks and it gets left behind and 
sets up blood poisoning. In cases where you suspect it 
of being retained, syringe with warm sterilized ( /. e., 
boiled) water and a few drops of Condy's Fluid. But 
remember that if you are not attending when the after- 
birth comes away the bitch will dispose of it and so cause 
you needless alarm. The habit is quite a natural one 
and will do her no harm. After previously tying a piece 
of thread round it on the side next the body, sever the 
string five minutes after birth about two inches from the 
body with a pair of disinfected scissors, should the 
mother not have bitten it off herself. A\'ith short-faced 
bitches, it is much safer to do it yourself, as they often 
bite it oft' too short, with fatal results, and have also 
been known to bite oft* the legs of their puppies by mis- 
take. Twist the cord firmly between your fingers be- 
fore cutting it. I find that the best plan is to remove 
each puppy, as it is born, into an open basket by the fire. 
Have a hot-water bottle in this basket, with a small 
blanket over it. The best shape for a bottle is that of a 
whiskey or wine bottle, but tin is better than glass. 
Place each puppy on the blanket next to the hot-water 
bottle, and cover it up completely, but lightly, with an- 
other small blanket. It will not suft'ocate, as you may 
at first imagine. Of course the water in the bottle should 
not be boiling. In this way, by the time the whelping 
is over, the pups will be warm and dry and ready to go 
to their mother, whereas, if left to her, she will very 
likelv leave them cold and wet or trample on them. It 
is quite useless talking of Nature being the best guide 


AiKV Windfall (Tricoloi'r), 3 Months 

Fantail of St Anthony (Blenheim) 
3 -Months 

ICE OF Hearts ^Blenheimj, 2 Months 

Checkmate ; 1 kicoloi'ki, 3 Months 


\\'hirl\\tnd (^Tricolour), 2 Months 
Some of Mrs Lytton's Toy Spaniel Puppies 


in these matters, as these Toy dogs are so highly 
domesticated that they have lost a great part of their 
natural instincts. And now let me warn breeders that 
if Toy puppies are not kept warm, but are ever allowed 
to get chilled, they will infallibly die. They must be 
kept in a warm, dry place, and during the first two weeks 
they can hardly be kept too warm. Dogs in a wild state 
would probably breed in holes in the ground, where 
there is very little air, and the domesticated ones are 
certainly less hardy than the wild ones. No attempt 
whatever must be made to " harden " puppies at this 
stage, or their lives will be sacrificed. A puppy that is 
born apparently dead may often be saved by being taken 
up instantly by the hind legs and shaken, head down- 
wards; this must be smartly and decidedly done. The 
mouth should be opened with the finger, and the puppy 
shaken as you would shake a big watch to set it ticking, 
not as you would shake out a duster. This will often 
dislodge a lump of something like mucus from its throat, 
and it will gasp and begin to squeak and revive from 
that moment. Do not breathe into the puppy's mouth, 
as you only give it carbonic acid gas. If you feel you 
must blow air into it, use a bellows. Should a puppy 
appear weak it must be helped to suck by holding it 
while it takes nourishment. Should the mother die, the 
pups may possibly be brought up on condensed milk, 
made as for a baby, given every two hours out of a baby's 
bottle, keeping them constantly in a covered basket with 
a hot-water bottle ; but a cat foster-mother is best of all. 
Puppies brought up by their mothers should begin 
to take condensed milk three times a day as soon as they 
are four weeks old, and gradually allowed to go less and 
less to their mothers till they are entirely weaned. They 


should then l)c fed on Neavcs food throe times a day 
(al)oiU half a saucer ful at a time for each, accordins;' to 
the size) from the time they are five weeks old till the 
age of seven weeks, when ihev can l)ei;in to take crushed 
tahle hiscm'ts added to the Neax'es food when hot. At 
ten weeks old they can hci^in a little minced mutton and 
broth. Put the nnitton through a very fme mincing 
machine, and put the boiling soup onto some white 
bread crumbs — mix all together. Lactol is another ex- 
cellent food. Tn rearing puppies from birth on Lactol, 
it should be given for the lirst week diluted with four 
times its weight of water and afterwards three times 
its weight, (iive warm every two hours, twenty drops at 
a time, increasing the dose as the pu])py gets older. ^ On 
will know how much to give, as when a i)up has had 
enough it falls asleep, whereas it will cry and be restless 
if it is still hungry. 

Tn weaning i)Ui)s on Lacteal, make it as follows: One 
good heaped-up teaspoonful to each imi)py. Mix into 
a thick paste with cold water, and then add hot water, 
stirring the while till it is like thick milk. Give three 
times a day. i\s the puppies grow, increase the ([uantity 
and add scalded rusks. They can also ha\'e a little 
mutton broth as they get older. 

To keep puppies from running about and getting 
into draughts, 1 recommend that a bit of linoleum be 
])nt down in a corner of the room next to the breeding 
box. Put round it one of Spratt's patent wire j)oultry 
runs at //(>. This will keep them clean and out of the 
way and save the carpets. It will be found an immense 
conxenience to have two small tin pails, one empty and 
one containing dry sawdust. When there is any dirt, 
sprinkle the sawdust liberally over it and sweej) it into 


]\Iiss Dawson's Japanese Puppy Ykzo 

Lorraine House, Cheltenham 

liLEXUKiM Puppy, 6 Weeks old 

Mrs ].ytton's Tkicolouk Pui'py Heiress 
3 Months old 

]\1rs Pickersgill's Red Japanese 1'uppy 

Miss Tempest, Japanese Puppy 

Toy Trawler Puppies 


a coal scoop or dust pan with a large fibre brush, both 
kept for the purpose. It can then be transferred to and 
carried away in the spare pail. If this method is adopted 
there is no unpleasantness in cleaning up. 

I do not recommend raw meat, as it almost always 
produces worms, the germ of tape worm being found 
in flesh and maturing soon after being swallowed by 
the puppies. All puppies should be dosed with worm 
medicine when they are two months old or sooner, at 
five or six weeks if possible, w4th a suitable vermifuge, 
and the treatment should be repeated once a week till 
thfey are four or five months old. This is exceedingly 
important and should never be neglected. 

I am often asked whether it is safe to wash a bitch 
in whelp. I think that if the washing is done on the 
lines I recommend there is no risk at all for the first five 
weeks. A bitch in whelp should be lifted as little as 

There is a way of telling for certain if a bitch is in 
whelp at a month, but it is rather difficult to describe. 
If you feel gently under her body you will find between 
your fingers something which feels like a pigeon's Ggg. 
This is a sure sign that the bitch is in whelp, but it is 
not at all easy to find as there is something else almost 
in the same place which can very well be mistaken for 
the right thing. An expert can often actually tell how 
many puppies will be born. This should only be at- 
tempted with the greatest care, or there is risk of bruis- 
ing the puppies. They can only be felt just at this time 
and only for about a week or ten days. 

The first signs of being in whelp are sometimes a 
loss of appetite, slight sickness and sleepiness, and per- 
haps an occasional forgetfulness of house manners. 



When you decide to use a bitch for breeding, make 
quite sure that she has no worms, for if she has them the 
puppies are sure to have them, too, and they are often 
fatal to young puppies. Should you notice that a puppy 
gets pinched in its hind quarters or often has diarrhoea, 
you may be pretty sure it is suffering from worms, and 
it should immediately be treated, as the risk of waiting 
is greater than that of dosing it. If, however, you 
carry out my instructions as to dosing the tiny puppies 
at five or six weeks old, they will never get into this 
dangerous condition. I always treat my full-grown 
dogs with Naldires powders, as I consider there is noth- 
ing to equal them, in spite of the warnings of other 
breeders, who told me they were too strong. If the 
proper dose is given they are perfectly safe, and they 
are nothing short of miraculous in their action. They 
are also often permanently effectual, one dose being 
sufficient in almost every case. You must, of course, 
be careful not to overdose. One-third of a powder for 
a ten-pound adult dog is my rule. I have even dosed 
small puppies with as much as would lie on the point 
of a penknife. The puppies should only be dosed with 
this about a week before leaving the dam. The dose 
requires no following up with castor oil, which on no 
account should be given. 

Do not exhibit your puppies before they are six 
months old. It is extremely risky and, even if they 
escape distemper, the nervousness they contract from 
over excitement and noise will probably ruin their future 
show career. 

Dock your puppies' tails as soon as their eyes are 
open. Disinfect a pair of sharp scissors. With your 
left hand pull up the skin of the tail toward the puppy's 


Mrs Kingdon's Japanese Spaniel Denka 

Photo, Russell 

^^T^ ^^^^ ,3 

^ ▼ 


Mrs Senn's Ch. Koma 

Photo, J. K. Cole. Loaned by Mr J. Watson 

Mrs Senn's Ch. Senn Senn 

A kively type 


body and snip off as much as you wish with one decided 
snip. On releasing the tail, the skin you have held back 
will slip over the severed part and leave no scar visible 
when the wound heals. You must be careful to cut 
quickly, and the puppy seldom even squeaks if it is prop- 
erly done. The mother will heal the tail by licking it. 
An adult dog should never be docked, as it is sheer 
cruelty, and very dangerous after the bone has formed. 

When a bitch has whelped leave the bedding for the 
first fortnight undisturbed except for the addition of a 
little hay daily. If a puppy in the nest cries with a sharp, 
qnerulous, almost angry note, you may be easy about 
its health. If, however, it wails and whines, there is 
something wrong with it. If it has colic give a little 
lime water. 

Siickling fits are extremely common and most alarm- 
ing. They attack a bitch when she is rearing puppies, 
and sometimes the same fits affect a bitch in season. 
The animal breathes very heavily and seems uneasy, 
and then appears paralyzed in the hind legs. The whole 
body is often seized with twitching and convulsions. 
Most people recommend the immediate removal of the 
puppies and not breeding from the bitch again. I have 
seen dozens of the fits, and have never lost a bitch or 
removed a puppy, though it always alarms me to see 
them. In my opinion they are mainly the result of con- 
stipation, and a dose of castor oil has, in my experience, 
invariably been successful, the mother rearing all her 
puppies quite easily. I do not think these fits occur if 
the bitch is given a small spoonful of olive oil every 
morning for a week before whelping and never allowed 
to be at all constipated or to eat too much. 

Four is the proper number of puppies for a Toy 



Si)aniel to rear, and, thoiii^h 1 have heard of one rearing 
a htter of nine, this is not at all fair to the mother. Of 
course, if she is rearing too many puppies the extra 
ones should l)e taken away. 

A Blenheim of mine who, before I bought her, had 
reared the aforesaid litter, had suckling fits at her next 
season. She bred six puppies, five of which were strong 
and well. A fortnight after wdielping she had the most 
severe fits I ever remember, but a dose of castor oil put 
her right and she reared her puppies splendidly and got 
fat on it. I never saw a healthier litter. Whether a 
bitch has fits or not, it is extremely cruel to make her 
rear a succession of unduly large litters. Premature 
old age and paralysis w'ill probably be the result, as well 
as unsatisfactory offspring. 

The White Queen 

Japanese Puppy. Property of Miss Steevens. Winner at the I.. K. A., 1907 
This is a perfect type 

StKiiNA's Japanese ^lAKyuis Ixo 
A perfect type. Photo, Russell 

MKb Lloyd's Japanese Tama of St Omer 

Photo, Russell 



I CONSIDER that the Japanese Spaniel originated in 
China, being the best preserved descendant of the old 
Chinese dogs, these being much more like Japanese than 
the modern Pekingese. The Japanese breed has, as I 
have already mentioned in my chapter on Type, a per- 
fection and harmony of line which fills and satisfies the 
eye and suggests a long established type, while, as a 
matter of fact, it still closely resembles the old Chinese 
dog. This cannot be said of the modern Pekingese. 

When breeding with imported dogs there is no diffi- 
culty whatever about maintaining the short faces, for 
they are as natural as are the pointed faces to our King 
Charles Spaniels. There is also no tendency in the im- 
ported strains to revert to a larger sized ancestor. The 
short nose does not appear to be the result of arrested 
development. The skull is not open at the top as in 
most Toy Spaniels, nor is there any special tendency to 
split or arched palates. The palates are short, wide, and 
flat, and the skulls well closed. In the present scale of 
points there is not nearly enough value given to coat. 
Japanese dogs should be smothered in coat, and a poor 
coated specimen is not worth a straw. The head should 
be well proportioned to the body, with a broad skull 
rounded in front, the forehead coming forward so as 
nearly to touch the nose ; the neck, short and arched, the 



eyes very large and praclically black, set wide apart and 
low down so as to be almost hidden l)y the cushions of the 
muzzle. ( See photo of Dai Butzu.) The muzzle T shall 
describe later. The nose should be exceedingly short, 
nostrils not exaggeratedly broad, Imt wide open. The 
noses, of dogs of whatever colour, should ini'ariably be 
black. The nose should be turned up between the eyes. 
1lie ears should be small, V shaped, wide apart, set high 
on the head, and carried pricked forward and not. of 
course, erect. They should be liberally feathered with 
streamers of long" hair. The body should be very com- 
pact and squarely built, a short back, perfectly level and 
flat ; very cobby, the body and legs should form a sf|uare, 
as in the Toy Spaniel, the length of the body equalling 
its height. At the same time, the dog must not be 
clumsy, but the essence of grace. The bones should be 
very fine and slender, and the feet small and harelike and 
feathered at the toes in a point. The tail should be set 
on a level with the back and carried twisted over it in a 
huge plume, spreading on the back and becoming 
merged in the body feather, which should be extraor- 
dinarily long and profuse. The coat must be most 
almndant and soft (but not limp) and quite free from 
wave or curl, it should not, however, lie flat, but stand 
out at the neck in a voluminous ruftie with immense 
feathering on thighs and breast. This is just the coat 
which the Toy Spaniel should never have. General 
ap]:)earance exceedingly showy. Action high and 
prancing. Colour black and white, if possi])le with the 
" spot " on the head, which is most desirable. The 
other colours are red and white and, we are told, pure 
black or i)ure white, but the best colour is black-and- 
white. 1 have never seen either white or black. The 


Her Majkstv Qieen Alexandra, with one of her Japanese Dogs 

Photo, W. Downey. By permission 



white should be pearly and the black intense, distributed 
in even patches. Blaze even and sharply defined, muzzle 
white. Size from two pounds to ten pounds. The 
smaller the better, provided the type is not impaired. 

I here reproduce one of the oldest paintings ever 
published of a Chinese dog. The painting is by Shen- 
Chen-lin, his other name being Feng-Ch-ih, a Chinese 
artist of about 1700 a.d. The type of head and the 
black-and-white colour show its close relation to the dogs 
of Japan, and I cannot find any trace of the Japanese in 
Japan before this date. 

*It is a pity that so excellent a draughtsman as the 
painter Mao I, of the thirteenth century, should not 
have drawn more dogs, but (as his name irresistibly 
suggests) he drew chiefly cats, especially one with a coat 
like a Persian, red orange with cream shading on the 
face, breast, and body, and which recalls a Japanese dog 
in appearance. 

In disposition they are most intelligent, but not so 
clever as Toy Spaniels, though far more independent, 
not to say selfish. They are affectionate, but very easily 
ofifended and very disobedient. They are very like cats 
in some ways. If a Japanese dog is angry he will scream 
like a chicken being killed. It is not like any other dog's 
scream, being discordant and pitched apparently in sev- 
eral keys at once. They are very highly strung, excit- 
able dogs, and as beautiful as it is possible to be. It is 
curious that a pure-bred Japanese dog practically never 
wags his tail, the movement being almost imperceptible. 
Thus he again resembles a cat, and he will sometimes 
wave his tail to and fro when angry. Japanese dogs 
often wash their faces like cats by licking their own 
paws. They have a hatred of muddy roads and water, 



and are very dainty in their ways. They are also Hke 
cats in an extraordinary h^htness on their feet. Their 
actual weight is far less for their size than is the case 
with Toy Spaniels. In my own experience, the male 
dogs, instead of weighing something under one pound 
to the inch, are much nearer nine or ten ounces, or even 
less. In nature they are both defiant and reckless and 
as bold as brass. 

There are some mistakes in the standard recently 
drawn up for Japanese. The muzzle should not l)e 
over " strong," and the head should emphatically not be 
large in comparison to the body. The muzzle should 
be very small compared to the size of the skull, but wide, 
full, soft, and round, and perfectly arched under the 
eyes so as to form rounded cushions almost touching 
the eyes. The mouth should be level or just finished. 
Delicacy and exquisiteness of form are the essential 
characteristics of this breed, and a heavy head is unpar- 
donable. A coarse Japanese is an abomination. Amer- 
ica beats us all round for quality in Japanese dogs, no 
doubt owing to the absence of quarantine regulations. 
Mrs. Senn has some exquisite specimens, and I have 
seen many photographs of first-class dogs. I have 
been exceedingly depressed on visiting the English 
shows during the last two years. The quality of the 
exhibits has enormously deteriorated, and the aims of 
the breeders appear to me to be the wrong ones, so that 
they do not recognise the admixture of Toy Spaniel 
blood even when plainly visible to unprejudiced eyes, 
and yet they probably imagine the breed is improving. 

I think the Japanese breed is in very great danger 
of being spoilt by Toy Spaniel blood. This mixture has 
even been advocated by veterinary surgeons to improve 


Mrs Lloyd's Ch. Royal Yama Hito 

Photo, Rusbell 

Mrs Addis' Ch. Dai Butzu II 

Mrs Addis' Ch. Dai Butzu II 


its stamina. I see more and more of the modern Toy 
Spaniel type among the Japanese, to my very great re- 
gret. As a former breeder of Japanese, I must protest 
against the stamp of dog which is now becoming com- 
mon. A Jap dog should not have a big head compared 
to his size, and this point will lead to a totally wrong 
type if adhered to. I well understand the difficulties of 
breeding Japs and the temptation encouraged by some 
veterinaries to cross them so as to avoid the fearful 
" plague " to which they succumb in hundreds, but, once 
the breed is contaminated, it is not worth keeping at all. 
Breeders must accept the fact of inevitable severe losses 
if they show the dogs and not avoid them by crosses. 
Dogs that are never shown and do not come in contact 
with other show dogs do not contract the disease so 

A dog fancier once said to me : " If you have got an 
enemy, give him a Jap!" This is true w4th regard to 
any breeder, as, if he has a Jap, ten to one he will lose 
the whole of the other stock through it. I lost twenty- 
six dogs in one year, and gave up the breed as only 
suitable for millionaires. I did so with the greatest 
regret, as I consider it the loveliest of all breeds. Never- 
theless, I shall never own one again unless I go to live 
on a desert island. 

Mr. Watson finds fault with the Japs in America for 
having too small heads. He says he does not consider 
himself competent to speak authoritatively on this breed, 
but no dog ought to suggest a fault to one accustomed to 
look for symmetry in proportion. I venture to think 
that it is only because Mr. Watson's eye has become 
accustomed to the abnormal size of the English Toy 
Spaniel head that the Japanese heads appear small to 



him. This seems the more Hkely, as he quotes the Eng- 
Hsh Toy Spaniels as of g^oocl proportion, saying that 
the fault is not noticeable in them to the same extent, if 
at all. It would be very extraordinary if it were, for 
over here the heads are like footballs ; possibly they are 
less outrageous in America. 

Miss Serena says the feet should be large and well 
separated, but this is not, in my opinion, correct, as they 
should be, on the contrary, as I have already said, small 
and harelike, and the dog should stand somewhat on its 
toes and certainly not be flat-footed. The English bred 
Jap is inclined to be too tall on its legs. 

The following instructions were sent from Japan 
with a very valuable dog, and may be of interest. I copy 
them as they came: 

" He must never have any meat. Eish and rice are 
his ordinary food. 

" Rice regularly twice a day — about nine a.m. and 
4 P.M., and fish therewith sometimes, both of them 

'* He should only drink twice a day — at his meals. 

" Along with the box containing the dog is a small, 
flat board, and if the latter be kept half filled with sand, 
the dog will come out of his cage and perform the neces- 
sities of nature." 

The present scale of points is as follows: 

Head : 

Size of head 5 

Shape of skull 5 

Shortness of nose 5 

Width of muzzle 5 

Eyes 10 

Ears 5 


Mrs Parsonage's Japanese Puppies 

41 Stamford New Road, Altrincham 

Lady Samuelson's Japanese CiENERAL 

Photo, Ru.ssell 

Japanese Puppy (Long Face) 


Coat and feathering 15 

Colour and markings 10 

Legs and feet 10 

Action, shape, style, and carriage of tail 20 

Size 10 


CllAl'Tia^ X 


I DO ikH believe the present type of Pekiiii^-ese to be 
correct, and am assured by a lady who knew the breed 
well, as kept in China many years ago, that the true 
Pekingese should not have bent fore-legs. She also 
told me that the present breed w^as absurdly too large, 
the true Pekingese being a tiny dog. Both these state- 
ments are borne out by my own researches. The big 
Pekingese seems to have been a separate variety from 
the Toy Pekingese (kept by the Emperors of China), 
which was a very delicately made little dog with short 
but straight legs. The toes were sometimes turned out, 
but the legs ^vere not twisted. The crooked legs do not 
appear to have been introduced until the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and belong to the coarse, common variety shown 
1)y Shen Li.^ The small dogs never had them, as far as 
1 can discover.- The pretty little dog painted by Shen 
Cheng and which was the Chinese Emperor's own fa- 
\ourite dog, shows the type of Toy Chinese dog as late 
as the eighteenth century. 

I have been quite unable to trace whole red Peking- 

1 The deformity was very likely caused by the bigger and coarser pup- 
pies growing too heavy for their legs and thus bending the bone like a fat 
child that walks too soon. 

- Mrs. .A.shton Cross in some published notes on the l>recd says : 
" Many puppies of great promise are spoiled in the bringing up. c. g., 
exercise is necessary but it may straighten the legs." Comment is need- 



^ 'M 

W Ml 

PQ .g 
w ^ 

_t' i.uiii,,JiA Jtih?.-:-. 

- -,■: ' -..---'^i'M 


ese dogs and in none of the old paintings is there a 
black mask. All the dogs are light red or yellow-and- 
white or black-and-white with very black eye points and 
noses, but perfectly clear faces. None of the dogs ever 
had wrinkled faces. The first Chinese dogs approaching 
whole red are those on the porcelain bowl of the Tao- 
kwang period ( 1821 ), but these are not of the same type 
as the Shen Cheng dog. These also have straight legs, 
and are more like a sort of bad Blenheim. 

By the courtesy of Frau Olga Wegener, owner of 
what is probably the most wonderful collection of Chi- 
ri^se paintings in the world, T have had the extraordinary 
good luck of being able to reproduce a seventeenth cen- 
tury authentic Chinese painting which is of incalculable 
value to breeders. It will be seen that the curve of the 
fore-legs is so subtle as to be hardly a curve at all, no 
more than in the legs of some Toy Spaniels. Frau Weg- 
ener was specially informed by her Chinese authorities 
that these dogs were not portraits of individuals, but 
represented the Chinese idea of type. It is quite evident 
to me that three-fourths of the Pekingese shown in Eng- 
land are thoroughly degenerate. That these are largely 
manufactured to suit the market is undoubted, and I 
once received an open advertisement from one of these 
manufacturers, of a " Toy Spaniel bitch, suitable for 
breeding Japanese or Pekingese " ! I took the trouble 
to investigate this, and found a curious kind of " Span- 
iel," which resembled nothing I have ever seen before 
or ever hope to see again. The owner asked, I think, 
ten guineas, and assured me that she had had two litters, 
one of Japs and one of Pekingese, which had sold for 
enormous sums to exhibitors, each puppy fetching from 
fifteen guineas upwards. Needless to say, I felt no in- 



clination for trying to cniiilate this wonderful perform- 

Great stress is always laid on the fact that our best 
Pekingese originated from five dogs taken, in i860, 
from the Summer Palace at Peking, when the Court 
rted to the interior. It has, how^ever, been ascertained 
that the Court took with them to Jehal a number of 
dogs, and it is quite unlikely that they should have left 
first-class specimens behind. I think we in England have 
yet to learn what good Chinese Palace dogs are like. 

If the Court took the trouble to remove any of their 
dogs, it is highly improbable that they would have left 
others unless they did not consider them worth taking. 
If the theft of one such dog is, as Lady A. G. Lennox 
says, punishable by death, five perfect dogs would not 
have been abandoned by the Chinese to be looted. Still, 
the fact that these dogs came from China is something. 

The Goodwood strain is, no doubt, one of our best, 
and it will be remembered that Champion G. Chun is by 
no means wrinkled in the face — quite the contrary. 
Neither was Chaon Ching We, presented to INIiss Clara 
Kilbourne in 1902 l)y the Empress Dowager, nor Miss 
Deady Keanes's dog at Shanghai, and a reference to 
the wonderful picture of the ideal Pekingese settles the 
question of the wrinkles once for all. 

The Pekingese should have a bold, rather defiant 
expression, which accords with his nature. He has none 
of the sweetness and softness of the Toy Spaniel. He 
should have immense eyes, set very wide apart, and a 
broad, wxdl-cushioned muzzle. 

I imagine that the present type of Pekingese, as seen 
commonly in China, is the coarse variety which is so 
popular in l^ngland, and of which there are so many 


Lady Decies' Ch. Pekin Poppy 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs \\'eaver's Sutherland Chu Chi 


Mrs Catley's Adderly Lola 

Photo, T. Fall 

Mrs a. Cross' Ch. Chuerh of Alderbourne 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Fry's Hi Yang 

Mrs Pleydei, (..(joi-aku.-, Ian-Kuei (. ku 
of Westlecott 
Photo, H. Hemmins 


imitations even coarser. I think the mistaken idea we 
have of type is from the erroneous association of the 
dog with the grotesque Chinese gargoyles which are 
often referred to by writers as early Pekingese dogs. 
These are obviously fancy figures, and one might as well 
take the horrible Chinese human figures of the same 
kind, with ghastly, distorted features and twisted limbs, 
as types of the early Chinaman. In fact, there is even 
less analogy, as the grotesf|ue figures of dogs ^ (cata- 
logued, by the way, as lions) are purely symbolic, like 
heraldic emblems. If these " Early Pekingese " are to be 
taken seriously, we must have them coloured bright green 
with scarlet stripes instead of our sober reds and fawns ! 

A very beautiful dog was sent over to the late Pord 
Lytton by Lord Loch from China. I may say at once 
that this dog had not got crooked forelegs. He was of 
a fine golden brown, and his face was not wrinkled, but 
very pretty and intelligent. The present type of Peking- 
ese is, to my mind, a ridiculous caricature and an obvious 
fake. Any wrinkled-faced and crooked-legged, long- 
backed cross seems to pass as a Pekingese, and, though 
they are not supposed to be too long in body, the present 
specimens are absurdly too long — quite like Dachshunds, 
in fact. This is another characteristic of the coarse type. 

A Chinese painter, Muchi, Sung Dynasty, a. d. 963- 
1278, has a drawing of parti-coloured Pekingese dogs. 
He is believed to have lived in the twelfth century. 
There is a coloured drawing by a Japanese, Marsuyama 
Okio, 1 733-1 795, of Pekingese puppies, all white, and 

' I see that Air. Watson in his book complains of the same cata- 
loguing in the American Museums, but I dare say the Museum authorities 
are right in considering them as much lions as dogs. The dog known 
in Europe as the Lion Dog had no connection with China that I can 


fawn with while muzzles. These have not black masks, 
but l)lack shatlins^s to the fur, and straii^ht forelci^s. 

A nineteenth century print of Japanese women, by 
T()\()kumi, shows a short-faced fawn with black spots 
and very hij^h-set ears. He is shown carrying a letter, 
and his forelei;\s are straight. 

'Idle enormous size of the eyes is one of the most 
noticeable points, and one very rare in the show ring. 

The l)est colour is ])arti-coloured red-and-white or 
black-and-white, the wholesale invasion of reds being a 
comparatively modern fashion. It wdll also be noticed 
from the i)icture that the dogs should not be downfaced, 
and that, like the Toy Spaniel and the Japanese, their 
muzzles should be padded like fat pincushions on each 
side of the nose. This is one of the most marked charac- 
teristics, which is entirely ignored in England. 

Shen Chen Lin, of 1700, has painted both the yellow- 
and-white and the black-and-white dogs in one picture. 

The Chinese dog is the ancestor of the Red-and- 
wdiite Toy (so-called Blenheim) Spaniel, of the Japanese 
black-and-white Spaniel and of the Pekingese. Of the 
three, perhaps the latter is in some ways the least typical 
in head at the present day. The small eyes, drooping 
muzzles, down faces, and wrinkled foreheads of the 
modern Pekingese are quite wn-ong and untypical, and 
so are the crooked legs and the black masks. Let us 
get rid of these blemishes as quickly as we can. 

The Pekingese Club's standard of points is: 

IIkai). — Massive, l)roa(l skull, wide and ilat between the ears 

(not donic-sliaped) ; wide between the eyes 10 

Nose. — lUaek, l)r()ad, very short and flat 5 

Eyks. — Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous 5 

Stop. — Dee]) 5 



Ears. — Heart shaped, not set too high, leather; never long 
enough to come below the muzzle ; not carried erect, but 
ratlier drooping ; long feather 5 

MuzzLK. — Very shcjrt and broad, not underhung nor point- 
ed, wrinkled 5 

Mane. — Profuse, extending beyond shoulder blades, form- 
ing ruff or frill round front of neck 5 

SiiAi'K OF Body. — Heavy in front ; broad chest, falling away 

lighter behind, lionlike; not too long in the body 10 

Coat Fi£atiii-;r and Condition. — I^ong, with thick under- 
coat, straight and flat, not curly nor wavy, rather coarse 
but soft; feather on thighs, legs, tail and toes long and 
profuse 10 

ColWuk. — All colours are allowable — red, fawn, black, black- 
and-tan, sable, brindle, white, parti-coloured ; black marks 
and spectacles round eyes, with lines to ears, desirable. . 5 

Le(;s. — Short ; forelegs heavy, bowed out at elbows ; hind 

legs lighter, but firm and well shaped 5 

FiiET. — Mat, not round ; should stand well upon toes, not on 

ankles 5 

Tail. — Curled and carried well up on loins ; long, profuse, 

straight feather 10 

Size. — Being a Toy dog, the smaller the bettei , provided type 
and points are not sacrificed. Anything over 18 lbs. 
should disqualify. When divided by weight, classes 
should be over 10 lbs. and under 10 lbs 5 

Action. — Free, strong and high ; crossing feet or throwing 
them out in running should not take off marks. Weak- 
ness of joints should be penalised 10 

Total 100 

The Peking- Palace Dog A.ssociation has the same 
standard, with the following differences: 

Coat and Feather. — Feathers on toes not mentioned. 
Colour. — All colours allowable; black mask not essential in all. 
Feet. — Flat, and toes turned outwards. 

Size. — Ma.ximum weight, 10 lbs. .Size to be encouraged: any- 
thing between 5 lbs. and 10 lbs. 

TOY i)(k;s and their ancestors 

1 load, nose, eyes, cars and muzzle 25 

Slia])e of l)ody 15 

Coat and mane 20 

Le^s and feet 20 

Tail 5 

Action 5 

Llencral a])|)earance 10 

My own alterations to these standards wonld he: 

Eves. — Enormous, dark, ])rominent, round, lustrous, with 

very broad, black rims 10 

Ears. — Set high ; on a level with line of skull, carried for- 
ward ; long feather 5 

Muzzi.K. — \^ery short and broad, not underhung or pointed, 
and never wrinkled ; sides well cushioned and rounded 
u.nder the eyes ; no wrinkles on forehead 10 

Shai'k ok IJoDV. — Well proportioned; not too heavy in front 
as to construction, the mane only giving a slight appear- 
ance of greater weight in front; not too long in body. . 5 

Colour. — All colours allowable; no black mask; best colour, 

red and white 5 

Feet. — Round, and standing well up on toes which are 

slightly turned out 5 

Legs. — Short, and front legs not bowed 5 

Tail. — Curled over the loins; long, straight, profuse feather 5 

Size. — As in the P. P. D. A. standard, but value 10 

General Appearance. — Smart and bold 10 

Mr. Carnegie, who lived some years in FV'king, tells 
me thai there were three noticeahly different kinds of 
coat in the dogs he saw, all heing apparently considered 
e([tially good. The nose should always he hlack. 

Mrs. Ashton Cross says of the Pekingese: " lype is 
fairly constant." A type as old as that of the Cliincsc 
dog should he mtich more than " fairly " constant. Any 
inconstancy in the Pekingese tends to show that this 
type is not an old one. 



Sonic one recently suggested lliat it would he a good 
thing if a trophy were ofifered for " the most grotes(|ue," 
and this was imme(hate]y taken up and a cuj) presented 
in all seriousness to the Peking Palace Dog Association 
for " the most how-legged and grotesc|ue dog or hitch " 
(see Our P(>i!;s, Xovemher i8, 1910). Such prizes are 
offered with the hest jjossihle intentions, hut I cannot 
imagine anything hetter calculated to destroy the real 
type for ever. If the Peking Palace Dog Association 
seriously wishes to re])r()duce living monsters like the 
one de])icted on the cover of the recent Pekingese Mono- 
i(r(Tph, I can only deplore that Association's waning sense 
of humour. We have to struggle hard enough now to pre- 
serve sanity of judgment, and if extremes of fantastic de- 
formity are to he rewarded with jjrizes, chaos is in sight. 

The tendency of modern wTiters is to surround the 
Pekingese with an atmos]jhere of what 1 can only call 
romantic nonsense. It would, I think, he hetter to divest 
ourselves of a sentimentality which only misleads us. 

Let us hope that the researches which are, I helieve, 
now heing made in Peking will produce definite results, 
hut I will stake my life that no Chinese dog that ever lived 
was like the ancient Chinese monsters seen in museums. 

As to the word grotesf|ue. Chamhers's Dictionary 
gives it as " extravagantly formed, ludicrous " ; John- 
son's, " distorted of figure, unnatural, wildly formed." 
Do Pekingese fanciers w^ant their dogs to he ludicrous, 
distorted, and wildly formed? If so, there is no more to 
he said except to ofTer a quotation from Dryden as an 
apt motto for the I'ekingese cluhs of the future: 

" An hideous picture of their dogs they (hew. 
Nor hues nor looks nor shades nor colours true 
And this grotesque design exposed t(j puhlic view." 



The Pomeranian is one of the oldest breeds. I have 
traced him back in perfect shape to 400 v,.c., as will be 
seen by the accompanying illustrations from Greek 
vases. Before this, he existed in the Archaic period of 
Greek art (anything- beyond 800 B.C.). The original 
colour was cream or white. 

The name " Pomeranian " is quite erroneous. From 
Greece I have traced the dogs on to the Roman Empire, 
and thence all through Italy to France and Germany. 
" Melitaie " was the name by which the Greeks called 

Models of a " Pomeranian " dog- and a " Maltese " 
dog of the conventional type were dug up at Fayyum 
in Egypt, and date from about 200 B.C. There is no 
evidence to show whether these breeds were imported 
from Malta or exported there from Egypt. 

It is interesting to note that the Maltese type, as we 
now know it, is an old type and not a recent cross, as it 
has often been said to be. A parti-coloured Pomeranian 
type is to be seen in the thirteenth century Chinese paint- 
ing of Mao I. The Egyptian model of the " Pome- 
ranian " is specially interesting in view of the fact that 
the modern pariah dogs of Egypt still show strong Pom- 
eranian characteristics, being the same colour as those 


300 to 61-xj I'., c. 

Maltese Dog 

ilodel in British Museum. Dug up 
In f'ayyum in Egjpt 



300 to 600 B.C. Model in British Museur 
up at Fayyum in tgypt 

Greek Leaden Toy 

About 200 B.C. 

Pomeranian Dog 

Archaic Period (beyond 800 B.C.). Model in 
British Museum 


on the Greek vases, and having much Pomeranian 

On the tombs of Maltese (Pomeranian) dogs the 
Greeks wrote KAAAOXMEAHAIOE rejeton de Make (see 
lb. 20 Aehan Var. Hist. VIII 14). 

The Sybarites divided their afifection between dwarfs 
and " Makese " dogs. 

The original colours were cream and orange, and 
the black now so fashionable is a comparatively new 
development, and one which I am sorry to see so uni- 
versal. / think the cream, white, or orange much the 
prettiest. An orange, white, or cream Pomeranian with 
smart carriage and a pretty face is a most attractive 
little dog, but one sees far too many wizened little 
weeds in the show ring now. There are few things so 
unpleasing as the poorly coated, blear-eyed, stunted ani- 
mals which are so commonly led about London streets, 
dogs which look like moth-eaten specimens of an ama- 
teur taxidermist. I am reproducing two pictures of 
Pomeranians, one is a Nattier of about 1720 and the 
other a Gainsborough. 

Mrs. Pope's little Polar Star is a perfect modern 
example of the French Pomeranian of the seventeenth 
century, and some of Mr. Brown's orange Pomeranians 
are very pretty. A sweet expression is most essential, 
and I would not give half a crown for the greatest cham- 
pion unless he had the right expression, but very few 
of our show dogs have it. It is often said that the Pom- 
eranian should have a foxy expression, and not that of a 
wolf. This is quite true, but how many of our lady 
fanciers know the expression of a fox or have ever seen 
a wolf? They associate the fox with cunning and sly- 
ness, and take their views of him from Christmas cards 



or from the hunted foxes they may have seen. Now, 
a fox, for all his slyness, has a lovely little innocent face ! 
He looks full of intellig'ence, ])ut (|uite angelic, and he is 
as sharp as a needle. The English fox is the least 
pretty of all, but some of the little foreign foxes are 
exc|uisite, and it is these we should take as models. We 
need not go abroad to find them, as they can sometimes 
be seen in the Zoological Gardens. I do not think I 
have ever seen anything prettier than the heads of some 
of these little foxes. The Indian desert fox has a lovely 
head. A Pomeranian should never have the expression 
of a rat. I intensely dislike the mean little faces one so 
often sees, with weak eyes in which the eyeball appears 
to be set awry in the socket, and the dog seems to frown 
at the light. 

In this breed any tendency to a down-face is most 
undesirable. The eyes should be very wide apart (in 
this T differ from the scale now accepted), and it will be 
noticed that the most pleasing specimens have not got 
narrow placement. The ears should be small and car- 
ried erect, and the expression should be excessively alert 
l^ut very sweet, never cross or sulky. The Pomeranian 
is a compact, bold, lively little dog. In my opinion the 
shaded sable with black mask is an undesirable colour, 
as also is the l)rown, but Ch. The Sable Mite is one of 
the very loveliest dogs I have ever seen. Brown Pome- 
ranians are liable to have light eye-rims, which are 
sim])ly hideous. The eye should never be in the least 
goggled, but dark and liquid and wide open, not ab- 
surdly small with very light eyelids, as is now often the 
case. The eyes of the white and orange colours should 
look as though painted with Kohl. The muzzle should 
be very fine and small compared to the width of the 


GkEKK \'asK, 400 B.C. 
33 Photo, E. Walker 


head, which should be very wide at the cheeks and 
puffed out with fur hke a fox. 

It is quite unnatural to a Pomeranian to have a black 
mask, and I consider the dark faces of the shaded sables 
an undesirable innovation. The proper points of a Pom- 
eranian are in my opinion as follows: Head already 
described. Skull slightly fiat and rather broad and large 
compared to the muzzle, which should finish in a very 
fine point, the tip of the nose being very slightly tilted 
upwards. The lips should be firm and teeth level. The 
stop should be very decided, and the eyes large (in these 
t\fo points I differ from the accepted standard). The 
hair on head and face is short. In appearance the dog 
should be short and flat in back, cobby in body, and well 
rounded in barrel, with high carriage of head and neck, 
and his tail should be turned well over the back so as to 
meet the frills of the neck. It should be carried flat and 
profusely adorned with very long, spreading hair. His 
expression should be very sweet, yet full of fire, open 
and intelligent, never mean or furtive, and his move- 
ments active, with plenty of dash. The ears should be 
small and set fairly far apart, but should be perfectly 
erect and covered with soft, short hair. The neck 
should be well arched and surrounded with a profuse 
mane and frill of straight, long hair covering the whole 
of the shoulders, beginning in a sweep from the under 
jaw. The shoulders should be well laid back. The nose 
should alzvays be black in dogs of all colours. The light 
nose now allowed in some colours is most disfiguring. 
The coat is well described by the Pomeranian standard, 
as follows : 

'' Coat. — There should be two coats, an undercoat 
and an overcoat; the one, a soft, fluffy undercoat, the 



other, a long, perfectly straight coat, harsh in texture 
and covering the whole of the body, being very abundant 
round the neck and fore part of the shoulders and chest, 
where it should form a frill of profuse, standing-ofif, 
straight hair, extending over the shoulders. The hind 
quarters should be clad with long hair or feathering, 
from the top of the rump to the hocks." 

The colours allowed are white, black, blue or grey, 
brown sable, shaded sable, orange, red, fawn, parti- 
colours, beaver, and the original cream colour, which I 
wish was more common. 

The Club says : " Whites must be quite free from 
lemon or any other colour. A few white hairs in any of 
the self-coloured dogs shall not necessarily disqualify. 
Dogs other than white, with white or tan markings, are 
decidedly objectionable, and should be discouraged. 
They cannot compete as whole-coloured specimens. In 
parti-coloured dogs, the colours should be evenly dis- 
tributed on the body in patches ; a dog with white or tan 
feet or chest would not be a parti-coloured dog. Shaded- 
sables should be shaded throughout with three or more 
colours, the hair to be as uniformly shaded as possible, 
and with no patches of self colour. In mixed classes, 
where whole-coloured and parti-coloured Pomeranians 
compete together, the preference should, if in other 
points they are equal, be given to the wdiole-coloured 

Oranges must be self-coloured throughout, and Iw 
the standard, light shadings are not now allowed. In 
this I differ again from the standard, as I think them 
very desirable and quite right. The face should be 
lighter than the body, and so should also be the shadings. 

The bone should be extremely light and fine. Pom- 


Greek Vase, 400 b.c. Aphrodite and Apollo 

Photo, E. Walker 


eranians weigh very light for their size. Three and 
a ({uarter to one and a half pounds is a good weight. 
Silky, flat, or curly coats are not allowahle. 

A Pomeranian's coat should always he ])rushed up 
the wrong way when groomed. 

These dogs are divided into Pomeranians and Pom- 
eranian Miniatures — that is to say, over seven pounds 
to fourteen ])ounds and under seven ])ounds. 

The Pomeranian as at present l^red in England is 
a violently excitahle, even hysterical animal, and the 
noisiest of all breeds. It is of the utmost importance 
tbat puppies should be firmly checked at once in their 
barking propensities, or they will become intolerable 
to live with. If a dog has a fit of hysterics, screams, and 
foams at the mouth on being rebuked, do not excite 
}'ourself. Everybody knows that hysteria in human 
beings becomes aggravated if indulged, and the same 
is the case with dogs. Treat him like a screeching ])ar- 
rot. Put him in a basket in a dark place and don't fuss 
over him, and you will be surprised at the rapidity of 
his recovery. Tn bad cases give a sedative. 

When the ])U])s are small, people are amused at their 
pretensions to be dangerous, big dogs, and often en- 
courage their rages and furious barking till the habit 
has become ingrained, and they will rush indiscrimi- 
nately at a neighbour or friend. There is nothing so 
annoying as a dog which stands for hours yapping at 
nothing with piercing shrillness. 

An acquaintance of mine kept a Pomeranian which 
used to bark itself into hysterics every time anybody 
called, so that she was within a little of requesting her 
friends to keep away from the house. I induced her, 
however, to scold it instead of comforting it, and in a 



week the doj;- left off having hysterics and only barked 
in a maddenini^- way all the time the visit lasted! 1^he 
owner could have easily stopped this, too, had she not 
been so weak-minded. 

You can be weak-minded with Toy Spaniels without 
suffering too much, but if you are weak-minded with a 
Pomeranian he will lead you a " dog's life," and alienate 
all but your deafest friends ! Do not breed from very 
hysterical specimens. 

The Pomeranian appears one of the very few show 
breeds which has not been spoiled by some outrageous 
exaggeration of points. The only thing I would say as 
to this in connection with them is to ask breeders not to 
get them too small, and to avoid mean and narrow heads. 
They are not naturally a very small breed, and type is 
lost when they become too tiny. The great point is that 
they should be very fine in bone, delicately made, and 
show quality. The present standard of points was 
drawn up in 1891, so it is only eighteen years old. 

E. Topsell, in 1607, wrote as follows: 

*' Nowadays they have found another breede of little 
dogs in all nations, besides the Melitoean dogs, either 
made so by art as inclosing their bodies in the earth 
wdien they are whelped so as they cannot grow great by 
reason of the place, or else lessening and impayring their 
growth by some kind of meat or nourishment. These 
are called, in Germany, Brachen Schofhundle and Gut- 
schen Hundle, and in Italian, Bottolo.^ Other nations 
have no common name for this kind that T know. Mar- 
tiall made this distich - of a little French dog, for about 

1 Bottolo : An ugly, quarrelsome little cur. — Barretti's Dictionary. 
- " Delicias paruse si vis anderccatelKT? 
Narranti brevis est pagina tota mihi." 


•;■:■■■' j:-^.'. y.'- 'TJ' t.-.. ' ' '.'V ' ''^. ' -' ? -.->"*y»v : " ' '^<w ■' ■t- -^ — '^ j 



Lyons in France there are store of this kind and sold 
very deare, sometimes for ten crownes and sometimes 
for more. They are not above a foote or halfe a foote 
long and always the lesser the more delicate and 
precious. Their head like the head of a mouse, hut 
greater, their snowt sharpe, their ears like that of a 
cony, short legs, little feete, long taile, and white colour, 
and the haires about the shoulder longer than ordinary 
is most commended. They are of pleasant disposition 
and will leape and bite without pinching, and barke 
prettily, and some of them are taught to stand upright, 
holding up their forelegs like hands to fetch and carry 
in their mouths that which is cast unto them." 

Topsell refers to these as a new l)ree(l in addition 
to the Melitei, but the vases show that the d(\gs descril)ed 
had existed for twenty-four centuries as Melitei, and 1 
think the fact was that what w^e now^ call Maltese dogs 
co-existed with the " Pomeranian," which by that time 
had spread to all nations, and was no longer peculiar to 

The Pomeranian, the Hound, and the Sporting- 
Spaniel are the oldest breeds, all existing in the Archaic 
period, and next to them comes the Maltese (proper) 
of 200 B.C. 

Meyrick, 1841, says of the Pomeranian that he is a 
recent importation, that he has rather full eyes, and 
averages fourteen inches in height. 

" The Pomeranian is certainly a pretty and graceful 
dog, but he has the disadvantage of being neither clever 
nor affectionate, and is, in addition, possessed of a yap- 
ping restlessness that makes him quite insupportable to 
most people." 

Youatt speaks of the hare Indian dog. This is a 



lovely Pomeranian type, white with shacHngs of greyish 
bhick and brown. Maekenzie River and Great Bear 
Lake in North America were said to be its only habitat, 
no scent, sharp, elongated muzzle, \'ery light on feet, 
erect ears, w^idened at the base, small and not capable 
of catching any big animal. 

Sydenham Edwards, 1800, says: "The fox dog is 
common in Holland, noisy, artful, quarrelsome, cow- 
ardly, petulant, and deceitful. Snappish and dangerous 
to children and in other respects without useful qual- 
ities. He is named Kees in Holland, and the largest are 
used for draft. Pale fallow colour, lightest on lower 
parts. White, some black, and few spotted." 

Aelian's " Zoology " ^ says: 

" In India there is a creature very like a terrestrial 
crocodile. It is about the size of a lifflc Maltese dog, 
and its skin is protected by a natural armour so thick 
and hard," etc." 

" I am now going to relate some wonderful examples 
of the extraordinary affection of dogs. . . . \\ hen his 
relatives placed Theodorus the harper in his tomb, Jiis 
little Maltese dog, flinging itself into the coffin in w^hich 
the corpse lay, was buried with its master." ^ 

I have heard that little Sicilian dogs are deadly 
enemies to adulterers and people of that sort. 

" Now one day a woman who was entertaining an 
unlawful lover, heard her husband's footstep in the hall, 
and hid the lover, as she thought, in a recess completely 
out of sight. But although not only the most trusted of 

1 Translated from " Aeliani de Natiira Animalium," Greek and Latin, 
edited by Rud. Hercher, Paris, 1858. 

- Book XVI, Section 6, second century a.d. 
^ Book VII, Section 40. 


Greek Vase, 400 b.c. 

4th Vase Room, British Museum. Photo, E. Walker 


the servants, but even the door porters had been bribed 
and used to help their mistress to hide her nefarious 
doings, while they were in the confidence and the ser- 
vice of the lover, the woman herself was so flustered 
that she could not take all the necessary precautions, 
and her little dog betrayed the place where the adulterer 
was concealed by barking and scratching at the folding 
doors behind which he was lurking. This conduct 
alarmed the master of the house and made him suspect 
that something evil lay in hiding there : whereupon he 
threw open the doors and caught the intruder, who 
was* waiting, sword in hand, for night time, to kill 
the husband and take the woman away with him as 
his wife."^ 

Saint Clement of Alexandria says : Treatise on Edu- 
cation (Book III, Chapter 4, second century a.d.) : 

" The less dissolute (of these women) make pets of 
Indian birds and Median peacocks. . . . And they 
would look down upon a modest widow and think her 
inferior to a little Maltese dog. They would scorn a 
good old man, who is worthy of more honour, if I mis- 
take not, than any fantastic creature purchased with 
gold, and they would offer no shelter to an orphan child ; 
but they take no end of trouble over rearing parrots. 
The children born within their walls they abandon and 
expose by the wayside, but they harbour any number 
of cocks and hens. In a word, they give senseless 
animals the preference over creatures endowed with 
reason." ^ 

1 Book VII, Section 25. 

" " Treatise on Education," Book III, Chapter IV. second century a.d. 
Translated from " S. Clementis Alexandrini Pgedagogus," edited by J. Pot- 
ter, Oxford, 1715. 



Aclian says : ^ " Epaniinondas, on his return from 
Laceckenion, was summoned to a court of law to answer 
a charoe involving the penalty of death because he had 
continued the command of the Theban army four 
months longer than he was legally authorized to do. He 
began his defence by begging those who had shared the 
command with him to lay all the blame on him because 
he had persuaded them to remain against their will. 
Then he took his place in the dock and said: ' My actions 
are my best apology. If in your eyes they count for 
naught I am ready to suffer the punishment of death. 
But I claim, at the same time, that a monument shall be 
erected and on it these w^ords shall be engraved: 
" Epaniinondas forced the Thebans, although they 
resisted him desperately, to carry fire and sword into 
Laced:emon, which, for five hundred years, no enemy 
had dared to penetrate, to rebuild Messene, which had 
been razed to the ground two hundred and thirty years 
before, to bring the Arcadians together again into a com- 
mon territory; and last, but not least, to restore to the 
Greeks freedom to live according to their own laws." ' 

" The judges were ashamed of themselves, and ac- 
quitted him and let him go. 

" As he was leaving the court a little Maltese dog 
came and fawned u])on him, wagging its tail. 

" ' This animal,' said Epaminondas, ' is grateful for 
the good T have wrought, but the The1)ans, to whom I 
have rendered the greatest services, would have put me 
to death.' " - 

1 " Historical Talcs," Book XIII, Chapter XLI. Pleasing Incident 
from the Life of Epaminondas, second century A.n. Translated from 
" Acliana Varia llistoria," Tauchnitz edition, 1829. 

- There is no evidence in the text that the dog belonged to Epami- 


Tanagra Figure, 100-300 b.c. 


Greek \ase, 500 b.c. Boy playing on Chelys 


" The tale is told that Poliarch, the Athenian, went 
lo the preposterous and pr()di<;al extreme of L^ivinj^" a 
puhlic funeral to the doi^s and cocks that he had kept 
for pleasure. He used to in\ite his friends to these cere- 
monies, which were very solemn and splendid ; and had 
memorial pillars dedicated to his pets with laudatory 
words engraved on the stone." ^ 

Pliny says: " " About twenty-five miles from Tssa lies 
Corcyra, which is also called the Black Town, together 
with a town which originally was a settlement of the 
Criedians. Between Corcyra and Tllyricum is Melita, 
which has given its name, Callimachus tells us, to the 
species of small dogs knoivn as MelittE. Fifteen miles 
further on lies the seven Stag Rocks." 

The Melita mentioned is the modern Meleda, or 
Zapuntello, in the Adriatic. Strabo associates the dogs 
with the other Melita (Malta). Stephanus of Byzan- 
tium, in his topography, says that he is inclined to sup- 
port Pliny's view. 

Artemidorus lived in the time of Marcus Aurelius. 
He discourses on the uses and the virtues and vices of 
various kinds of dogs. Then he says : " But Maltese 
dogs represent the supreme pleasure of life and the 
greatest of all delights. Consequently when ill of any 
kind happens to them they are a source of grief and 
anxiety." ^ 

1 Book VIII, Chapter IV. " Poliarch's Preposterous Prodigality." 
Translated from " Aeliana Varia Historia," Tauchnitz edition, 1829. 

-"Natural History," Book III, Chapter XXX, 23-79 a.d. Translated 
from " C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis Historia," edited by D. Detlefsen, Ber- 
lin, 1866. 

■'•"The Interpretation of Dreams," Book II, Chapter XI, About Dogs 
and Hunting. Translated from " Artemidori Oneirocritica " (APTEMIAnPOI 
ONEIPOKPITIKA) , edited by Johann Gottfried Reiff at Leipzig, in 1805. 



(Some tranlators would make the passage merely a 
prosaic comparison l)et\veen dogs used for business and 
dogs used for pleasure, but the superlatives are very 
emphatic. ) 

Aristotle's " Zoology " is what modern zoologists 
would characterise as a string of descriptions rather 
than a classification. Among the large miscellany of 
facts adduced the writer observes that the marten is 
about tlic size of a Maltese dog of the little, tiny sort." ^ 

The Greek Anthology gives us the following: " The 
stone on this spot commemorates tJie swift -footed Mal- 
tese dog who was the very faithful guardian of Eumelos. 
In his lifetime he was called the Bull, but now only the 
silent pathways of the night reecho the sound of his 
voice." " 

The Greek Anthology is a collection of collections 
of ancient Greek poems made by Maximus Planudes, 
a Byzantine monk, about the middle of the fourteenth 
century. His compilation summed up similar works 
produced by Constantine Cephalas in the beginning of 
the tenth century, by Philip Thessalonica in the time of 
Trajan, by Agathias in the sixth century, and by 
Meleager about loo p..c. 

Lucian III, 432, gives an account of a banquet given 
by Aristcxnetus on the marriage of his daughter Clean- 
this to Zeno, a rich young heir with philosophic tastes. 
Among the guests is Alcidamas, a pompous, quarrel- 
some person who likes to attract attention to himself 
and is fond of speechifying. When a seat is offered him 

1 1626. Book IX, Chapter VI. From the Tciihner Text, revised liy L. 
Dittmeyer, Leipzig, 1907. 

- " Threnodial Epigra])hs," fourteentii century, VII, 211. Tymneus on 
Eumelos's Maltese Dog. 


Portrait of Mme. Adelaide 

Nattier, 1750. Versailles. Photo, IMansell 


he protests that rechning at banquets is effeminate, and 
insists on taking his share of the feast walking about, 
at the same time dehvering philosophic harangues and 
interfering with the waiters as they ply to and fro with 
the viands. 

A pause occurs in the proceedings, and to fill it up 
the host calls in his fool, who amuses the company by 
gymnastic dancing, extemporary verses and personal 

When the fool made a joke about any of them they 
would all laugh, but when he accosted Alcidamas and 
made fun of him, the latter turned round in a rage and 
called the fool a ivrctcJicd little Maltese dog. 

The dispute ends in a boxing bout between Alcida- 
mas and the jester in which the former is worsted.^ 

The Lapithse were an imaginary mountain tribe 
of Thessaly who were very fierce and strong. Their 
sovereign, Pirdthous, was related to the Centaurs, who 
on his marriage with Hippodamia came, half tipsy, to 
try and steal the bride. A fearful struggle ensued, in 
which the Lapithae were victorious. 

Theophrastus represents the Coxcomb as a man who 
is exceedingly nice and particular about trifles, espe- 
cially in connection with his personal appearance, and is 
anxious about the impression he makes on other people." 

On the death of his little Maltese dog he sets up a 
monument to the animal and has a small column raised, 
inscribed with the words, " Klados of Malta." "^ 

1 " The Banquet of Lapithae," Section 19, 160 a.d. 

- Characters, XXI, 35, 390 b.c. " The Coxcomb." 

•' Some commentators take this word as a proper name — as a common 
noun it means " young shoot " or " sprig." Others read neKaSos, which 
means a musical sound, as of running water, or a clamour or noise of 
disputation. Other reads Ka\6s, beautiful, or KdWos, beauty. 



Liician gives a dialogue consisting mainly of a re- 
port of a ])hilosophic conversation about superstition 
and spiritualism as opposed to rationalism. 

In the passage quoted, Eucrates is represented as 
sitting on a sofa reading Plato in the effort to forget 
the loss of his wife, who has died seven days previously, 
and whose favourite possessions he has had burnt on 
her pyre. Suddenly she appears to him in spirit form. 

" The moment I saw her," he continued, " 1 threw 
my arms round her neck and wept aloud. She told me 
to leave off, and complained that, although T had con- 
sulted her wishes in everything else, I had neglected to 
burn one of her golden sandals, which she said had 
fallen under a chest. We had been unable to find this 
sandal, and had only burnt the fellow of it. While we 
were still conversing, a hateful little Maltese terrier that 
was lying under the sofa began barking, and my wife 
immediately vanished. The sandal, however, was found 
beneath the chest, and was eventually burnt." ^ 

Plutarch says: "One day in Rome, Gcsar, seeing 
some rich foreigners nursing and petting young lapdogs 
and monkeys, enquired whether in their parts of the 
world the women bore no children ; a truly imperial re- 
proof to those who waste on animals the affection which 
they ought to bestow on mankind." " 

(The writer goes on to say that we should choose 
worthy objects of study and imitation, and that the life 
of Pericles forms an example which we should do well 
to follow.) 

Atheuccus says: " It is customary among them, even 

1 " The Lover of Lies," i6o a.h. 

2 "Life of Perielcs," 40 A.». (The passage quoted is the opening para- 
graph of the biography.) 


Mk Cakk'.s Cii. OiiLi-Y IIoNiiYDiiVv (Okangj. 1'omju.:ai\ian) 


for the children, until they are grown up, to wear purple 
robes and curls plaited with gold. It is also customary 
among them to bring up in their houses homuncules and 
dwarfs, and also little Maltese dogs, which follow them 
even to the gymnasia. And it is these men, and men 
like them, to whom Massinissa, King of Mauretania, 
made answer (as Ptolemy relates, in the eighth book 
of his Commentaries) when they were seeking to buy 
some monkeys : ' Why, — do not your wives, good 
friends, have any children? ' For Massinissa was very 
fond of children and kept about him and educated his 
grafldchildren, of whom he had a great many; and he 
brought them up till they were three years old and then 
sent them home to their parents and had them replaced 
by younger ones." ^ 

The same sentiment has been expressed by Eubulus, 
the comic writer, in the words, written in his " Graces " : 
'' Is it not much better, I pray you, for a man who can 
afiford to do so to nurture children than for a gobbling 
goose to undertake the work, or a sparrow or a mis- 
chievous ape? " 

Again, Athenodorus, in his work on '' Serious 
Studies and Amusements," says that Archytas of Taren- 
tum, who was both a statesman and philosopher, had 
many slaves and was always delighted when any of them 
presented themselves at his feasts. But the Sybarites 
cared for nothing but Maltese puppy dogs and efifemi- 
nate men. 

Lucian has the following (the passage quoted relates 
to a philosopher's experiences on the occasion of an 
expedition into the country, during which he was com- 
pelled to dance attendance on his patroness) : 

1 " Symposium," Book XII, paragraph i6, 190 a.d. (The Sybarites.) 



*' As likely as not it is a wet day. ^'^t^r turn for the 
carriai^c, as niii^ht be cxiK'ctcd, coiiu's laU-. N'ou wait 
and wail, till at last its rctmai is out of the (|Uc'stion, and 
\'on arc S(|nec'/.cd into sonic \chiclc with the cook or ihc 
lady's maid, without even a projjcr allowance of straw. 
. . . Then my lady calls him to her and says: 'I have 
a L^reat la\'our to ask ol n'ou ; now please don't say no, 
and don't wait to he asked twice, there's a i^ood fellow.' 
( )f course he saws he will do an\thin_L;" she wishes. 'I 
only ask you because I know you are to he trusted; you 
are so mood-nalured and affectionate! 1 want you to 
take my I'llllc cfoi^; Myrr/iiiia in with you and see that 
she wants for nothini;'. Poor little la(l\' ! she is soon to 
l)ecome a mother. These hateful inattentive servants 
take no notice of iiic when we are travellinj^", much less 
of her. \(m w ill he doini;' me a s^rcat kindness, I assure 
\()U, in takini;' charge of her; I am so fond of the sweet 
little pet!' She prayed and almost wept; and Thes- 
mopolis promised. Tmaijine the ludicrous picture. The 
little heast ])eepini;' out from the ])hilosophic cloak; 
within licking- distance of that heard, which i)erhaps 
still ])resents evidence of the thick soup of yesterday; 
yapping" away with its shrill ])ipe of a voice, as Maltese 
terriers tc/V/; and no doubt taking other liberties which 
Thesmopolis did not think worth mentioning. That 
night at dinner, the ex(|uisite, his fellow trax'cllcr, after 
cracking a passable joke here and there at the expense 
of the other guests, came to Thesmopolis. 'Of him,' 
he remarked, ' I have onlv this to say, that our Stoic has 
turned Cynic' According to what 1 heard the little 
animal actually littered in his mantle." ^ 

Otto Jahn (" On the Representation of Greek Poets 

1 i6o A.I). " Tlic Scliolar in Scrvitiulc." 

Mrs Robinson (Fkkdita) 

Gainsljorough, \iyj-jffjcj. J'hoio. Harifsiaengl 


on Ancient Vases " ^ ) j^ives a discussion of two British 
Museum aniplior.c and of the whole class of vase ])ainl- 
injL^s which ihey represent. They date from ahout 450 
]'..(:. The picture with the do'^ represents an Athenian 
])laying a lyre, and the one on the other side represents 
a youth playing flutes. 

Several scholars, including;- Tzetze and Schneider, 
have stated that the man represents Anacreon, the i)oet, 
of Teos, who, it is said, set out one day, accompanied 
hy his doj:^ and his servant, to a distant town to make 
some purchases. The slave carried the ])urse. He 
w<u» ohlii^ed on the way to turn aside from the main 
road to run some errand, and as he did not wish to he 
hurdened with the ])urse he laid it aside in the under- 
wood and left the dog on guard. He was longer away 
than he expected ; and when the master returned to the 
S])ot to see what had become of the slave he found the 
dog faithfully waiting there in a starving condition. 

Ives Jahn's opinion is that this is only a tale told by 
the anecdotal Aelian al)out a certain merchant of Colo- 
])hon and has nothing to do with Anacreon. His con- 
clusion is that this class of vase pictures, of which there 
are a good many in existence, re])resenting a man, or 
more frefpiently a youth, ])laying the lyre, accompanied 
by a little dog, and often by women, has no literary or 
musical signification, but a ])urely social and domestic 
one. He thinks that the pictures represent family or 
festive grou])s from which we can learn a good deal 
a1)out the social life of the time; and that the long-haired 
little "Pomeranian" dog (which in many cases looks 
very like a ])ig ) is the much-prized Maltese dog which 

1 " Transactions of the Royal Saxon Society of .Sciences," Book III, 
pp. 32-34. Classical .Section. 



doubtless played a large part in the domestic life of the 
upper classes in ancient times. 

Asterius, Bishop of Amasia (about 375-405 a.d.), 
writes in '' Sermons on Divorce " (on Matt. XIX. 3) : 
" You meet a man by the wayside and like him, and go 
a little way conversing ; and you are sorry to part with 
him when his road diverges from yours. 

" In a short space of time you form so close a friend- 
ship that you do not like to be parted from him and leave 
him only because you are obliged to. Would you who 
are so friendly hold your wife, who is your equal and 
your life-partner, in as low esteem as you would a 
broken dish or a cheap, travel-stained, worn-out gar- 
ment, or a little Maltese dog that has stolen out and run 
away from home ? " 

" A slaughter-house near this Mosque (the one built 
by the Grand Vizier of the Sultan Amurat, at which 
sick and hungry people of all nationalities, and even dogs 
and birds, were received and given food and medical 
treatment) is always haunted by the dogs of the neigh- 
1)ourhood. As I said something before about the prize 
dogs of Lseonia, I must also say something about the 
dogs that are left to shift for themselves in the street. 
The best of them are employed for hunting in the coun- 
try; but the Turks who live in the towns do not keep 
domestic dogs, and the dogs have no special masters, 
except the very little tiny Maltese and Polonian ones, 
which are much prized, and which the women of good 
family rear for pleasure. The others make their bed in 
the streets, and never leave them day or night." ^ 

Alciphron, a Greek writer of literary letters, who 

^ " Laccd.Ttnon, Ancient and Modern." a.d. 1676 by Guillet dc Saint- 
George, Rook 111, p. 413. 


]\1r Brown's Orange Boy 

Miss Bland's Ch. Marland King (Black) 

Photo, T. Fall 

]Mrs Parker's Ch. Mars (Orange) 
Photo, H. Young 

Miss Ives' Ch. Dragon Fly (Sai;i i:j 
Hedges' Artists 

Pope's Little Polar Star (White) Miss Hawley's \\olvey Mite (Sable) 

A beautiful type. Photo, Russell Photo Russell 



lived about i8o a.d., writes in " Letters from the Coun- 
try " (III. 22.) : "I l^ave set a trap for those wretched 
mischievous foxes— a bit of meat hung on a noose ; for 
not only did they constantly make raids on the bunches 
of grapes, but they literally tore the clusters from the 
vines. Besides, the master has sent word that he is 
coming— a harsh, cross-grained man he is, who often 
goes and holds forth and acts the wiseacre before the 
assembly of the people, and gets a good many folk sent 
to prison through his blustering manner and the violence 
of his language — and I was afraid I should get into 
trouble myself, having a despot like that to deal with, 
and wanted to catch the fox, which still did thieving, 
and hand it over to him as my trophy. But, as luck 
would have it, Plangon,^ that miserable little Maltese 
dog, that we kept as a plaything to please the mistress, 
must needs be greedy enough to eat too much meat, and 
has lain dead for three days and is now in a state of 
decomposition. So, unawares, I've piled one trouble 
on the top of another. And what mercy can I expect 
from the gloomy old tyrant? I'll take to my heels and 
run for all I'm worth. Good-bye to the fields and all 
my goods. For it is high time I looked out to save my 
own skin. I expect I shall get into a row, but all the 
same I'll try and get out of it. 

1 Whiiicr. 


jiTnr,i>:s, exii ir. iiors, cLniis, and ri^porticks 

I WISH the editors of newspapers would institute a 
reform in their show reports. 1die hard-worked re- 
])orter so often inchili^es in the natural hut most pcr- 
uicious practice of consulting- one of the exhihitors in 
the classes on which he should report and leavini^ the 
reports to him or her. How often have 1 heard it said: 
" Oh, Mrs. So-and-so, 1 am so dreadfully husy, and you 
know T am not a specialist in your hreed, just write my 
notes for me, will you, and I'll for <^ ire you aiiyfliitif!; 
you say about your o-a'n doi^s." 

Mrs. So-and-so is, of course, delii^hted, Init is very 
likely smarting;- under an unexjiected and, as she con- 
siders, unjust defeat, and instead of heinj;- put on her 
mettle to he extra generous to her o])ponents, she writes 
a damins;- account of her own exhibits and runs down 
those of anvlxnlv ai;\ainst whom she has a ,i;'rud,i;e, almost 
invariably i^ivini;- to their dos^s the had ])oints which 
helono- to her own. The reporter rushes up, stuffs the 
reports into his pocket with effusive thanks, and pub- 
lishes them with his own name, without having" time or 
opportunitv to verify them by personal examination of 
the dogs, and as he can't acknowledge what he has done, 
he stands by them in public afterwards because he can't 
help himself. Shcmld he be brought to book for some 
downright misstatement he can always apologise and 


Mu Richardson Cark's Ch. Nanky Poo 

Photo, T. F.iU 

.Mi;.s W . I(A\i.m:'-. < II. Mw ImchesS 


Photo, T. Fall 

]\1r.s Vale Nicolas' Shklton Mercury 

A pc/rfect type. Photo, Russl'II 

.Mrs 1'()Im:'s Litti.ic Twinkling Star 

Photo, Russell 

Miss Ciikll's Belpek Kacek (Wnnic 

Photo, Russell 

M K \a1,I'. .\|( (iI a.' < II. SlII'.ITilX .AiMM 

Photo, T. Fall 



say he mistook one dog- for another. vSonie reporters 
taxed with this will deny it with many and various in- 
dignant oaths and asseverations. It is, nevertheless, a 
fact, and one of the reasons why 1 know it for a fact is 
that I have been asked to write these reports myself, 
but have always declined to write except under my own 
name, or to report on my own dogs anonymously. Thus 
I have seen somebody else doing it in my stead, gen- 
erally to the great disadvantage of my exhibits. In 
spite of the fact that T have expressly stated that T would 
not write unsigned reports, my signed reports have twice 
bee*! altered and the signature suppressed, and so long- 
as this is done it is hopeless to expect any independence 
of criticism. 

The lady dealers are ])articularly fond of Ijlowing 
their own trumpets and the solos of this horn-blowing 
sisterhood upon their self-made instruments are frankly 

The press is much imposed upon by some of these 
professional trumpeters. Occasionally they sign their 
names to the reports of the classes at which they them- 
selves have been exhibiting and do not blush to run 
down their opponents' dogs and praise their own in 
unmeasured and perfectly unwarrantable terms. The 
signatures to these articles would seem at first sight to 
make this amusement harmless, although ridiculous, till 
we remember that the reports are not sent to purchasers 
in full, but merely cut out of the newspapers in sections, 
which the buyer thinks represent the opinions of what- 
ever newspa])er publishes them. How many of these 
misleading cuttings have I not been sent' when in treaty 
for a dog! The ladies who sign their reports are, how- 
ever, in a minority. It is only those without any sense 



of humour who allow the other fanciers to see them 
trumi)etin^-, and i;enerally they contrive that someone 
else should apjjcar to do the l)lo\vini>\ An excellent 
trumpeter of my ac(|uaintance writes anonymous rei)orts 
of her own dog\s at all the important shows, and most 
wonderful they are. If her dos^s lose, the lady " cannot 
follow the ])lacino-," and writes a ])anegyric of the losers: 
if they win, they have won in the strongx\st compan}^ 
ever got together. Perhaps the most accomplished 
soloist of modern days is, however, the type of lady 
dealer who, when heaten, writes to the foreign ])apers 
to announce her victories for the very ]:)rizes she has 
lost, and in the innocence of their hearts, the editors 
pul)lish her reports and the readers Iniy the dogs! 

All this is very anuising as a psychological study, 
hut at the same time undesir;i])le and contemptihle. 

l^xhihitors should also he careful never l)y accident 
(still less hv design) to claim the title of Champion for 
their dogs without having the right to it. There seems 
to he a confusion in owners' minds as to what constitutes 
a full chami)ion. An American writer often refers to 
some of our dogs as champions which ha\e no claim to 
the prefix. This is, no doubt, because she does not know^ 
our luigiish custom. 

1 have known two so-called champions entered at a 
show in Toy Spaniel classes, one of them being actually 
entered in a champions' class, th(nigh they had only won 
three challenge prizes between them, and might 
been dis(|ualified on objection. An influential exhibitor 
has, however, little to fear from objecti(Mis, as none of 
the minor fanciers would care to offend him by dis(|uali- 
fying his dog, knowing the Nemesis that would shortly 
overtake them. In order to be a chanijiion a dog must 


A Pji-KII'.CT 1 Yl'Ji 
Plioto, kussell 

All:,:, JJlkkj.n's Cii. iiUi Saulk Aluit, 
(Sable) photo, T, Fall 

Mks Lan(,ton JJi-.NNib' Cu. Kkw Makio 

Mrs Parkinson's '.-.i i/ 

Young, Piccadilly Arcade Studio 

Miss Uorsiai,i,'s Jii<o< kj.yn C/olj^ Sm.( k 

Thib dog has an ideal head and expre^^iun 


have won three challeng-e certificates (popuhirly called 
championships) under three dififerent judges. One 
" championship " does iiof make a dog a champion any 
more than one swallow makes a summer, nor would 
twenty championships do it unless they were won under 
more than two different judges. 

Owners should therefore be careful not to claim the 
title prematurely, as not only is it what might be con- 
sidered bad taste, but it also comes under the head of 
that dangerous practice — " counting one's chickens be- 
fore they are hatched." It is also a mistake to claim 
n]pre championships than your dog has really won, as 
it is very easily verified by reference to the calendar of 
the Kennel Club Stud Book, which has, once for all. 
put a stop to the possibility of any mistakes in the 
matter. It makes the owner look very silly, if nothing 
more. There is a champion at the present day who is 
credited by his owner with many more challenge prizes 
than he has really won. Buyers should always look 
up a dog's wins in the Kennel Club Stud Book before 

It is not, I think, generally understood that, in order 
to win a challenge prize at a show, a dog need not be 
entered in the open class. The rule is this — that the 
dog must have been registered and have won a /r/^c 
in his class at the show. It is therefore perfectly pos- 
sible that a third-prize winner at the show shotild yet 
justly get a challenge prize. For instance, a dog entered 
only in novice class may be beaten by two bitches. He 
may, however, be better than any of the winners in open 
dog or limit dog, and would therefore win the dog chal- 
lenge certificate in preference to the first-class winner 
in open class. Many judges and most exhibitors think 



that the challeng-c prize necessarily follows the award 
in open class, but this is an error. 

As an illustration I may instance a case in point 
which happened at Crufts Show. In open bitches Cara- 
mel w^as placed first, but in limit (dogs and bitches) the 
awards were as follows: 

1. Flashlight (dog) 

2. Seetsu Prince (dog) 

3. Gloire de Dijon (bitch) 
Reserve. Caramel (bitch) 

The judge awarded the challenge prize to Caramel, 
who was first in open class against other bitches, but 
the owner of Gloire de Dijon, though only a third-prize 
winner, might have claimed it, as she beat Caramel in 
limit. Even had they not met in limit, she would have 
had a right to compete against Caramel for the chal- 
lenge prize. 

In s])ite of the rosy view^ taken by M. Jaquet in a 
recent interview with an illustrated paper, speaking of 
unfairness being now a thing of the ])ast, I am afraid 
there is a good deal of " give and take " in the judging 
of many breeds. Human nature remains human nature 
in spite of Rule 17, and it is perfectly impossible to con- 
vict of fraud a man who puts up a dog he has just sold 
or l)red, as he can always reply that in his opinion it 
was the best and there the matter is bound to end, 
though all the exhibitors may know perfectly w^ell that 
the thing was " put up" beforehand, the matter being an 
open secret. Many dealers think this a i)erfectly legiti- 
mate way of selling their dogs to novices and consider 
any attempt to interfere with it as an absurd exhibition 
of jealousy or fastidiousness, and take it as deliberate 



Meeting of the TTnithd Fanciers' Ci.t^b 


and nnjustifia])le ill-nature, 1)eino- entirely incapable of 
understanding that there is anything undesirable in it. 

There are many fanciers who deplore the ways of 
the dog fancy as much as I do, but if they speak u]) they 
are put into Coventry and good-bye to all hope of win- 
ning with their dogs. 

I shall take the bull by the horns as T do not l)elong 
to any specialist club, so T owe no allegiance to anybody, 
though I wish every success to any of those bodies who 
may be working for the good of their respective breeds, 
and not to fill their own pockets. 

• As I am on the subject of clubs T shall say a few 
words about specialist clubs in general and what T con- 
sider are their drawbacks both at home and abroad.^ 

The lUustratcd KcnncJ News recently had a leader 
with regard to the evil influence of specialist clubs and 
individuals on the system of selecting judges. Specialist 
clubs are really far more dangerous than individuals, as 
they usually have many more thumb-screws with which 
to screw the thumbs of show committees and a greater 
glitter of challenge cups and medals wherewith to dazzle 
them; and whereas the individual schemer may attract 
an occasional minor moth to his candle, the revolving 
lights of the club light-houses attract even the cautious 
big birds by their brilliance. Acting in a body they are 
also more shameless in the tail twisting of committees 
than unsupported individuals. 

Specialist clubs are, as a rule, merely the organs of 
a few more or less powerful exhibitors ; almost in- 
variably dealers of the less reputable kind who have 
some common aims, but whose interests are not by any 

1 Part of this was published by me in the Ladies' Field and Kennel 
News and copied by an American paper. 


means always in the breed they are supposed to repre- 
sent, but, alas, in their own pockets. A foreign kennel 
club is sometimes affectionately referred to in the news- 
papers as the "Kennel Curse!" I do not know what 
has brought this upon its head, but I think that if the 
word " curse " were substituted for the word " club " 
in a great number of our specialist bodies here it would 
do them no great injustice. 

Their inlluence is all the worse because the best 
l)reeders and owners, who have a reputation to lose, 
usually prefer to be independent of such bodies, which 
may only represent the opinions of a few individuals 
with their own fish to fry, who impose their views u])()n 
their *' club " judges under the plea that the " club " 
(otherwise the "curse") represents the breed. I 
greatly prefer a good, honest all-rounder, even if he 
does make mistakes, to a specialist chosen by these fish- 
frying committees. The club standards appear some- 
times to be framed merely on the fancy of their founders 
or to suit a prevalent type, being based on no historical 
evidence whatever — the historical evidence in some cases 
being diametrically opposed to the club standards. 

The club judges are allowed no liberty of opinion. 
Should one of them be ill-advised enough to indulge in 
any independent awarding of prizes, by which influen- 
tial members find themselves among the V. H. C.'s, that 
judge is either not asked to judge again or else so 
severely hauled over the coals and given what is pop- 
ularly called such a " dressing down " that he is not 
likely to forget it in a hurry. No man, unless he had the 
merest barley water in his veins instead of blood, would 
submit himself long to such dictation. He either leaves 
the club or refuses to judge and the club list dwindles 


Cheerful Meeting of a Show Executive Committee 



at last to a few weak-minded toadies, who dare not ^o 
against the known wishes of their empkjyers and don't 
care if they call their souls their own or not. Now this 
is not for the l)enefit of any breed. 

The position of a judge in these specialist clubs is 
that of a child in leadini^ strin,^-s. The iucloini[^ of some 
breeds has long" been a ])erfecl farce; the dealers ])lay 
into one another's hands, aj)])oint each other as judL^'es 
and report on their own doL^s. Could anythinj^ ])e worse 
for the im])rovement of our breeds of doi^? The results 
are disastrous. No wonder we .i^et amazing exaggera- 
tidhs — no wonder type is lost and f|uality forgotten. Xo 
wonder respectable ])enplc are drix'en out of the shows. 
I have seen new breeders rise up with money and energy, 
full of kindliness, honesty, generosity, and enthusiasm, 
and in six months they have been swindled out of their 
generosity, in eight months their kindliness has been 
bullied out of them, in ten months they have been forced 
out of their honesty, in twelve months their enthusiasm 
has turned to bitterness and they have either sold up 
their dogs and gone from the ring for ever, or they have 
joined the various clif|ues of swindlers in desperation 
and become as bad as any of them. 

So bad a name do lady fanciers get that, as far as 
the outside world is concerned, one might just as well 
become a professional card sharper as a dog fancier ! 
It is quite wTong that the fancy should be so regarded, 
• but at times one is tempted to think that the devil is not 
])ainted a whit blacker than he is. Some specialist clubs 
have even gone so far as to frame actual rules by which 
the shows which do not accept their chr)ice of judges 
shall be boycotted, receiving no special prizes ; and, as 
show committees cannot afford to risk em])ty classes, 



the result is a foregone conclusion, the judge is accepted 
and members of the club win the prizes, and the unfor- 
tunate outsiders and novices, who enter their dogs, 
knowing nothing of club politics, are simply wasting 
their money. The merit of their dogs is no help to them. 

One of the worst scandals of the present day is the 
way in which specialist clubs are allowed to force their 
lists of judges on show secretaries. The w4iole of these 
lists often consists of well under a dozen names of people, 
often bound by a special rule to judge according to the 
club's definition of type, and when such rules are in 
force, coupled with the compulsory lists, it means that 
all independent opinion is excluded and that the whole 
fate of a breed is in the hands of three or four people. 
It also means that anyone who aspires to be a judge is 
forced to belong to the club under pain of boycott. 

Before the shows the specialist club sends a couple 
of names from its lists of judges to the show secretaries 
and these unfortunate gentlemen know well enough that 
the club specials and guarantees depend on their accept- 
ing one of these names. 

In the case of the existence of more than one spe- 
cialist club for the same breed, the browbeaten secre- 
taries find themselves between Scylla and Charybdis. Is 
it to be wondered at that the owners of good dogs, who 
really care about the improvement of the race, fight shy 
of specialist clubs and cliques? If they are sufficiently 
good judges themselves to require no prompting they 
rightly resent interference. No one who has studied 
his breed, both as to points and history, is likely to be- 
long to societies which, when they cannot get the old 
independent fanciers to judge their way, put in well- 
primed ignoranuises to award cham])ionshi])s at imjior- 


Dog Snows as tiif.y would be in an Anarchical State 


taut shows. The inevitable resuh of such a system is 
that the title of champion is no longer any guarantee 
of merit whatever, and most of the best people end by 
stopping out of the shows altogether, and that endless 
dissatisfaction, rows, and ill feeling, are created amongst 
exhil)itors by the astonishing awards of people who 
ought to know better (and often do know [setter in their 
hearts) and the flagrant revoking of the ignoramuses 
who, in spite of coaching, cannot even remember the 
dogs from one class to another. At a championship show 
sometime ago a judge revoked no less than nine times ! 
• Really, I am inclined to sympathise with the old gen- 
tleman who, after carefully following the judging at a 
show and noting the members of specialist clubs, having 
sat the while between two ferocious ladies who were 
fighting over a special prize, was heard to murmur fer- 
vently as he got up to go, " From battle, murder, spe- 
cialist judges, good Lord, deliver us ! " 

I feel that by writing this I shall be making myself 
delightfully popular with the various specialist "curses" 
throughout the country, and that they will be ready to 
burn my book and possibly add me to the funeral pyre. 
However, clul)s need not necessarily be curses. I dare 
say lots of them are blessings — in disguise! 

No club should be allowed to olTer a prize for " the 
best dog in the show " of any breed, which prize is con- 
fined to members. It is most misleading. The words, 
" confined to members," are always omitted in the re- 
ports, as they usually are printed at the head of the 
club's list of prizes. The wording, " in the show " 
should be absolutely prohibited and the words " best 
member's dog " substituted. Often there is no compe- 
tition for these specials or they are confined to very in- 



ferior dogs, which are bought by foreigners on the 
strength of these high-sounding prizes. 

As to a much discussed question of special prizes 
being offered for dogs which have won only V. H. C, 
I have always thought the idea of special prizes was that 
of consolation prizes. There is so little inducement now 
to the poorer exhibitors to enter their dogs at shows, 
that I fear we shall soon cease to have any entries at 
all in Toy dog classes. The prize money is so absurdly 
out of proportion to the entry fees that a w^orking man is 
not likely to spend more than a week's wages entering 
in classes where he has the forlornest hope of winning 
with a brood bitch, however good, unless there is some 
consolation prize to tempt him. The challenge certifi- 
cates kept a good many exhibitors going, but since their 
reduction the entries have sensibly diminished, and if 
special prizes are confined to first-prize winners there 
will be a still further diminution. 

The Toy Spaniel Club has not improved matters for 
its breed of late by a recent rule which restricts all 
judging appointments in future to members of the club, 
thus excluding all independent opinion. I think it very 
undesirable that moral pressure of any kind should be 
put on open shows to choose club judges for whatever 
breed it may be. Let club shows choose their own 
judges by all means, but a club rule which refuses the 
selection of any independent judge, under pain of with- 
drawing its patronage, seems to me in itself an infringe- 
ment of the spirit of the Kennel Club regulations as to 
influencing judging appointments. What would be 
thought of the Kennel Club if it drafted a rule that no 
man should judge who was not a member and refused 
challenge certificates on these grounds? Yet this is what 


Chinese Puppies 

Marhuyania Okio, 1733-1795. Shijo School 



K ".'W^ 


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Pomeranian Type of Dog, Mao I 

Chinese. Sung Dynasty, 13th century 


it conies to when, as in the c^ise of the Toy Spaniel Ckib, 
the ckib specials and cups are withdrawn, if the selec- 
tion of the judge is not first approved by the committee 
of the club, three of whom form a quorum! 

Why should any judge be compelled to pay toll to 
any club? 

Who shall say that the secretaries of shows, warned 
of the ])enalty which follows any appointment outside 
the club list in the withdrawal of patronage and a cor- 
responding shortage of entries, are not influenced to 
choose accordingly ? 

.1 do not, however, believe in the other extreme of 
electing judges by a majority of members. Only a very 
small number of fanciers know the points of their breed 
well enough to vote, and the ignorant majority will in- 
evitably elect bad judges. I have heard it boldly given 
out by members of a club that novices should be put in 
to judge at championshij) shows, because it gives infe- 
rior dogs a chance of becoming champions ! Novices 
should never judge at championshi]) shows, as they are 
l)ound to make mistakes, and good dogs suffer most un- 
deserved reverses at their hands. This is all the more 
unfair, because these reverses are recorded forever un- 
explained in the K. C. S. B., and I cannot too strongly 
urge the Kennel Club never to grant challenge certifi- 
cates to classes judged by novices. 

The Kennel Club has done a most extraordinary 
amount of good work in lessening the number of frauds, 
and a wholesome fear of its governing hand restrains 
most people from the more reckless and obvious forms 
of swindling. It does not seem to be generally known 
that the Kennel Club has a Shows Regulation Com- 
mittee which will investigate sus])icious cases without 



depending upon exhibitors to bring the cases forward 
by a formal complaint, thus laying themselves open to a 
libel action in case of a failure to bring legal proof of the 
correctness of their suspicions. Those who can supply 
evidence of any dishonesty at shows can therefore write 
to the head of this committee. They must, however, be 
sure of their facts, as if they supply false information 
they will naturally not improve their own reputation. 

I am afraid that a great number of judges will never 
be able to resist putting up their friends' dogs, the 
temptation is so subtle and nothing can possibly happen 
to them in consequence. The contempt of the people 
who know a good dog from a bad one is all that they 
have to fear, and the material advantages of being on 
delightfully cordial terms with their friends is generally 
more important to them than a reputation of uncom- 
promising rectitude and perfect judgment, coupled with 
that of being a most disagreeable man or woman. I 
have long studied the methods of women judges com- 
pared to men judges, and I have come to the conclusion 
that they are just about equal in every respect. On 
the whole, I think the women judges know the points 
of the Toy dogs better than the men. The only thing 
I have noticed is that in cases of unfairness, the unfair- 
ness takes a slightly different form. A man judge, who 
wishes to take it out of an exhibitor, puts that exhibitor's 
best dog right back, and with Machiavelian artfulness 
puts his worst exhibit first in another class. This re- 
moves the imputation of personal dislike and leaves his 
enemy helpless and fuming. A woman, with few ex- 
ceptions, goes for her enemy whole-heartedly and puts 
down all that enemy's exhibits to R. and V. H. C, know- 
ing that these barren honours will produce a far more 


JMrs Fry's Sei Mei 

Mr L. CARNEt;ii:'s; IIaima I 


H.H. Princess Toussoun's Pekingese Puck of Alderbourne 

Piccadilly Arcade Studio 


exasperating- effect than being- passed over altogether, 
as the dog- then appears in the newspaper reports with 
disparaging- remarks attached and everybody knows he 
has been beaten. A man, however, does not often put 
a dog down out of pure spite, though some will do so. 
It is generally only because he has a friend he wants 
to help, and, having given his friend a " leg up," he is 
satisfied and tries to make it up to the owner by giving 
him a " special." Things have come to such a pass that 
he is usually only too thankful for such small mercies. 

A woman, too, will sometimes delude her enemy into 
showing under her by deliberately asking her to show 
and enthusiastically admiring her dogs in her hearing, so 
that when the day comes the blow is delivered with all 
the more effect. I have only once known a man do this. 
Nor will a man usually favour dogs of his own breeding 
with the unblushing publicity exhibited by ladies. On the 
other hand, a man will very often grossly favour ladies 
to whom he is partial. Considering the ferocious tem- 
per of some ladies in the ring, I must say I am sorry for 
a man who is confronted with the problem of publicly 
offending a lady he may be privately courting, by giving 
the coveted prize to her most hated doggy rival, or else 
of pocketing his judgment of her exhibit and being 
invited to dinner and made much of. He sees the devil 
on one hand and the deep sea on the other. What won- 
der if he slips with eyes shut into the sea? When a 
judge persistently puts up totally different types of dogs, 
mostly belonging to the same owner, it is always sus- 
picious, and I consider that he should be required to 
explain his conduct as " an officer and a gentleman." 

I have said the good work done by the Kennel Club 
can hardly be measured, and I cannot sufficiently admire 



the way in which it deals with the enormous amount of 
work it has to do. I hope that it will, however, forgive 
me if I make some slight criticisms on its management 
of minor matters and tell it a little of w4iat is said of it 
behind its back. I do not think anyone questions the 
integrity of the Kennel Club, or its anxiety to put down 
fraud and right wrongs, but the schoolmaster is gen- 
erally the last to know what goes on in his school, and 
it is really rather unfair to expect exhibitors to bring 
cases against each other. It is rather like asking school- 
boys to " peach " on dieir school-fellows, and everyone 
knows the treatment such boys have to expect, however 
much they may be in the right. It is not quite the same, 
but there is an analogy, and before an exhibitor under- 
takes to show up a fraud, he must make up his mind to 
be put into Coventry and have his dogs put down after. 
Directly one of their number is attacked, rightly or 
wrongly, the other exhibitors (though they have never 
the pluck to support him openly) will privately make it 
as hot as they can for the attacking party, nor will they 
give evidence even in the most glaring cases. I have 
known cases where the chief witnesses refused at the 
last moment to give the evidence promised, and on the 
day of the hearing were actually found sitting in the 
opposite camp, waiting to give evidence on the other 
side! If the attacking party is strong enough it does 
not care, but this system entirely prevents any poor or 
uninfluential exhibitor ever going to the Kennel Club for 
redress. The deposit of £2 is also prohibitive for the 
poorer fanciers. I have sometimes asked poorer people 
why they did not expose frauds of which they had every 
proof, but they always said " What is the use of going 
to the Kennel Club, I should be done for in shows after- 

Mrs Finlayson's Celestial Toto 

Pilot.,, Russrll 

Mrs Freeman's Orange Boy 

Photo, T. Fall 

Mrs Stainthorpe's Pekin Count 

1-^ - -A 

Mrs H. Andrews' Chu Chu of Toddingtoi 

Plioto, T. Fall 

Mk.s Tokrexs' Cii. (hjodwood Chun 

Miss Barry's Pekingese Princess 
Wee • Wee 

Photo, T. Fall 
Pekingese Spaniels 



wards? " This will always exist unless the Kennel Club 
will take the prosecution into its own hands by means 
of a sort of public prosecutor. 

The removal of the rule, fining exhibitors for cler- 
ical errors, was a godsend to the poorer exhibitors on 
whom the tax fell hardest. Many exhibitors are not 
literary geniuses, the registration and transfer forms 
are more or less of a Chinese puzzle to them, and the 
rules pure Sanscrit conundrums. With the best will in 
the world to conform to the regulations, clerical errors 
fell in showers from their pens and corresponding 
showers of half-crowns poured in the Kennel Club cof- 
fers. They could not be expected to understand the 
complicated language, for instance, of the rules for en- 
tering in Limit classes. It requires a good deal of head 
to discover that as the working of certain classes may 
change at every show, a dog may be eligible at one show 
and ineligible at another, and that some wins count and 
some don't. The Kennel Club has generously removed 
this grievance, and I am sure that I am voicing the 
thanks of all fanciers when I congratulate them on this. 

The less the Kennel Club harasses exhibitors by 
minor regulations about a multiplicity of small matters 
that are of comparatively little importance the more in- 
fluence it will get. The general exhibiting public, while 
it rather respects the vigorous impaling of a rogue, yet 
bitterly resents the pin-pricks of every-day legislation; 
the more of these there are the more restive it becomes. 

One does not expect to hear much praise of the Lord 
Chief Justice or of the Penal Code from professional 
cracksmen, and one hears a great deal of abuse of the 
Kennel Club from interested or irresponsible people. I 
even saw an indignant article in an influential society 



newspaper blaming- the Kennel Club for supporting, if 
not originating, the very abuses which it spends its 
existence in endeavouring to stamp out. The letter was 
written by a gentleman whose wife had lately taken u]) 
exhibiting and met w4th three months' reverses! On 
this lifetime of experience he presumed to arraign and 
condemn the Kennel Club with a self-confidence that 
was really touching in its simplicity. 

I have myself lirought two complaints before the 
Kennel Club under Rule XVII. I won one and lost the 
other, but in both I felt full confidence in the integrity 
of the committee who judged them — even when one 
ended in a personal reprimand from the chairman for 
rushing in where angels would have feared to tread! 

The Kennel Club has repeatedly shown that it has 
no respect of persons and will act against its own in- 
terests in disqualifying rich and powerful exhibitors as 
well as ordinary folk, though in doing this it incurs not 
only the wrath of the suspended individual and his pow- 
erful friends, but it also raises the disapproval or regret 
of every show secretary owing to the numbers of entries, 
cups, and guarantees which are thereby lost and which 
keep the shows alive. The firm and uncompromising 
attitude the gentlemen of the Kennel Club have always 
maintained in these matters, in spite of every inducement 
to the contrary, has consolidated their power and should 
command the gratitude and increase the confidence of 
the show pul)lic of which they are the governing body. 

In its decisions the Kennel Club proves that it is no 
weak time-serving institution, but a fearless and inde- 
pendent body of honourable gentlemen whom neither 
threats nor interest can influence. As such it deserves 
our respect and support. 



Instead of having such innumerable shows all over 
the country, I think the public should insist on those 
societies, which are allowed to hold shows, offering 
better prize money. The prize money is derisory and 
in most cases not enough to cover expenses, and a fourth 
prize would be a welcome innovation. The people who 
need encouragement are not the so-called " lady " deal- 
ers, who go from show to show with their ill-gotten 
dogs, but the small breeders who breed these champions 
and get very poorly paid for them. It is a common thing 
for one of these ladies to go to a breeder, when he is hard 
up,' and squeeze his dog from him with the understand- 
ing that it is to be registered as bred by the lady. She 
will not buy on any other terms, and sooner or later 
poverty drives him to accept the bargain. This is a 
crying injustice. Very often there is a further stipula- 
tion as to the dog being registered with the purchaser's 
stud dog as its sire, which is a most complicated and 
abominable fraud, involving the falsification of pedigree 
and the misleading of serious breeders. How often, 
when I have been buying a good dog, have I been asked 
to allow the seller the credit of being the breeder. On 
my assurance that I should not dream of taking honours 
which did not belong to me, the owner's face has sud- 
denly expanded with a smile like a full moon, and he has 
exclaimed, " Well, now, I do call that kind, Mrs. X and 
Mrs. Z never will hear of it." The poor breeder is 
apparently quite unaware that such elementary honesty 
is ever practised by their richer clients and hail it as a 
delightful novelty and " kindness." 

A dog fancier can easily be told from the profes- 
sional dealer or amateur, as no respect of persons will 
ever induce the real fancier to express admiration for 



a clog he does not like, even at the cost of making life- 
long enemies. It seems to me that the knowledge of a 
good connoisseur should be far too great to allow him 
to let his judgment be discredited by awarding a prize 
to a bad dog, or pretending he does not see his bad 
points, wliereas many of the modern so-called fanciers 
try to please everybody (an impossible task, by the 
way), admire bad dogs without a blush just to please 
their friends, run down a good dog just to vex their 
enemies, revoke five or six times quite gaily, and behave 
generally as though self-respect was an unknown 
quality. A serious judge should feel that his honour is 
at stake, that his reputation for knowing the points of 
a dog would be ruined if he made an award that might 
look like ignorance. But modern fanciers do not seem 
to care if they are thought fools or not, and they really 
seem to imagine, that by repeated prizes, glowing re- 
ports in the newspaper and constant praise, they can 
make a bad dog forcibly into a good one, and, on a sort 
of Christian Science principle of suggestion, hypnotise 
their friends into disbelieving their own eyes. The gen- 
eral public is, of course, hoodwinked, but no fancier of 
intelligence could be possibly taken in. 

My parting exhortation to reporters is, " Speak the 
truth and shame the devil," write your own reports, and 
don't try to pat every dog on the back, and always sign 
your name in full. 

I have occasionally written official reports myself. 
I know that it is very difficult to be strictly impartial. 
An acquaintance, possibly someone who is going to 
judge your own dogs shortly, comes up and says, " You 
won't mention Jacky's defect of action, will you? Give 
me a good report and I shan't forget it." To harden 


Picture by Barth. van der Helst 

About 1640. St Petersburg. Photo, Hanfstaengl 


one's heart and say firmly that Jacky is not sound re- 
quires considerable determination, and sometimes entails 
a V. H. C. card instead of a championship for one's most 
valued dog at his next public appearance. These, how- 
ever, are the natural risks of reporting. Reporters 
should make up their minds whether they can bear the 
onus before accepting their official responsibilities, but 
to be coaxed or bullied into betraying the trust is unpar- 
donable. I notice that whenever a judge has made more 
than the usual hash of his classes and the exhibitors are 
angry enough to lynch him, the reporter always men- 
•tions in print that " the awards gave general satisfac- 
tion." This is so invariable that I generally can tell 
how the awards have gone before I look at the list, and 
it has always appeared to me an absurd farce. 

Again, if every report of a dog for a series of shows 
speaks of it as specially sound, you may be pretty sure 
it has something wrong. 

To judges I would say, before accepting the position, 
make up your mind decidedly that you do not care what 
your friends say of you. If you cannot do this, refuse 
the appointment. 

On starting for the show leave spite, jealousy, good 
nature, weak-mindedness, and all questions of personal 
advantage behind you. The judging ring is not the 
proper place for good nature or social amenities nor for 
the settling of old grudges. If your friends enter under 
you, make them clearly understand that they do so at 
their own risk, and that if they show dogs you have just 
sold to them (which is in the very worst taste) they 
must not expect any favouring. If you make this clear 
from the very first they will put up with your judgments 
with comparative cheerfulness, but if once you begin 



showing weakness or indecision, ihey will feel insulted 
if you do not favour them. With few exceptions, each 
exhibitor truly thinks his dog the best, and it is the 
judge's business to decide on the matter and not to be in- 
fluenced by the desire of his friends to secure first place. 

There are many people who " good-naturedly " 
favour friends by giving them undeserved prizes, yet 
these same people would no more dream of taking £5 
belonging to a stranger and bestowing it on a friend 
than of robbing a mail coach or burgling some one's 
plate chest. This is, however, exactly what it comes to. 
Often people say, " Oh, I gave first to B (a poor man) 
because A (a rich man) can afford to lose." Now this 
kind of generosity with other people's money is robbery, 
pure and simple, though they do not realise it in the 
least. After one show, where my dogs were put back, 
I asked the judge afterwards to tell me why, and she 
replied, " Well, you see, yon have got such very good 
dogs tJiaf yon can afford to lose, as they will always go 
up again," which was perhaps the oddest explanation 
that it has ever been my lot to hear. Do not imitate the 
professional dealers, who do not care about the breed, 
but only for the amount of money they can help each 
other to make. Your friends may be disappointed and 
angry at first, but they will soon learn to respect you 
and value your opinion. The greatest compliment a 
judge can have is to get it said that it is waste of time 
trying to make up to him, because he never takes a hint. 

Exhibitors hate inconsistency, and if a man favours 
one type of dog in one class and another in the next 
class they get furious, whereas, if he knows what he 
wants and sticks to some standard of points which can 
be perceived as consistent, they may be cross, but will 


A Judge's Life is not a Happy Onk 


not accuse him of unfairness, and will try and enter 
under him next time the kind of animal to which he is 
evidently partial. This is the kind of judging that is 
required, and I want everyone who reads this to resolve 
henceforth not to he weak-minded as to friends or 
biased as to enemies, but to look at the dogs only. A 
good judge should hardly so much as see the face of a 
single exhibitor. His eyes are fixed on the dogs so that 
he can scarcely ever tell who has led them into the ring, 
and it stands to reason that the judge, who is always 
nervously glancing at the exhibitors, cannot but lose 
sight of the dogs and so miss many important points. 
I was once, as an exhibitor, standing in the ring with 
my dog and the judge hesitated hopelessly between my 
dog and that of a lady next me. I knew that the least 
sign on my part would decide it in my favour, but I put 
on a blank expression of passive stolidity. Presently 
the judge whispered to me, " Which do you think the 
best ? " This certainly was a compliment to my integrity 
at a critical moment, but I thought it hardly fair on 
poor human nature. I replied with an irrepressible 
smile, "Surely, it is not my place to tell you?" The 
smile did it ! The prize went to the other lady. I have 
been immensely astonished at the extraordinary pug- 
nacity of exhibitors. Some, not content with glaring 
at each other in the show with concentrated ferocity, 
will, during the judging of special prizes, make impos- 
sible claims and create a scene in the show just on the 
chance of bewildering the judge into giving them some 
prize for which they are not eligible. Feeling runs 
higher in dog shows than it does even over elections, 
and it is only the shadow of the Kennel Club which ap- 
parently prevents the hooligan sections of exhibitors 



from assaulting each other with dead cats or rotten 
eg'gs. Only, I am afraid it would be dead dogs in these 
cases ! 

The Toy Spaniel pens have in the last few years, I 
regret to say, earned for themselves very unpleasant 
nicknames, to the great injury of those exhil^itors who 
are well behaved, peaceable folk. '* Scandal Alley " and 
the " Wasps' Nest " are among the mildest. Some ex- 
hibitors seem to be like the Irishman who, hearing a 
row in the street, sent down his boy with the following 
message : " Please, sir, father says if there's going to be 
a row he'd like to be iii if." This story always delights 
me, and I have already quoted it elsewhere, but in the 
case of these exhibitors I think it is more a case of 
" Please, ladies, Mrs. X says that if there's not going to 
be a row, she would like to make one." I have also been 
immensely entertained by the violent language of the 
exhibitors behind each others backs. One lady will talk 
of another as a swindler of the blackest kind, and the 
next thing one sees is the two ladies walking arm in 
arm like two love birds. The following week they are 
openly fighting like wild cats because one has induced 
the other to show under her and has given her V, H. C. 
Exhibitors of either sex are never friends for long. 
They are like the lady who, in speaking rapturously of 
a friendship, exclaimed: " Oh! we have such quarrels — 
but sucJi reconciliations ! " I have also heard a judge (a 
man) storming and swearing at an exhibitor in the 
ring, his face purple with fury, and stamping his feet 
like a child of six. On other occasions dogs have won 
through all their classes before luncheon and been put 
down in all the subsequent classes! The excuses for 
these lapses are marvellous! 


Lady Samuelson's Saru of Brayvvick 

Photo, T. Fall 

Lady Samuelson's ToKi.MAbA 

Mrs Colin Evans" Mitoshim 

Photo, Russell 

Mr Weller's Maltese Ch. 
Chillicbury Masher 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Kingdon's Ki'U and \\iiite Japanese 
Cho Cho 

Photo, Russell 

Mrs Spink's Gelsiia uf \\ il;.l.,l .^.m-v 
Photo, Russell 


There are some people who have a quasi plausible 
excuse for everything, and the lady dog dealers remind 
me sometimes of the man who was brought up before 
the justices for poaching, with three dead rabbits as 
witnesses. His defence was that he had gone to sleep 
under a hedge and the three rabbits had run into his 
pockets and got accidentally suffocated! 

His ingenuity hardly met w^ith the reward it de- 
served at the hands of the magistrate, who got him 
accidentally shut into a cell! 

In the days of ignorance I used to imagine that a 
specialist judge was an individual with a special knowl- 
edge of his subject, and was all in favor of him. I was, 
however, soon disillusioned. 

" Specialisation is vexation," and its practice is cer- 
tainly enough to drive us mad. 

Rich people are likely to have a very poor time in 
the dog fancy, which I am afraid sounds rather Irish. 

It is a question of " your money or your life." Al- 
most every soul they meet is thirsting for their money, 
and on failing to get it becomes exceedingly hostile. 

A person with money, who refuses to be made into 
a respectable dummy, with a banking account for the 
benefit of every sort of clique, club, or society that 
chooses to ask for it, is liable to be systematically boy- 
cotted, and his life made a burden to him by every kind 
of petty persecution. 

Fabulous prices are asked for anything he wishes 
to buy, and the dealers would rather give their dogs 
away for a mere song to their worst enemies than let 
him have anything at less than three times its value. 

In this way the exhibitors cut their own throats and 
drive away the only people who can really help them. 

38 297 


Tlicv arc outraged if a rich man sells a doj;-, and have 
an idea thai he should always i;i\c his do^s away and 
sliowcr L^nld ronnd him like a prince in a fairy talc, for- 
j;cltin^- that a modern fairy prince has to pay his i\alace 
expenses and that his honnds and retainers cat, drink, 
and are merry also at his exi)cnsc. 

A man who will brighten np trade hv <^-ivini^ ])rizes 
and does not heal down the l)rce(lcrs, Inil j^ives them 
liood valne for their stock, one W'onld think to l)c a .^'od- 
scnd to the " i\ancy," hnt this is not how it works ont. 
'i'lic hiiL^xcr dealers arc not satisfied with ii^eltin^- first- 
class prices lor ^ood doi^s, hnt on the contrary thev want 
to keep their s^ood do<;s and win all the prizes themselves 
pahninL;- off the rilTralT and misfits on the nnsnspectino- 
I airy prince for the fahnlons ])riccs which onlv fancy 
points can demand. The fair\' prince, especially if he 
he an American, is generally (|uite prepared to pay 
donhle the market price, and does not i^-rndi^e the price if 
he <;cts what he wants, hnt he ex])ects to o'ct a marvel 
tor his money, and small hlamc to him. Numhers of 
lancicrs hale a man thc\' cannot llcece, and directly he 
shows them plainly that he will not Iniy their rnhhish 
hnt intends to sl^cI the best or shnt his purse, their one 
idea is to pre\ent this im welcome ciMinoisseur teaching" 
anyone else hy nettim;- rid of him as (|nickly as possible. 

in America the kind of " smartness " l)y which a 
seller will i)alm off inferior stock for the i)rice of good 
stuff seems to be rather admired and the perjxHrator con- 
sidered rather a " bright man." wIk^sc ac(iuaintance is 
worth making. The result is that, if V(m do happen to 
tell the exact truth about the defects of a dog, Americans 
will look upon you with strong suspicion and begin by 
thinking you very deep indeed, and far too dangerous 


The Right Type of Black and Tan Toy Spaniel 

Head and expression which breeders of Black and Tan Toy Spaniels should try to reproduce. Photo. Russell 

Miss Nicholson's Pekingese Puppies 


to touch. If they afterwards discover that you have 
been " green " enough to be honest their contempt for 
you knows no bounds. In England I hope we still stop 
short of admiring swindlers and that it is still considered 
rather shabby to do a mean trick, but I am sorry to say 
that 1 have often heard honest people spoken of con- 
temptuously as " soft." 

I am afraid T might as well speak to the winds, but 
if my exhortations will stop even one of my readers on 
the tempting downward path they will not be wasted. 

To sellers I would say : " Do not try to get the cat 
and its skin as well," as the saying is, and if you find 
an open-handed novice who will give you the best of 
prices and trust to your honour to give the best of dogs 
in return, do not take the money and sell a second-rater 
instead. It is not only dishonourable, but it is bad 
business. Ill-gotten gains bring no one any good in the 
long run. The world is large and people may argue 
that if one lot of buyers leave off buying others will fill 
their places. This is doubtless true, but I would remind 
them that retribution often comes in the most unpleasant 
forms from the most unexpected quarters, and some 
fine day one of the worms so ruthlessly crushed will turn 
out to be a boa-constrictor in disguise. 

To buyers I would say : Do not expect to get every- 
thing for nothing. A flyer is not to be had for two- 
pence ha'penny, and if you beat down the price too much 
you must not expect perfection. Some people seem to 
think that they can get a dog with every conceivable 
point for nothing. He must be noseless, with champion 
head, enormous coat and ears, perfect markings, etc., 
etc., and all for £io! If they go to work in this way it 
is their own fault if they get swindled. These perfect 



(l(\j;"s arc as rare as the ci;"i;"s of the (Ircat Auk, aiul once 
a man tiiuls such a dog' he does not sell him in a hurry, 
and certainly not for £10. Rctneniher the storv of the 
h^ench lady who asked another lady to help her to find 
a man-servant, lie was to he tall, handsome, good- 
tempered, soher, cheerful, ohliging, strong, hard-work- 
ing, with perfect manners, refmed. never in the wav, 
yet always on the spot when wanted, clever, economical, 
and trustwi>rth\'. 

The friend listened attentively, and when the list of 
his jUM-fections was exhausted, she said: "Well, my 
ilear, 1 will do \\\\ hesl. hut // 1 find \'our man, 1 marrv 
him ! " 

It is haril for an honest man to see the swindlers 
llourishing and know that he could do the same if he 
adopted the same methods, lie often gets just as hail a 
reputation as the swindlers, owing to their kind offices, 
as it is always their policy to purge the fancy of all in- 
cc^iveniently truthful anil luniest persons. \\'\{\\ this 
tihject they are perfectlv unscrupidous in the means they 
w ill take to achieve his (Un\nfall. Sooner or later, how- 
e\er, they overreach themselves. 

It is often a case of the old story of a horse stealer 
e\cntually hanged for stealing a halter. The imxst art- 
ful swindlers get careless, and after doing the most 
dastardly things with impunity get caught out and dis- 
iiualilied for some trumpery hit of cheating which would 
not have seemed worth their while. The people 1 am 
SIMM'}- for are the novices who get let in for doing some- 
thing on the instigatiiMi oi others which they do not 
know to he against Kennel C'luh rules, and who are easy 
victims, as they take no precautions against discovery. 

l>efore leaving the suhject 1 "wish to say a word 



about America. Over here America is supposed 1o ])e 
full of millionaires. New York sug'j^'esls glorious vis- 
i(;ns of golden baj^s held hy easy-j^oinj^ spendthrifts, 
surrounded hy halos of ,L(olden ignorance. Whatever 
may he the truth of this linj^land is certainly full of 
" flatcatchers " wIkj imag-ine somewhat erroneously that 
America is full of flats. Fanciers look on New York as 
a happy dumpinj^ ground into which they can slioot the 
rubbish which their own countrymen will not buy. 
America is considered the .^vjal of misfits, and when I 
object to this 1 am considered very unpatriotic. The 
fii»st-class dogs which find their way to America are few 
and far between, and even these are usually either long 
past their best or else non-stockgetters. There are cer- 
tain dogs which are from the first hall-marked American 
Market. The refuge for almost all decent non-stock- 
getters is t(j be rushed through as champions and shi]j- 
])ed to America out of the way, where they are imme- 
diately boomed as marvellous sires and undefeated 
champions. I strongly advise all Americans who wish 
to purchase these undefeated champions to write to our 
Kennel Club, 7 Grafton Street, Bond Street, London, en- 
closing 50 cents and asking for an official list of the dog's 
wins, the names of the judges, and a copy of the ])edi- 
gree. They will find it well worth their while. News- 
paper re])orts are often not worth a farthing in these 
cases. One or two dealers, judges, and re])f)rters com- 
bine to run the dogs and share the jjrofits and go out 
dollar fishing with all sails set. If ever a really good 
dog is exported, the dollar fishers are furious and com- 
plain their market is being ruined, and steps are imme- 
diately taken to stop the dog's American show-career at 
all costs. Many are the dodges em])loyed to that end. 



Judg'cs are systematically warned off, specialist clubs 
are worked up by false information. The purchasers 
are written to and made dissatisfied, and I have even 
known the breeder of a dog write to an American pur- 
chaser and run it down as worthless because she had 
been foolish enough to sell it for nothing as a piippy 
and it had turned out a flyer in other hands. 

I was glad to see that a gentleman got £ioo dam- 
ages for this sort of libel the other day. 

Owing to the industrious offices of the lower-class 
dealers, America sometimes passes luck when luck 
comes her way, and owing to the erroneous idea of type 
to which she has been educated in some breeds, fails 
to recognise good from bad. 

It is a dealer's business to foster ignorance, and 
America has been carefully taught to admire the wrong 
types so that we may keep our best dogs and yet please 
our customers with indifferent ones. 

There are professional " scavengers " who attend 
auction sales, go round breeders' kennels, picking up 
all the cheap rubbish and all the weeds that are to be 
had. Into their dust carts go the accidental winners, 
the unsound breeders, and, in fact, all the failures. 
Their names are changed and they enrich the foreign 

The dogs which often become champions over in 
America after leaving here are a revelation of the class 
of dogs that can win there, and I have been amazed to 
see brood bitches, which would never reach the shows 
at all here, taking firsts and winners in the United 
States. The first three dogs I sold to America were 
sent as pets and sold only for £io to £15 each, and 
the next thing I knew was that they Avere full-blow^n 


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\ajHEIH I 

DOC TO sriow 
You, I don't 


I " 

"he's noseless , CriAMPlON 


the best dogs on the ])ench, and in addition to losing- my 
money I have earned nothing but hostihty through it. 
The better specials I gave, the more the exhibitors quar- 
relled over them, and when they did not win them the 
more angry they got with me over it. Just as if I ought 
to have told the judge how to award them! 

People seem to imagine that if a man gives good 
specials he must be a multi-millionaire, that everything 
he offers, from dog collars to candelabra, should be of 
solid gold, studded preferably with diamonds. The 
same material seems to be desired even if the prize 
ha]^)ens to be an arm-chair or an umbrella. 

The abusive letters I have received on the subject 
have made me laugh more than a little, at the same time 
I have laughed with a rather sorry heart as I find that 
all efforts to improve and encourage my breed seem to 
result merely in encouraging the wrong sort of people 
and the wrong sort of dogs. To continue giving prizes 
under such circumstances is impossible and undesirable. 

I should like to warn beginners with money, of one 
fatal mistake. Do not buy a dog on the strength of what 
he has won or because he has beaten your best dog. Use 
your eyes first and see if wii think him beautiful. Never 
buy a dog you don't care for just because someone tells 
you he is lovely and will beat yours. It is human nature 
to buy the winner of some important championship, but 
it does not pay. Often there is a sort of tacit under- 
standing between the owner of the dog and the judge, 
that the dog had better win as there is money about. 
Never buy a dog without seeing him, on the strength 
of his reputation. 

I have never myself cared in the least what a dog has 
won or lost, but have always bought on what I con- 



sidered io l)e the nierils of the animal, or for some very 
good rcas(^n of my own. I have often lioui:^"ht the V. H. 
C. and refused the challen^'e-prize winner, and have 
ne\-er rei^retted it. I may say tliat 1 ha\-e never in my 
life allowed anyhody to persuade me into huying" 
dogs I did not like. They might have been champions 
twenty times over; it would never have made any dif- 

T have seen ladies buy u]^ dog after dog, getting all 
those which beat theirs, and they never got a good dog 
at all, and got rid of a l(~>t of money. 

As an illustration, a lady may buy a good dog at a 
show. It gets about that she has given a big price for 
him, which may (^r may not be true, and this rouses up 
all the dealers, who think if they can eclipse him with 
another, she will give a still bigger price for the winner. 
The dog is, therefore, beaten in grand style at his next 
show, and she duly receives overtures from the owner 
of the winner, who talks confidentially to her friends in 
the hearing of the defeated owner. Her husband does 
not want her to keep a stud dog, she is reluctantly 
obliged to jiart witli liim. Dog given awav at £250 
(!!!). To this the friend cries out that it would be 
ridiculous to part with the d(\g for such a sum; the 
victim pricks up lier ears, and most likely the con- 
fidential friend finds an opportunity for improving the 
occasion. The victim wavers, hesitates, and is hist; and 
thinks she has secured a bargain at £80, yet from that 
moment the dog's show career declines. He mav win 
a third j^rize now and again, for " auld lang syne," but 
his meteoric brilliance is at an end. Beware, then, of 
sky-rockets. There are lots of d(\gs with these bubble 
rej)Utations. The order of march is as follows: 


Miss ). J on .\M <i.\ i-.\ 

Photo, T. Kail 

■Miss I)aniI'.i.'s I',i,a( k I'i i, 
Cm. Botjcii 

Photo, T. Fall 

Mr II. J)ICI)imn(;ton's 

MiNiATUKi'; Hum, 'i'lcRRiiiR Doi.i.v 

Plinio, T. Kail 

Mr Chris. IIoui.kf.r'.s ]'"awn Pug 
Cm. Loris 

Mi;s's Rr,ACK and Ian I i kkh.k 
Cii. Glknaktney Boy 
Photo, T. Fall 

Mrs F. W. Cousen's Yorkshire Terrier 

Photo, T. Fall 



1. Preliminary hints of something wonderful com- 

2. Birth of puppy announced as a canine Prince of 
Wales, by letting off a sort of twenty-one gun salute in 
the newspapers. 

3. With a ready-made reputation preceding him, he 
leads off under a friendly judge. 

4. Dog bursting on the w^orld and sweeping the 

5. Flaming reports in the newspapers. 

6. Reported refusal of three figures. 

7. Sale of dog at half the sum and four times its 
vafue to a novice. 

8. Further success of dog under previous owner or 
relative of same. 

9. Unaccountable collapse of dog, and V. H. C. card. 
Indifferent newspaper reports. 

10. Astonishment of novice. 

11. Third, Reserve and V. H. C. at the next dozen 

12. Recrimination wath previous owner, who in- 
forms purchaser it is all his fault for showing the dog 
so badly. 

13. Sale of dog for two pence three farthings, and 
final disappearance of the novice from the show ring. 

My advice to all breeders is: Don't risk large sums 
on any dog, however good, unless you can afford to lose 
every penny of it the next day. Toy dogs' lives are a 
most uncertain foundation for speculation, and their 
show careers even more frail if possil)le. 

Beginners are very apt, as I have said, to buy up all 
the winning dogs which they can lay hands on, thinking 
that they are making themselves a reputation. So they 



are, l)iit the reputation is that of a greenhorn and a 
fool, and it is upon sueh folly that the dealers fatten. A 
wealthy fool, otherwise " a good customer," is the ideal 
prey for all the people who cannot sell their dogs to con- 
noisseurs, and the greenhorn will soon collect round 
him useless stud dogs, barren bitches, and faulty prize 
winners of all types; some good Samaritan may oc- 
casionally give him a word of warning, but his vanity 
will not allow him to listen, and he thinks he is particu- 
larly clever in not being taken in by what he imagines 
is another clever attempt to prevent his getting a good 
dog. He is on the lookout for swindles, and never 
recognizes them when he sees them. All this comes 
from buying before you know the breed you are taking 
up, and my advice is: Go to all the best shows and 
watch the judging and study the type for at least a year 
before you spend a sixpence on buying a show dog. 
Resolutely refuse to be drawn into purchasing any dog 
at all till your elementary apprenticeship is past. 

In the present state of things among the Toy Span- 
iel fanciers, my advice to novices is: Don't spend your 
money until you are sure that the dog is good enough 
for you to be i)roud and glad to possess it, even if it 
does not win after you have bought it. One of the 
secrets of success in the show ring is never to advertise 
your dogs at stud, as there is nothing that rouses such 
bitterness and enmities as competition with the people 
who run stud dogs, and who are likely to judge them. 
You will get plenty of stud work without advertising if 
you show your dogs, and they are good ones. 

Don't show more than two dogs at any one show 
under the same judge, as however good they are, he will 
take the opportunitv of putting back some of them, un- 



less he is a very independent and fair man. Your best 
plan is to show one L;ood and one bad dog, the latter 
will make the running for the former; the judge, if he 
does not want to offend you, has the satisfaction of 
])Utting the 1)ad one baek and showing his impartiality 
towards you as an individual, and if it is not a bad one 
he will put it back all the same, only this will make you 
angry, whereas the other will not. 

Under most judges you will probably be far more 
successful with a mediocre dog than with a flyer. A 
flyer immediately rouses violent jealousy, and if any- 
thjiig half as good ap])ears you will be beaten, whereas 
as an ordinary thing judges, if their sense of rivalry is 
allowed to sleep, don't want to offend you, especially if 
you are a possible purchaser of their own stock, and will 
light-heartedly ])ut up your moderately good dog, as 
they know they have nothing to fear from him. Ladies 
often have a very i)oor time showing under members of 
their own sex, as in addition to jealousy of the dogs- 
there is often personal jealousy mixed up with it as well. 

You will find this advice perfectly sound, though I 
am sure I do not know what the idealist secretary of the 
Kennel Club will say to it. 

There is no reason why dog dealers should not be 
honest, and my experience of the poorer dealers is, that 
they are far more so than those that are well to do. The 
worst kind of dog dealer is the " lady " dealer, who 
pretends to be what she is not. Kennels that buy up 
all the cheap stuff that is to be had, and whose premises 
are always full of new dogs, are inevitably always con- 
taminated by mange and distemper. Any one who has 
tried the experiment of constantly buying new dogs, 
even with the most careful isolation will know what I 



say is true. These people will never have their show 
dogs in good coat and always have some excuse ready. 
The bitches have always just whelped, and the dogs are 
always just changing their coats. 

Therefore beware of buying from big kennels unless 
you have been all over them yourself, and verified that 
the dogs are in first-class condition. If this is so you 
may be sure that the owner is a bona fide breeder and 
not a dealer only, and my advice is to buy from a bona 
fide breeder or from a small dealer, never from a big 
dealer, unless his dogs stand the test above mentioned, 
and when you buy be sure the dog really belongs to the 
seller and is not just picked up for you out of the high- 
ways and hedges. 

I have never had any luck with big dealers myself, 
and it was not until I began buying from the smaller 
people that I began to be fairly treated. By small deal- 
ers I do not mean dog shops. Beware of dog shops as 
you value your money. The small dealers are rather 
difficult to get at as they seldom attend shows, or adver- 
tise stock for sale, but they generally run a stud dog, at a 
small fee, and if you look down the stud columns of the 
dog papers, you will get to know the sort of thing. 

As a general rule be very cautious of dealing with 
anyone who runs more than one breed of dog. It is 
my experience that the more breeds are kept the more 
unscrupulous the owner is ! No doubt because his ex- 
penses and risks are greater. 

Mr. Jaquet in his interview with the Sporting and 
Dramatic — I think it was — is reported to have said that 
there was now no danger of a novice being taken in by 
dealers with bad dogs at fabulous prices. I beg to dis- 
agree with Mr. Jaquet most emphatically. I have seen 


The Young Princess 

Morelse, about 1600. Pl)oto, Hanfstaengl 


too much of this particular branch of the trade to remain 
under any ilkision of this rosy kind. The days of the 
low-class dog shop may be over, the wolf arrayed in his 
own fur is extinct, but we now get what is just as dan- 
gerous, i. e., wolves in sheep's clothing: Persuasive, 
respectable looking ladies, indulging in pretty hobbies 
of Toy dog fancying; dog lovers who cannot bear the 
notion of parting with their sweet little pets, yet who are 
tempted invariably by " large cheques " of unspecified 
sums, and the promise of " kiaid homes." 

We have the decoy judge, equally respectable, who 
often runs the dog at stud, and the decoy reporter, also 
a dealer, whose speciality is that of catching our dog 
fancying friends over the water. So much is this so that 
'' dog dealer " has become a term of abuse. 

Now dog dealing is a perfectly honorable profession 
in itself, if carried on honestly. The purchaser goes 
to an honest dealer and asks him to find a good dog at 
a certain price, knowing that he will get good value for 
his money, and that the dealer will not make more profit 
on the transaction than is reasonable payment for his 
experience, trouble, and expense of finding the animal. 
In this way dog dealing is honourable, but I have no 
patience with those who use their experience to cheat 
their customers. 

There is also another abuse of which I feel bound 
to speak, and that is the cheating that goes on with 
regard to stud dogs. Toy Spaniels are particularly 
cranky about breeding, and some dogs refuse to mate 
at all except under certain conditions. 

Very often they take a dislike to a bitch and will not 
look at her. And I know of one case in which a dog took 
a fancy to a bitch with whom he always mated and got 



stock, but as long as she lived he would never look at 
any other. 

The poor owner who sees his stud dog refuse to 
serve a particular bitch is sorely tempted to use another 
and say nothing about it. In my experience, however, 
most poor owners resist the temptation, while the rich 
ones do not. There are, however, two sides to the ques- 

Toy bitches are most uncertain breeders, and the 
habit of " following up " a service to a celebrated dog 
with another strong prolific sire is fostered by the habit, 
which owners of bitches have, of writing furious letters 
to the owner of the dog if their bitches miss. These 
letters and the consequent abuse of the dog among the 
friends of the person who sent the bitch, makes the life 
of the stud dog's owner a perfect burden, and encour- 
ages the very deception as to stud matters which the 
owners of bitches think they are so very clever in detect- 
insT. When a bitch misses it is ten to one she has been 
mated to the right dog. Bitches won't breed every time, 
however well mated they may be. The better the bitch 
and the better the dog the less likely they are to have 
puppies, and it is the knowledge of this that makes the 
owner of the stud dog determined to get the visitor in 
whelp at all costs, and consequently he follows up the 
mating with a coarse bred dog, who is more certain to 
produce puppies, with anything and everything, than 
his champion. It is hardly ever to the advantage of the 
owner of a stud dog that the 1)itch sent to him should 
miss, and he will generally use his best efiforts to secure 
the desired result if only for his own sake. There are, 
of course, owners who do not mate with the right dog 
at all, and ])lay all sorts of tricks, and for both the rea- 



sons I have given, /. e., the man who cheats for fear 
of being blamed or the man who cheats because he 
is naturally a swindler, I say: Don't trust anybody. 
It isn't fair on yourself or on them. Take your bitch 
yourself or send a friend with her. See the mating, and 
if your bitch misses don't blame the dog. In cases of 
missing it is almost always the bitch's fault. A dog that 
has once proved himself a stockgetter is always a stock- 
getter with favourable circumstances, though some are 
more prolific than others. 

If an owner refuses to allow you to see the service 
you may be quite sure there is something he had a good 
reason for not wishing you to see, and the less you have 
to do with him the better. 

Owing to the common stud fraud and the practice of 
buying puppies and palming them off as being sired by 
the purchaser's own stud dog, most of the pedigrees are 
not worth the paper they are written on. The pedigrees 
that exist are also in a strangely garbled state, and num- 
bers of breeders who ought to know better are absurdly 
careless in mixing up generations and distorting the 
names almost beyond recognition. Ch. Prince Imperial, 
for instance, is often condensed to " Oriel," and event- 
ually becomes a bitch; Comet to Hornet, Rosebell to 
Bonehill, Alec to Alice, and Baby to Baley, and the two 
latter errors have even found their way into the K. C. 
S. B. Then show dogs generally have pet names, which 
get into the K. C. S. B., as well, so that dogs which are 
bred the same often appear to have different pedigrees 
and it requires an expert to follow their intricacies. 



One of the luckiest days of my life was certainly the 
one on which there stepped into the house the dog that 
goes in private by the name of Fizzy, but that is known 
to the world as Champion Windfall. 1 did not expect 
it, and I had been hoping- for a good dog so long that I 
had almost given up all expectation of ever seeing one 
to my liking. I had been advertising steadily for some 
months for a first-rate dog, and the dealers had been 
crazy to catch me with second-class first-prize winners, 
when I got a letter enclosing the pedigree of a dog com- 
bining the strains I liked best. This was merely a house 
dog which had never been shown, and I had him up on 

As I came up to London from the country, the butler 
met me in the hall with a mysterious smile on his face, 
" There is a I'cry nice dog downstairs, Ma'am," he said, 
" Oh," said I, " all right, bring him up," and up he came 
and was put down in the middle of the drawing-room, 
where he stood with every hair bristling in defiance, 
and my breath was fairly taken away. I need hardlv 
say that within ten minutes I had posted the cheque and 
sat down to make friends with my new purchase. One 
of his former owners was said to be wrong in the head 
and used to kick and ill-use the dog, and T found him 
extremely suspicious of all men and always on the de- 


Mrs Lytton's Ch. Windfall 

Winner of 13 Championships 


fensive, but finding- himself well treated, he attached 
himself to us with a (|uite unreasoning frenzy of devo- 
tion. If I go away for a day without a formal good-bye, 
leaving him in cliarge of some special person, instead of 
appearing pleased to see me when I come home, he 
growls and stiffens himself if T attempt to touch him, 
and will not notice me for hours, but if 1 " ex])lain " 
beforehand he may condescend to greet me with affec- 
tionate, if somewhat distant, dignity. The terrors I 
have been through with that dog no tongue can describe. 
The first thing he did was to get distemper, and T nursed 
him night and day for three months. At the end of that 
tin'ie he understood all I said to him, and I had only to 
repeat the names of things he might want, and when T 
came to the right one he would bark. This he will still 
do, when in the humour. When he wants a thing he 
comes and barks and pulls my dress. 1 then say, " What 
do you want? Water? l»iscuit? Do you want to go 
out? Do you want your ball? " And he waits till 1 get 
to the right thing and then rushes to the door growling. 

The next thing he did was to fall off my bed three 
times in succession, and I devised a ])lan of tying him 
to the middle of the bed's foot. One night I was awak- 
ened by a slight noise, and to my horror found him 
dangling by his collar and nearly strangled, the maid 
having altered the length of the strap without my hav- 
ing noticed it. 

He then distinguished himself one day when T was 
out by getting hold of two tubes of oil paint, and when 
I came home T found his face covered with Chinese 
vermilion and his tongue and throat a brilliant blue. 
A painter friend coming in like a Job's comforter as- 
sured me that Chinese vermilion was a virulent poison, 



bciiii^- compounded of mercury and prussic acid, and 
as for Prussian blue — well, I really can't remember what 
he didn't say about it. 1 )e this as it may then, the dog was 
not even sick, and jjranced about like a mischievous elf 
when I tried to wash his face. Some months after that 
he choked himself with a crumb and rolled over appar- 
ently dead, his tongue black and swollen and his eyes 
glazed. I saved him 1)y shaking his head downwards, 
as a last despairing effort and without the least hope of 
succeess, thus getting the obstruction out of his throat. 
Another accident might have ended his career for he 
iumi)ed on the top of a high " nursery " fender and, 
overbalancing, fell right into the fire on his back. I 
had him out in the twentieth part of a second, but I 
felt that if this sort of thing was to continue, I should 
certainly develop heart disease from the constant shocks. 

His most serious misadventure was when a retriever 
attacked him in the road and shook him like a rat. I 
rushed to the rescue and got thrown down and badly 
knocked about, after which the retriever seized Wind- 
fall by the throat again, and T only saved him by jam- 
ming mv arm into the brute's throat and forcing him 
to lea\'e his hold. I managed to cover Windfall with 
my dress and knelt over him beating ofif the retriever 
from my face as best I could. The timely interference 
of a friend ended the matter happily. Windfall, be- 
yond being covered w^ith dust and in a perfect fury, was 
unhurt. I heard that the dog eventually attacked a 
little girl and killed a dog she had with her and had to 
be shot. Windfall's last accident was a few months ago, 
when a pony cart overturned on the top of us both. 

Windfall is a most charming dog to live with, and 
it is for this reason that I have refused all offers for him. 


Ch. Windfall 

This dog holds the Blenheim record of Championships, and took Champion of Champions in Toy Spaniel classes at the 
L. R.A. Botanic Show, 1910. From a drawing by Neville Lytton. Photo, E. Walker 



He is full of delightful little jokes, which he invents for 
himself. One of his chief jokes is to pull his master's 
cap off, and he will invent all kinds of dodges to get 
within reach of it. It is not the cap he wants, but the 
fun of pulling it off, and directly he has got it he prances 
round and barks till it is put on again. This led to my 
having to tip a raiKvay porter at Victoria, as I was 
carrying Windfall under my arm and a porter bent 
down and put a bag beside me. Fizzy took this as an 
invitation to a game and gave a snatch at his cap, but 
unfortunately missing it, seized the porter by the hair, 
startling him nearly into a fit. He took it most good- 
naTuredly and pocketed a shilling and went away smiling 
and rubbing his head. Fizzy has a great objection to 
my being touched by a stranger, and once at a station 
a rude red-faced woman came elbowing into me with 
the violence peculiar to Bank Holiday travellers and 
the customers at a large draper's sale. In this case 
Fizzy resented the onslaught by catching her sleeve, 
whereupon she turned upon me like a fury and told me 
I ought to have a " dangerous brute like that muzzled." 
Another of Fizzy's jokes was a source of much mis- 
understanding till we found out what he wanted. Fie 
suddenly took to flying at his master whenever he put 
him to bed, and looked so very much in earnest that he 
got one or two whippings. It turned out, however, that 
all he wanted was that his master should pretend to be 
afraid and try to take away his cushion, whereupon he 
works himself into a frenzy of sham rage, and pretends 
to bite him. We found that, if allowed to catch hold, 
the dog never really bit at all, and the whole thing was a 
game which has since been repeated every night with 
fresh gusto. Wlien his master goes away Fizzy goes 


straight to his cushion and looks depressed, as he abso- 
kitely refuses to play this game with me. 

His great merit is his unbounded cheek. He won't 
be suppressed and his strength is something extraor- 
dinary. He guards my clothes or property with pas- 
sionate jealousy, and if anyone comes to take anything 
of mine he will rush after them and hang on to their 
skirts with all his might. 

Like the dogs of Constantinople, he has a great idea 
of the laws of boundaries. For instance, he is most 
polite to James, the house boy, so long as he is in the 
pantry, but let him cross the threshold of the swing door 
which opens on to the stairs, and there is a fearful up- 
roar as James is chivied away. This is all a game to 
which James very good-naturedly lends himself. In 
the same way Fizzy is always respectful to my nursery 
maids in the nursery, but he won't have them on the 
stairs nor in the pantry. I have had several and he 
always treats them in the same way. Out of doors he 
is always amiable to everybody, evidently considering 
it neutral ground. He has also no objection to the 
housekeeper going anywhere in the house so long as she 
does not touch anything he thinks I am using. 

A tennis ball is his favourite toy, and he will behave 
like a lunatic if he thinks there is one to be got anywhere, 
and I once found him wandering round a bush on his 
hind legs and eventually saw a tennis ball on the top of 
it. He also suddenly discovered that the top one of the 
stone balustrades was really a ball, and of course wanted 
to have it, and his efforts to get hold of my husband's 
punch ball, which is about six times his own size, are 
most entertaining. 

He becomes madly excited over letters, and always 



seizes the empty envelopes when the post bag is opened. 
He keeps us all so lively that I do not know what we 
should do without him. 

It is rather curious that he is extraordinarily fond 
of fruit, and has been known to sit under a pear tree 
barking- at the pears in the hope of inducing them to 
fall down. He also has a passion for ginger and for 
ices. If he ever does anything which he knows to be 
wrong he looks greatly ashamed, but if I continue scold- 
ing him after he considers he has apologised enough, 
he puts on a defiant air and begins to growl as much as 
to^say, ''Well, I said I was sorry, and hang it all, it 
isn't as bad as all that," a trait which may be noticed in 
human beings whose relations overdo the scolding. 



I AM constantly being asked about the management 
of house dogs, and from the extraordinarily elementary 
questions which I am always answering, I think a prac- 
tical chapter on the subject will be useful. 

A house dog should be clean, well-behaved and obe- 
dient ; he must not worry visitors, scratch their clothes, 
or rush barking to the door every time it is opened. 
He must only bark at burglars, or growl at suspicious 
characters. Some pet dogs bark just for nonsense in 
a way that exasperates a visitor, and I know one lady 
whose dogs (Pomeranians) bark so continuously, that 
existence in her house becomes impossible for all but 
the totally deaf, and as I am not deaf, I have to content 
myself with becoming temporarily dumb, as it is useless 
to attempt to make oneself heard. 

Good manners are a matter of training. 

Cleanliness is easily taught to young dogs. Let them 
run out of doors the very first thing in the morning and 
the last thing at night, and several times during the day 
as well, and you will not have much to complain of. 
Always let the dog out immediately after a meal. When 
fully trained he will eventually ask to go out by scratch- 
ing at the door. Meanwhile should your puppy mis- 
behave he should be taken to the scene of action and 
sharply scolded and smacked and put outside at once. 


Nelly O'Brien 

Miniature Poodle. Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1723-1792. Wallace Collection. Photo, Hanfstaengl 


He will soon learn to be ashamed of being dirty and 
will mend his ways, but you cannot expect him to be 
clean if you neglect to allow him out at proper inter- 
vals. Keep a switch for correction and do not smack 
with your hand. The hand should never become an 
object of fear but should be kept for caresses. Indis- 
criminate barking should be stopped immediately by a 
determined word of reproof and, if necessary, a sharp 
tap with a switch. 

If a dog has diarrhea, never punish him for mis- 
behaviour as he cannot help himself. A well-trained 
dog suffers much misery and shame at doing what he 
kn(5ws to be wrong, and he will often look most appeal- 
ingly at his owner for forgiveness. 

Always teach a house dog to lie anywhere he is told, 
and scold him if he moves from a place where you have 
ordered him to lie. This is an invaluable habit and must 
be taught early. Perhaps the most important thing of 
all is to teach a dog the meaning of the word " no," 
once he knows this all other teaching becomes easy. 

Feed twice a day, at midday, and at eight or nine 
in the evening. For a ten-pound dog give about as 
much as will cover the bottom of a dessert plate each 
time. The undesirable foods are rare meat, tapioca, car- 
rots, salt, and sweet stuffs. Do not give meat more 
than once a day and always well cooked. Stale bread 
with gravy, especially brown bread, is very good and 
also milk (if fresh) and milk foods, but not too sloppy 
for grown-up dogs. Some dogs cannot take milk at 
all. Champion Windfall, for instance, is immediately 
sick if he takes milk, and he cannot eat much bread, 
though he prefers it to anything else. For a very del- 
icate, tiresome feeder try dried haddock, this is some- 



times greedily eaten when meat will not he touched. 
Molassine biscuits are greatly liked. 

If a dog is always thirsty and inclined to indigestion 
this can often be cured by giving him very hot water 
to drink instead of cold water. He does not like it and 
drinks much less, and the heat of the water helps his 
digestion. 1 had a dog once that used to faint after 
drinking cold water. He had a very short nose and 
used to get the water into his nostrils and immediately 
fall over in a dead faint. This frightened me horribly 
till I got used to it, and I cured him entirely by giving 
him hot drinking water and never letting him drink at 
all immediately after meals. A little green vegetable is 
good occasionally for London dogs, but country dogs 
do not recjuire it so much, though a little green food 
does them no harm. 

Toy Spaniels do not require nearly as much outdoor 
exercise as bigger dogs. If they have the free run of 
the house they keep themselves exercised running up and 
down stairs, but if allowed they are capable of taking 
almost unlimited exercise with benefit. 

In lifting a pet dog people who are not accustomed 
to dogs make a great mistake at times. The proper way 
to lift a dog is to grasp him from behind with both 
hands just as you would pick up a Rugby football. 
Never take him by the front paws and lever him up by 
the shoulders or you run a great risk of breaking his 
leg just under the point of the shoulder. Many people 
lift dogs in this way and then are astonished because 
they scream and hide under a sofa next time they are 
wanted. The next best way is to lift a dog by the scrufif 
of the neck. When the skin is very loose (a thing which 
varies with individual dogs), it is the best way of all 



if done properly; but the skin must be taken in a big 
fold and grasped firmly with the whole hand and not 
pinched in the fingers. The proper place to take hold 
is just over the shoulder blades. It is cruel to lift a 
dog by the actual skin of the neck or above the ribs. 
A dog taken up properly will not squeak, but only if 
•grasped in the wrong place, and if you catch him in 
the middle of the back you must not blame him if he 
bites you. Different dogs have different fancies about 
how they like to be lifted. Champion Windfall prefers 
being taken up with the left hand under his chest just 
behind the elbows and the right hand firmly grasping 
him by the tail ; so does Champion Featherweight. 
When they want to be lifted they back towards me, 
sticking their tails up as handles. Do not clutch a puppy 
and whisk him up suddenly. It startles him and makes 
him giddy and he gets to cringe when picked up. 

Don't make your dog sleep on a cushion on the floor. 
The passion which dogs have for getting on chairs, 
beds, etc., regardless of the mud on their feet is only 
their natural anxiety to get out of the floor draughts, 
and a dog's bed should always be raised from the 

The ears of Toy Spaniels often trail in their plates 
when they eat and get very greasy, and to avoid this 
just tie a handkerchief loosely round the neck during 
the meal with the ears tucked into it. This will keep 
them out of the way. 

The very best instrument for getting out bad mats 
in a dog's coat is a lady's hat pin. A comb is useless 
for the tangles which have become wadded slabs of hair, 
as is often the case when the dogs are shedding their 
coats very fast. Take hold of the tangle with the fore- 

333 . 


finger and thumb of the left hand as close to the skin 
as possible and hold it tight so that the hair cannot slip 
through it. Then insert the ])oint of the hat pin at the 
edges of the tangle iind comb with it, gradually work- 
ing down to the roots. Do not plunge the pin close to 
the roots at the start and try to pull it forcibly through 
the whole length of the tangle, as this is very cruel and 
most disastrous to the hair. Never pull at a tangle 
without holding it with your left hand between the pin 
and the root to take the tension off the skin or you will 
disgust the dog and spoil his temper. If your dog 
squeaks when you are combing him it is a sure sign 
that you are a bad hair-dresser. Also when you are 
brushing a Toy Spaniel be very careful not to put the 
bristles of the brush into his eyes. This may sound 
unnecessary advice, but dogs are so sudden in the way 
they turn their heads and the eyes of Toy Spaniels are 
so large that I have seen it happen more than once. 

Cham])ion Windfall has been taught to *' smile " 
which is one of the prettiest tricks I have ever seen. 
He coquets with his head on one side and draws his 
muzzle right up with delightful little pincushions bris- 
tling with whiskers and then darts forward and kisses 
his master's face or hands. He does not lick but just 
touches with his muzzle. 

You can teach Toy Spaniels to prance by holding 
them away from you short on the lead with the left 
hand, and then exciting them to juni]:) up towards your 
right hand by drawing it sharply Ujnvards under the 
the breast and chin and stepping quickly backwards so 
that the dog runs and jumps after you. When you have 
taught one of your dogs to do this he will help you teach 
the others, w'ho will imitate him with great zest and en- 



joyment. Champion Windfall has taught all my house 
dogs, one after the other. 

If the weather is too stormy to exercise your dogs 
during the winter months, it sometimes seems a choice 
between jmeumonia from getting drenched, or fatty 
degeneration of the heart from excess of sleep. To 
avoid the latter you can exercise your dogs in the house 
by teaching them to play hide-and-seek with a hall or 
a bit of biscuit. Show them the ball and get someone 
to prevent their seeing where you hide it, then s])read 
your hands out empty and say: " Hi lost! " or, " Fetch 
it ! " If you begin in easy places and, as they get more 
expert at finding it, gradually increase the difficulty, it 
is astonishing how clever the dogs will become, and you 
will eventually have to rack your brains to find any place 
difficult enough to delay their finding it. 

A healthy puppy is the most outrageously boister- 
ous hooligan in the way of dogs that it is possible to 
imagine. Wee Dot keeps the household in a constant 
state of alarm by climbing into impossible ])laces, hurl- 
ing herself from the backs of chairs, upsetting lamps 
and coal scuttles and swallowing, or attempting to swal- 
low, everything she can see, from hearth-brushes and 
cinders to the fender itself, and T am sure that given 
time and opportunity, she would consume the drawing- 
room carpet bodily. Windfairy and Runthorne chase 
each other round the house, dash down the passages and 
all round the room like a rushing wind and are gone 
again, generally with a crash of broken glass, before 
one has time to collect one's scattered wits. 

The healthier the puppy, the more unmanageable 
he will be at home and the better he will be in the show 
ring when he grows up. A dog like this fearing, as the 



saying is, neither " God, man nor devil," will be a credit 
to his owner. The din of the shows will only rouse his 
fighting spirit, and he will walk into the ring in the 
defiant and vainglorious state of mind that goes far 
to catch a judge's eye. 

Ben and Bunthorne also have uproarious games, 
though Ben is now eleven years old, but it generally 
ends in a free fight owing to some undue roughness on 
Bunthorne's part which ofifends Ben's dignity. Ben 
hates Windfall, evidently ccnsidering him a swagger- 
ing upstart, and Windfall irritates him by completely 
ignoring his presence, though this is made sufiiciently 
obvious by thundering growls. The failure to impress 
Windfall with a sense of danger is Ben's chief grievance 
in life. Ben and Bunthorne are fond of rabbiting, and 
enjoy causing the whole household to shout itself hoarse 
over half the county. At midnight the)^ reappear in 
such a condition of dirt and disreputability that they 
look more like corded poodles than anything else. Ben 
usually has a sort of rhinoceros horn of clay on the end 
of his nose from burrowing in rabbit holes and Bun- 
thorne's tail is adorned with yards of brambles. In spite 
of their hunting propensities one never hunts without 
the other and they never touch tame rabbits. Ben 
steadily refuses to look at these and always pretends 
not to see them. If thrust under his nose he turns 
away his head and growls. Windfall once had a fight 
with the biggest rabbit about his dinner which he mis- 
takenly imagined that the rabbit was going to claim. 
He gave it a box on the side of the head with his paw, 
and the rabl)it scratched him and plainly asserted that 
it was a vegetarian. 

Dogs should be severely rei)rimanded for jumping 





up and looking out of windows, as, if they see something 
exciting, they will often make a sudden leap into space. 
I knew a lady who used to allow her Blenheim to sit on 
the outside ledge of the top story of her London house. 
One of our Spaniels once deliberately jumped out of 
the first floor window of Crabbet House, a height of 
twenty-six feet. She did not kill herself, but the shock 
afifected her eyes, giving her a decided squint. She 
weighed about twelve pounds. Had she been a valu- 
able show specimen she w^ould probably not have sur- 

Jl have given in this book a sketch of a kitten and 
two puppies lying together on a cushion (seen from 
bird's-eye point of view). These puppies bully the 
kitten which is devoted to them and goes about with a 
puppy almost permanently attached to his tail or ear 
and sleeps w4th his paws round the puppies' necks. 
When he gets tired of being bullied he rushes up a cur- 
tain or bounds onto a chest of drawers via the back 
of a chair, which performance always astonishes and 
outrages the puppies, which cannot understand why they 
should not be able to get up the curtain, too. They 
scurry round with shrieks of disapproval while the 
kitten sits purring down on them with an unmistakable 
smile of superiority. Sometimes the puppies fairly get 
hold of him three or four at a time and then there are 
frenzied mews for help, but he never by any chance 
scratches in self-defence. 

Be just to your dog. Do not punish him for what 
is your own fault. For instance, if you forget to let him 
out of doors often enough, do not scold him if he misbe- 
haves in the house. If you are teaching him anything 
and he seems intractable, try and find out why this is. 
43 337 


Once a cloi;- whicli I liad taui^ht to dance on his hind legs 
took to dropping- on all fours and refused even to try 
the trick. 1 got very crcxss with him and he was in dis- 
grace for some time. Then 1 found that he had rheuma- 
tism in his hack which i)revented his walking on two 
legs, though he was all right on four, and 1 was ohliged 
to '* apologise in seven positions." 1 think there is noth- 
ing so distressing to a dog owner as to have punished 
the wrong dog. Tf you are not sure of the criminal's 
identit}-, ])nnish no one hut talk to the dogs generally. 
Point out the misdemeanour and declaim ahout it in 
general terms. They will understand c|uite well. 

Tn conclusion, I recommend Blenheim Spaniels as 
the most perfect of all pets, hut whatever variety of 
Toy dog may he chosen, I insist that the individual 
shall be a pretty one, and I wish that all owners may 
derive as much pleasure from their dogs as I have done 
from mine. 


Champion WindJaWs Record 

June 29, 1905. Botanic. 

July 4, 1905. Richmond. 

Oct., 1905- Crystal Palace. 
Nov. 27, 1905. Birmingham. 

Dec. 8, 1905. Westminster. 

May I, 1906. Crystal Palace. 
June 2, 1906. Olympia. 

June, 1906. Botanic. 

ist. O. istX. istL. Tem- 
ple Barrow 20-guinea chal- 
lenj^e cup. Open class 3- 
guinea challenge cup. The 
champion Rollo cup for 
best n<n'ice in the 4 varieties 
and Championship. 

ist O. ist L., d. or b. ist A. 
V.,d.orb. One-half guinea 
for best Blenheim. Silver 
penrkint for best Blenheim 
in L. and N. 


ist O. istL. ist Br. Two 
specials. Open class chal- 
lenge cup and gold medal 
for best Blenheim. T.S.C. 
Pendant. Championship. 

ist 0. 2d L. ist T. ist 
Team Variety. 2d Br. and 

3d O. 3d L. 

ist 0. Stroud lo-guinea cup 
for best T.S.A.V. in show. 
Gold medal for best Blen- 
heim or Tricolour in show. 

ist O. and Championship, ist 
L. ist B. ist T. Gold 



July 5, 1906. 
Aug. iS, 1906. 


Sept. 5, 1906. Southampton. 
Sept. 26, 1906. Reigate. 

Oct., 1909. Crystal Palace K. C. 

Dec. 3, 1906. 


Feb. 13, 1907. 


July 3, 1907. 


ist O. I St L. and Champion- 

ist 0. ist County, ist B. 
ist T. Championship. Sil- 
ver pendant for best Blen- 
heim, d. or b., in show. 

istO. ist Br. Championship. 
Silver pendant. Special for 
best Toy Spaniel in show. 

ist O. ist B. ist T. los. 6d. 
for best Blenheim and spe- 
cial for best Toy Dog in 

ist 0. ist B. Championship. 
Kennel Club's silver shield 
for best Member's dog in 
show in all four varieties. 
Twenty - guinea challenge 
cup and open class challenge 
cup (outright), and Cham- 

istO. ist Br. ist T. (ist Win- 
ners) Cup and Champion- 

ist 0. ist Br. ist T. Cham- 

ist 0. and Championship, ist 
Ladies' Pets. Woodstock 
challenge ornament for the 
best Blenheim dog with 
longest ears (to be won 3 
times) . The McOstrich 
challenge cup (to be won 3 
times) for the best Ladies' 
Pet. IDS. 6d. for the best 
Ladies' Pet. Gold links for 
the best Toy Spaniel in 
show. £2 for smartest, most 
compact Blenheim with the 
most showy action. 



July 18, 1907. Horsham. 

Sept. 4, 1907. Southampton. 


2, 1907. 
22, 1907. 

Crystal Palace. 

ist 0., d. or b. ist O. A. V. 

Woodstock challenge orna- 
ment (2d time). 

ist 0. ist A.V. ist A.V., 
non-sporting, ist Br. Two 
specials for best Blenheim 
or Tricolour in show. 

1st O. 2d 0. A.V.T.S. 

ist O. and Championship, ist 
Br. Silver medal for best 
Blenheim dog. Twenty 
guinea challenge cup for 
best Blenheim in all classes. 
Open class challenge cup. 
Woodstock lo-guinea chal- 
lenge ornament (outright). 

ist O. ist champion's class, 
ist Br. ist T. Champion- 
ship. Special for best Toy 
Spaniel in show. (Sixty-six 
dogs competing and 7 cham- 

ist O. Blenheim, d. or b. E. 
ist O. Toy A.V. 
Champion Windfall was not shown during 1908 and 1909. 

June 9, 1910. Botanic. 

Oct. 13, 1910. Aylesbury. 

Champion The Bandolero's Record 






L. K. A. 









T. D. S. Edinburgh, 

Feb. 13, 



June 25, 



July 10, 



July 18, 



Four firsts and 4 specials. 
2d puppy. 3d N. r. O. 


ist special and R. 

ist. 2d. 

R. 0. V. h. c. L. Special for 

Blenheim with longest ears. 
2d 0. 3d L. 
ist. ist and silver special for 

best T. S. novice AV. 
2d O. ist L. ist N. 2d 0. 

A. V. 



July 20. 1907. 
July 20, 1907. 

Charlton Cum Hardy 

Aug. 29, 1907. 
Sept. 4, 1907. 

Sept. 2, 1907. 

Oct. 22, 1907. 



Crystal Palace. 

Oct. 30, 1907. Edinburgh. 

June 24, 190S. 
July 9, 190S. 
July 23, 190S. 

Jan., 1909. 
Jan., 1909. 
April, 1909. 

L. K. A. 





2d O., Blenheim or Tricolour, 
ist L. and silver pendant. 

3d L. Blenheim. 2d O. ist 
Br. Gold medal and special 
for shortest faced Blenheim 
dog in show with best 

ist A. V. 0., d. or b. 

2d 0. 3d L. ist Br. 

3dO. r.O.A.V. istT. 

ist L. V. h. c. 0. 
Special for best 
Blenheim in show. 

ist 0. ist L. 

istO. 3dA. V. 

ist O. ist L. Championship. 

ist 0. ist L. 2d A. V. O. 
Toy. ist A. V. L. Toy. 

3dO. 3dL. 

ist. 2d. 2d. 2d. 

istL. istO. Special for best 
Toy Spaniel in show. Spe- 
cial for Toy Spaniel with 
best coat and condition. 



ist Br. 





Crystal Palace 


2dO. istL. ist Stud dog. 





2d 0. 2d L. 





ist 0. and Championship, ist 


















St. Albans. 

ist 0. A. V. T. S. ist 0. 

Blenheim dog. ist Br. 





ist 0. R. open challenge 

class, any breed. Cup for 
best Toy Dog, any breed. 



Mar. 5, 1910. 
Mar. 15, 1910. 

May 18, 1910. 

May 19, 1910. 
May 25, 1910. 


Crystal Palace Toy 

Alexandra Palace. 

June 9, 1910. Botanic. 

June 29, 1910. 
July 21, 1910. 


Aug. I, 1910. Hemel Hempstead. 

Aug. 17, 1910. 
Aug. 24, 1910. 


Oct. 5, 1910. Edinburgh. 

ist O., d. or b. 2d A. V. T. 
ist T. ist Br. and special. 

ist 0. and Championship. 
Special for best Blenheim in 
show, ist Br. ist T. 

2d 0. ist Stud Dog. 

2d A. V. champions. 

ist O. Championship. ist 
Ladies Pets. 2d A. V. 
class. Special for best T. 
S. dog. 

ist Stud dog. 2d 0. ist T. 
ist B. 2d to Windfall in 
full champions class. 

2dO. A.V. N. S. 2dO.A. V. 
Toy. 2d 0. T., d. or b. 

ist O. Blenheim or Tricolour, 
ist 0. Blenheim Dog. 2d 
A. V. N. S. ist O., Mem- 
bers' A. V. N. S. ist Local 
A. V. N. S. 

ist 0., d. or b., A. V. T. S. 
ist O., d. and special for 
best Blenheim or Tricolour. 

ist O. 

ist O., Blenheim or Tricolour, 
d. or b. ist O. A. V. T., 
d. or b. and special for best 
Toy in show, and another 

ist O. and Championship. L. 
K. A. special for best T. S. 
in show. 


Ackermann on ^larlborough Span- 
iels, 22. 

Action in Spaniels, 128. 

" Advocate, The," Champion, 157, 
166, 167. 

Aelian en Maltese dog, 30, 262. 
quoted, 264. 

Age of Toy Spaniels in breeding, 

193. 194- 

Aistrop, Charles, 98, 172. 

on the short-nosed Ruby, 100. 

Aistrop, Mr., the elder, 98. 

Alciphron, quoted, 273. 

Alcock, Sir Rutherford, en Japa- 
nese dogs, 95. 

Alicantes, variety of Toy Spaniel, 

Allowances in judging dogs, 129. 
All-round excellence in judging 

Spaniels, 128. 
America, Japanese Spaniels of, 
heads of, 243. 
quality of, 242. 
" the goal of misfits," 301. 
American buyers, advice to, 301. 
ignorance of, as to types, 302. 
prevented from buying first-class 
dogs in England, 301. 
American sharpers, 303. 
American Toy Spaniel Club, large 
size of dogs encouraged by, 

scale of points of, 119. 
Anne of Cleves, 94. 
App, Miss, 191. 

Aristotle, reference of, to Maltese 
dog, 266. 

Arnold, Mr., 172. 

Arsenic, use of, by some breeders 
to improve dogs' coats, 216. 

Artemidorus on Maltese dogs, 265. 

" Ashton More Baronet," Cham- 
pion, 165, 167. 

'■ Ashton More Shepherdess," 167. 

" Ashton More Turquoise," 168. 

Asterius, Bishop of Amasia, on di- 
vorce, 2^2. 

Athenseus on Maltese dogs, 269. 

Athenodorus on ^Maltese dogs, 269. 

Author's standard for Toy Span- 
iel, 148 ct scq., 154. 

" Babel of Haeremai," 167. 
" Bandolero, The," Champion, 168, 
169, 184. 

record of, 341. 
Barbet, 64, 65. 
" Barnsbury Duke," 167. 
Barrenness of bitch, cure for, 194. 
'■ Bawbee," 176. 
■■ Beaulah," 175. 
Beauty in Toy Spaniels, 107, 159. 

men as judges of, 108. 
Bell on the King Charles and 
Cocker, 70. 

on the Springer (Cocker), 20. 
" Ben," 336. 

'' Ben d'Or," Champion, 175. 
" Bettina." 8. 
Bewick on the Comforter, 35. 

on the King Charles, 84. 

on the King Charles and Pyrame, 



Biliousness, dosage for, 222. 

'■ Billiken Advocate," 167. 

•• Billy." 98. 

Bitch, age of, in breeding, i()4. 

barrenness of, cure for. i()4, 

in whelp, signs of, 235. 

suckling fits of, 237. 

Toy Spaniel, " for breeding 
Japanese or Pekingese," 247. 

washing of, in whelp. 235. 
Black-and-tan Spaniels, breeding 

of, ICJO. 

origin of, 6i cf S('(j. 
physical characteristics of, 183. 
present, quality of, 164, 163. 
scale of points for, of A. T. S. C, 
of fifty years ago, drawn by 
Norwich fanciers. 124. 
standard for, in 18(17. 121. 
Black-and-white Spaniel, 45. See 

also King Charles. 
Blaine on Yellow-and-white Span- 
iels. 18. 
Blenheim puppy, average weight 

of, 192. 
Blenheim Spaniels, 50, 71, 72. See 
also ^larlborough and Red- 
and-white Spaniels, 
as house pets, 338. 
breeding of, to Blenheim, 188. 

trueness of, 190. 
coat of, Dalziel on, 136. 
colour of. 93, 94. 96, 122, 127. 

author's standard for, 151. 
Meyrick's standard for (1842). 

of 1800, 91. 
of 1845, 89. 

physical characteristics of, 184. 
points of, \'ero Shaw on, 115. 
present, 21. 
colour of, 96. 
faults of. 165. 
proper type of, T14, 148. 
author's standard for, 126. 

Blenheim Spaniels, scale of points 
on, of A. T. S. C, 120. 
of T. S. C, 118. 
of Webb ( 1872), 123. 
standard for, in 1867, 121. 

of Webb (1872) for, 122. 
weight of, 43. 
Body, good, in Toy Spaniels. 130. 
" Bondman, The," Champion, 168. 
"Bottle-nosed whales," in, 114. 
Bottolo. 260. 

" Bowsie," Champion, 173. 
Brachen Shofhundle, 260. 
Breeding, advice for, 193, 194. 
age in, 194. 

barrenness of bitch in, 194. 
dog in, 195. 

exaggerated dogs in, 185. 
experiments of author in, 80 ct 

for shape, 188. 
good coated strains essential in, 

large dogs in. 184. 
of best type of short-nosed Toy 

Spaniel, 177. 
of Blenheim to Blenheim, 188. 
of original King Charles, 186. 
of small specimens from large, 

182, 187. 
of Toy Spaniels, age of begin- 
ning of, 193. 
of Tricolours, 189, 190. 
with same sire and dam, 191. 
with the Red-and-wdiite, 187. 
Breeds, crossing of. colour in. 179- 
in Toy Spaniels, 179 cf scq. 
shape of head in, 182. 
Bright, Mrs., 172. 

Brown. Captain, on the Cocker 
Spaniel. 2^,. 
(Ui the Comforter, 35. 
Buffon. Le Clerc, on Gredins, 68. 
on Maltese dog. 34. 
on short noses, 90. 



RuffcMi, Lc Clerc, Spaniel of, 53, 

54. (J.?- 
" Bull)ul," 8. 
Bulldog cross in Toy Spaniels, 62, 

88, 89, 95, 97, 98, 101, 103, 

142. 143- 
" Busy" (1836). 96. 
" Buthorne," 335, 336. 
•' P.utterily," 8-10. 
■■ Butterily, Tlie," 167. 
Butterfly Spaniel, \(>j. 
Buyers, advice to. 299. 

novice, dangers to be avoided by, 

wealthy, tricks practiced on, 

Buyijig of dogs on merit, not repu- 
tation, 315. 

Byron, Lord, fondness of, for dogs, 

" Cabbage-leaf cared dog," 100. 
Caesar and pet dogs, 268. 
Caius, Dr., Comforter of, 25. 

on Toy dogs, 25. 
Canker in the ear, treatment of, 218. 
" Captain Kettle," Champion, 157, 

166, 167, 168. 
" Cara," Champion, 167, 169. 
" Caris," 8, 166, 167. 
" Carlinc," 167, 168. 
" Carlo," 162. 
" Carpet Spaniels," 21. 
"Casino Girl," Chami)ion, 121, 167, 

" Casino Novelty," Champion, 165, 

166, 167. 
Cayenne variety of Toy Si)aniel 

Challenge prizes, 277, 284. 
Champions, cares of, 324. 

qualifications of. 276, 277. 
Championship, unjust claiming of, 

" Chaon Ching We," 248. 
Charles I, Spaniels of, 18. 

Charles II, Toy Spaniels of, 17, 53, 

7,}, 74- 

" Charlie Peace," 191. 

Charlotte, Princess, and " Billy," 

" Cherry," 91. 

" Cherub, The," Champion, 166, 
1O7, 170. 191. 

" Cherubel," 166. 

Chills and fever, dosage for, 222. 

" Chin Lee," Champion, 172. 

China, the source of the red-and- 
white Toy dog, 14, 15. 

Chinese ancestors of present types 
of Toy dogs, 250. 
of Toy Spaniels, 146, 147. 

Chinese dogs, 239. 

Chinese gargoyles as " early Pe- 
kingese," 249. 

Chinese Toy Spaniels, longer nosed, 

" Chu-erh of Alderl)ourne," Cham- 
pion, 172. 
Cleanliness, 215, 229. 
in house pets, 330. 
Clement, Saint, of Alexandria, 

cjuoted, 263. 
Clerical errors, removal of Kennel 
Club rule of fining for, 288. 
" Clevedon Magnet," Champion, 

Cliff, Mrs., 172. 
Club, dog, first, 100. 
Club judges, 279 et seq. 
Clubs, specialist, 279. 
Coat, good, essential in breeding, 
190. See also Hair. 
of Japanese Spaniels, 240. 
of Toy Spaniels, 134. 

author's standard for, 151. 

curly, 135, 136. 

Dalziel on, 136. 

soft and silky, 134. 

standard of Stonchengc for, 

wrong type of, 135. 



Coat treatment of, 204, 205. 
" Cock Robin," Champion, 175. 
Cocker Spaniels, 21 ct seq., 2},. 70, 

English, 18. See also Springer. 
Welsh, 20, 24. 
Colds and coughs, dosage for, 224. 
Colour in crossing of breeds, 179- 
of Blenheim, 93, (;4, 96, 122, 
author's standard for, 151. 
of Japanese Spaniels, 240. 
of King Charles. 92, 96, 127. 

author's standard for, 152. 
of present Toy Spaniels, 96. 
of Prince Charles, 96. 
of Ruby, 96. 

author's standard for, 153. 
of Toy Spaniels, 94, 96, 127, 141. 
standard of Stonehenge for, 

of Tricolour, 139, 141. 

author's standard for, 152. 
Comforter, 27, ^2, 35, 36. 
Dr. Caius's, 25. 

Spaniel Gentle, a name for, 26 
ct scq., 32, 34-36. 
Competition among dogs of differ- 
ent classes, 179, 183. 
" Conrad," 174, 176. 
Constipation, treatment of, 223. 
" Cora," 91. 
" Cottage Flyer," 166. 

ears of, 131. 
" Covent Garden Charlie," 133, 176. 
Crank, Mr., 172. 
Craven on the Blenheim, 72. 

on the King Charles, 72. 
" Cromwell," 174. 
Cross, Mrs. Ashton, on Pekingese, 

246, 252. 
Crossing of breeds of Toy Spaniels, 

179 ct scq. 
Cunmiings, Mr., 172. 
Curly coats, 135. 136. 

Curly coats and healthy skins, 135. 
in the King Charles, 73, 77. 

" Daddy Jap." Champion. 170. 
" Dai Butzu II." 170. 
Dalziel on coat of the Blenheim, 
on poor type (1879), 154. 
on Tricolour. 86. 
" Damarets " of Henri III of 

France, 16. 
" Dandy, ' whole red Toy, 40. 
" Dara," 170. 
de Gex, Lady, 172. 
Dealers, advice to, 299. 

" lady." See " Lady " dealers, 
large, caution against, 319, 320. 
of many breeds, caution against, 

unscrupulous, 297, 300. 
Deen, Mr., 172. 
" Deepdene," 191. 

Defects of Toy Spaniels of the pres- 
ent day, 104. 
Demarest on the Toy Spaniel, 69. 
Diseases of dogs. 107. 

personal precautions of owner 
against propagating. 229, 230. 
recognising nature of, 220, 221. 
shows as places of propagat- 
ing, 228. 
of Japanese Spaniels, 242. 
of the skin. See Skin diseases. 
Disposition of Toy Spaniels, au- 
thor's standard for, 154. 
Distemper, di.seases following, 227. 
dosage for, 222. 
Japanese, 227, 228. 
occurrence of, 227. 
treatment of, 222, 224, 225. 
" Diva," 174. 

Docking of puppies' tails, 236. 
Dog, inability of, to reproduce, 195. 
Dog Club, first, 100. 
Dogs, care of, 213. 
" Doll," 24. 



Doses, administering of, 226. 

for Toy Spaniels, 222. 
" Dragon Fly, The." Champion, 

157, 166, 171. 
Drugging of dogs. 215. 
Duke Dorynski, 8. 
" Duke of Bow," Champion. 173. 
Dysentery, treatment of, 221. 

" Earl of Chester." 173. 
Ears, canker in, treatment of, 218. 
large, in Spaniels, 93, 100. 
of Toy Spaniel, author's standard 
for. 149. 
standard of Stonehenge for, 
^ 138. 
skull and, 131, 132. 
" Eczema," 217, 219. 
Edwards, Sydenham, on the Pome- 
ranian of Holland, 262. 
on the types of 1800, 91. 
Eight Bells, 100. 
Emetics, 222. 
Encyclopedia Britannica of 1817 on 

the King Charles, 90. 
England, early Spaniels in, 51. 
quality of Japanese Spaniels of, 

quarantine regulations for im- 
ported dogs in, 196. 
Eubulus on children, 269. 
Exaggerations in type of Spaniels, 
in breeding. 185. 
of special points in the type, 116. 
Exercise for house pets, 332, 335. 
Exhibitors, manners of, 309. 

pugnacity of, 295. 
Expression in Toy Spaniel, 177. 
Eyes, 131. 132. 

inflammation of, treatment of, 

of Toy Spaniels, author's stand- 
ard for, 149. 
standard of Stonehenge for, 

Faces in cross-bred Toy Spaniels, 

Fairy." 7. 
" Fairy Blossom," 8, 166, 167. 
" Fairy Cherub," 166. 
Fanciers, independent, 282. 

lady, 281. 

real, 291. 

rich, experiences of, 297. 
" Featherweight," Champion, 3S3- 
Feeding of dogs, 216. 

of house pets, 331. 

of puppies, 233, 234. 

rectal, 221. 
Feng-Ch-ih, 241. 
Fennell on the Comforter, 36. 

on the King Charles Spaniel, 36. 
Fever in dogs. 220. 
Field, The, of 1859 on short noses, 

Field Spaniel, 66. 
Fits, suckling. 237. 

treatment of, 221. 
" Fizzy " (Champion " Windfall "), 
characteristics of, 324, 331, 

233^ 334, 335. 336. 
Fleas and lice, eradicating of, 215. 
Fleming on the Comforter, 27. 
" Flyer," recognising of. when 

puppy, 192, 193. 
Fortune, Robert, on the Japanese 

Spaniels, 92. 
Fox, expression of, 255, 256. 
" Frederick the Great," 175. 
Furnival, Mrs., 172. 

Gainsborough picture, Pomeranian 

in, 255. 
German Toy Spaniel, black-and- 

tan, 65. 
Gmelin on the Gredin, 65. 

on Toy dogs, 31. 
" Golden Ben," 175. 
Goldsmith on the King Charles, 

on the Maltese, 37. 



" Good Lion," 8g. 

Goodwin strain of Pekingese, 248. 

" Goodwood Chun," Champion, 172, 

" Goodwood Lo," Champion, 172. 
" Grand Tete," Champion, 167. 
Grantham, Miss, 172. 
Gredin, 61, 63 et scq., 65, 68. 

short-haired, 17. 
Greeks, Maltese dogs of, 254, 255. 
Gutschen Hundle, 260. 
Gutteridge, Mr., 172. 

Hasreniai Cyclone," 167. 
" Haidee," 174. 

Hair, curly, under magnifying 
glass, 136. See also Coat, 
matting of, 333. 

straight, under magnifying glass, 
Hall, Miss, 172. 
Hare Indian dog, 261. 
Harrison on the Comforter, ;i2. 
" Haughty Queenie," Champion, 

Head of Toy Spaniel, author's 
standard for, 149. 
standard of Stonehenge for, 
shape of, in crossing of breeds, 
Heist Tischbein, Toy Spaniels of, 

Henrietta of Orleans. 17. 
Henry VHI, Spaniels of, 51. 
" Hiawatha." 191. 
" Highland Lad," Champion, 165, 

Holland Spaniel, 35, 38. 

importation of, into England, 38, 

Hopkins, Mrs. W., 172. 
House pets, bed of, ;^2^. 

Blenheim Spaniels as, 338. 

cleanliness in, 330. 

exercise for, 332, 335. 

House pets, feeding of, 331. 

games of, 336, 337. 

good manners in, 330. 

indigestion in, 332. 

lifting of, 332. 

matting of hair of, 333. 

obedience in, 331. 

punishment of, 337. 

puppies as, 335. 

tricks of, 334. 

windows and, 337. 
Hulton, Lady, 172. 

Ideal type of Toy Spaniel, 178. 
Idstone on King Charles, 72. 

on King Charles of 1872, 92, 93. 

on poor type, 155. 

on tails of Toy Spaniels, 91. 
In-breeding, 196. 

diseases from abuse of, 196. 
Independent fanciers, 282. 
Indigestion, in house pets, 332. 

treatment of, 224. 
Infection by previous sire, danger 

of, 195- 
Inflammation of the eyes, treatment 

of, 214. 
Isolation of new dogs, 228. 

of sick dogs, 230. 
" Issa," 31. 
Italian Toy Spaniel, 19. 

breeding of, 186. 
Italy, introduction of Toy dog in, 

Jahn, Ives, on Greek vases repre- 
senting dogs, 271. 

Jahn, Otto, on Greek vases repre- 
senting dogs, 271. 

James II and his Spaniels, 53. 

" Japanese " coated dogs, 142. 

Japanese distemper, 227. 
virulence of. 228, 229. 

Japanese practises to obtain small 
size in Toy Spaniels, 92. 

Japanese Pug, 95. 



Japanese Spaniels, 92, 144, 145, 239. 
coat of. 240. 
colour of, 240. 

deterioration of breeds of, 
through Toy Spaniel mixture, 
diseases of, 243. 
disposition of, 241. 
distemper of, 228. 
importation of, into Engl&nd, 94. 
Japanese instructions for care of, 

noses of, 88. 
of America, heads of, 243. 

quality of, 242. 
origin of, 239. 

physical characteristics of, 239. 
present scale of points for, 244. 
resemblance of. to cats, 241. 
size of. 241. 
standards for.. 242. 
weight of, 242. 
Japanese type of Spaniels, 143, 145, 

Jenkins, Mrs., on Toy Spaniels, 44. 
Jesse on Spaniels. 24. 
on Toy Spaniels, 71. 
" Joy," Champion, 166, 174. 
Judges, club, 279 et seq. 
consistency in, 295. 
election of, 285. 
" good-natured," 294. 
impartial, 291, 292, 293. 
kinds of. 305, 306. 
men, 286. 

in regard to beauty in the Span- 
iel, 108. 
nonuniformity of, in regard to 

right type, 157. 
novice, 285, 305, 307. 
requisite characteristics of, 304. 
rule of Toy Spaniel Club regard- 
ing appointments of, for 
open shows, 284. 
specialist, 105. 
unfairness of, 278. 285 ct seq.,2gT,. 

Judges, weak-minded, 305. 

women, 286. 
Judging of dogs, aptitude and train- 
ing for, 307. 

unfairness in, 278. 
"Juliet," 8. 

Julius. Mr., " joke " of, 155. 
" Jumbo," 76, 96. 
"Jumbo II," Champion, 175. 
Juvenal, quoted, 55, 56. 

Kennel, cat in. to keep away rats, 
cleanliness in. 215. 
construction of, 212. 
Kennel Club, clerical errors rule of, 
removal of, 289. 
complaints before, 290 
good work of. 287. 
investigating committee of, 285. 
large size of Toy Spaniels in 

show of, 45. 
redress before, actions of exhibit- 
ors regarding, 288. 
regulations of, regarding judges, 
" Kennel curses," 280. 
Kennel management, 212 ct scq. 
" Kim," 8. 
" King," 175. 

King Charles Spaniel, 2t,, 36, 49. 59, 
64. 66, 70. 72, 74. 76, 83. 86, 
87, 90, 92, 95, 127. 
and Cocker. 70. 77. 
and Pyrame, 61 ct scq. 
black-and-tan. origin of. 61 et 

colour of, 92. 96. 127. 

author's standard for. 152. 
curly. 61, 73. 77. 
nose of. 87. 
noseless, 97. 
of 1842, Meyrick's standard for, 

of 1845. 89. 
of 1872. 92. 



King Charles Spaniel, original, 185, 
186, 190. 
present, 62. See also Black-and- 
descent of, 78. 
scale of points for, author's, 126. 
of T. S. C, 118. 
of Webb {1872), 123. 
" spot " in, 93. 
weight of. 43. 

" L'Ainbassadeur." 165, 167, 168. 

Lactol, 234. 

" Lady" dealers, 297, 319. 

practises of, 291. 

reports of, on own dogs, 275. 
Lady fanciers, 281. 
" Lady Jean of Cockpen," 167. 
Landseer, whole red Toy of, 40. 
Large dogs, breeding small speci- 
mens from, 187, 192. 
Larghilliere, Nicolas de, Spaniel of, 

" Laureate," Champion, 175. 
Leal, Juan de Valdes, Toy Spaniel 

of, 15. 
Lely, Sir Peter, Toy Spaniels r.f, 52. 
Linnasus on Maltese dog, 34. 

on Toy Spaniels, 68, 69. 
Lion Dog, 249. 

Litters, large, rearing of, 238. 
" Little Jock," 165. 
" Little Tommy," Champion, 165, 

167, 169, 190. 
Liver-and-white Spaniel, 45. 
Lloyd, Mrs. Russell, 172. 
Long-nosed type of Spaniels, 112. 
" Lord Vivian," Cliampioii, 167, 

Louis XI and his cruelty to dogs, 

Louis XIV, and La Valliere. 42. 

Toy Spaniels of, 19. 

Toy Spaniels in court of, 17. 
" Lovely Spot." 167. 
Lucian. on pet dogs. 270. 

Lucian, references of, to Maltese 

dog, 267, 268. 
" Lucifer," 175. 
Lytton, Lord, Pekingese of, 249. 

" Macdufif," Champion, 165, 167, 

170, 191. 
Maintenon, Mme. de, on dogs, 43. 
" Malice," of Louis XIV, 42. 
Mallock, Mrs. Raymond, on expres- 
sion, 148. 
on Toy Spaniels, 44. 
Maltese dogs, 30, 34, 37, 254, 255. 

262, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269. 

See Melitseian dogs and 

" Manchu Cheng Tu," Champion, 

Mange, conveyed by fleas and rats, 

Mao I, 241. 

Pomeranian of, 254. 
" Marland King." Champion, 171. 
Marlborough Spaniels, 14, 18, 20 ct 

scq. See also Blenheim 

Spaniels and Red-and-white 

"Marquis Ito of Kobe," 170. 
" Mars," Champion, 171. 
Marsuyama Okio, Pekingese of, 

249, 230. 
Martial on a Toy dog, 31. 

quoted, 56. 
Martin on the Blenheim. 72. 

on the King Charles, 72. 
" Marvel, The," 102. 169, 191. 
Mary Queen of Scots, 18, 24. 
Mary, Queen, Spaniels of. 51., King of Mauretania. on 

pet dogs. 269. 
^latheson. Mrs.. 172. 
INIaximus Planudes. 266. 
" May Duchess." Champion. 171. 
Meat, raw. 223. 

fur puppies. 223, 235. 
" Melitaie," 254. 



Melitseian dogs, varieties of, 6, 28, 
265. See also Maltese and 
" Mermaid's Clieruh, The," 167. 
" Mermaid's Nymph, The," 167. 
Metsu, Toy Spaniels of, 15. 
Meyrick on Cocker Spaniel, 2.^. 
on King Charles of 1842, 90. 
on Pomeranian. 261. 
standard of (1842) for King 
Charles and Blenheim, 127. 
" Midget," 164. 

Mignard, Toy Spaniels of, 41. 
in picture of Louis XV, 63. 
" Mignonne," 162. 
Milhanke, Sir Ralph. 7. 
Milnes, Mr., 172. 
Mimicke or Gentulian dog, 28. 
Miniature Toy Trawler, 40, 62, 
black, measurements of. 161. 
scale of points for, 161. 
standard for, 159. 
" Mismarked " dogs, 153. 
Mitchell, Mrs., 172. 
More, Sir Antonio, Toy Spaniels 

of, 38, 51- 
Muchi, Pekingese in drawing of, 

Muzzle of Toy Spaniel, 130. 
author's standard for, 149. 
standard of Stonehenge for, 137. 
" My Beauty," 167. 
" Myrtle Blossom," 165, 167. 

Naldires powders, 236. 

Nattier, Pomeranian of, 255. 

Navel ruptures in puppies, treat- 
ment of. 224. 

Neaves food, 234. 

Netscher, Toy Spaniels of, 15. 

" Nina Advocate," 167. 

" Ninon Nitouche," 167. 

Nixon, Mr. Hervey, 172. 

Norfolk, Duke of, and his eagles 
and Spaniel puppies, 71. 

Norwich fanciers, scale of points of, 

fifty years ago, 124. 
Nose of Japanese doj^s, 88. 
of King Charles Spaniel, S7. 
of Toy Spaniel, ahiKirnialh- short, 

short, of the Red-and-white, 87. 
" smashed," 88. 
standard for, author's, 149. 
of Stonehenge, 137. 
Noseless dogs, 88. 
King Charles, 97. 
Spaniels, in. 
with screw tail, loi. 
explanation of, loi. 
Novices, pitfalls for, 313. 

" Offley Honey Dew," Cham[)ion, 

114, 171- 
Ophthalmia, suppurating, 227, 228. 
" Orchid, The," 167. 
"Oxford Bob," 8. 

Pain in dogs, signs of, 220. 
" Pandora," 166, 167. 
Papillon, 15, 162. 
Pariah dogs of Egypt, 254. 
Paterson, Mr. Hope, 165, 172. 
" Pearl," Champion, 172. 

Pekin Poppy," Champion, 172. 
Peking Palact^ Dog Association, 
, scale of points of, for Pe- 

kingese, 251. 
Pekingese, 171, 239, 246. 
colour of, 246, 250. 
crooked legs in, cause of, 246. 
English, origin of, from Peking 

court dogs, 248. 
expression of, 248. 
Goodwin strain of, 248. 
of Lord Lytton, 249. 
original, 246. 
scale of points for, 251. 
of author, 252. 

of Peking Palace Dog Associ- 
ation, 252. 




Pekingese, scale of points for, of 
Pekingese Club, 251. 
size of, 246. 
Toy, 246. 
type of. original, 247. 

present, 248. 
wrinkles in faces of, 248. 
Pekingese Club, scale of points of. 

for Pekingese, 251. 
Penalties, 126, 127. 
Pepys, Samuel, on dogs, 52, 53. 
Percy, Mrs., 172. 
Pet dogs, 10. 

Petronius Arbiter, quoted, 54, 55. 
Pets, house, bed of, 33^. 

Blenheim Spaniels as, 338. 
cleanliness in, 330. 
exercise for, 332, 335. 
feeding of, 331. 
games of, 336, 337. 
good manners in. 330. 
indigestion in, 332. 
lifting of, 332. 
matting of hair of, 333. 
obedience in, 331. 
punishment of, 337. 
puppies as, 335. 
tricks of, 334. 
windows and, 337. 
Pettigrew, Mr., 172. 
Philip and Mary, Toy Spaniel of, 

'■ Pipo," 162. 
Pliny on toy dogs, 29. 
reference of, to Melitsean dogs, 
Plutarch, on pet dogs, 268. 
Points. See also under Standard 
and Type, 
scale of, for Blenheim, of Henry 
Webb (1872), 123. 
for Japanese spaniels, present, 

for King Charles (1872), of 

Henry Webb. 123. 
for miniature Toy Trawler, 161. 

Points, .scale of, for Pekingese, 251. 
of author, 251, 252. 
of Peking Palace Dog Asso- 
ciation, 252. 
of Pekingese Club, 251. 
for Toy Spaniels, author's, 126. 
drawn by Norwich fanciers 

fifty years ago. 124. 
of Stonehenge, in 1867, 120. 
in 1876, 123. 
in 1887, 125. 
of Toy Spaniel Club, present, 
117, 118. 
" Polar Star," 255. 
Poliarch and his pets, 265. 
" Polo," Champion, 173. 
Pomeranian Miniatures, 259. 
Pomeijanians, 14, 28, 171, 254, 255, 
coat of, 257. 
colour of, 256-259. 
colours of, original, 255. 
Egyptian model of, 254. 
excitability of,. 259. 
expression of, 255, 256. 
face of, 256. \ 

Holland, 262. 

old types of, 254, 255, 260 et scq. 
origin of, 254. 

physical characteristics of, 257. 
proper type of, 114. 
weight of, 259. 
" Pompey," Champion, 173. 
Poodle, Toy, 6. 
Pordage, Mrs., 172. 
Press reports, misleading, on dogs, 


■■ Prince Carol," 168. 

Prince Charles, colour of, 96. See 
also Tricolour. 

'■ Prince Komatsu." 170. 

" Prince of Teddington." Cham- 
pion, 175, 176. 

Prize money, 290. 

Prizes, challenge. 277, 284. 
" confined to members," 283. 



Prizes, special, 284. 

Propertus, quoted, 56. 

Proportion in Toy Spaniels, 144. 

Puff dog, 6. 

Pug. Japanese, 95. 

Pug cross, 95, 102. 

Pulse of dogs, 220. 

Puppies, Blenheim, average weight 

of, I ()_>. 

born apparently dead, reviving 

of, 2,33. 
characteristics of, at birth, 193. 
docking of tails of, 230. 
exhibiting of, 236. 
feeding of, 233, 234. 
first class, recognising of, 192. 
infection of, by previous sire, 


new-born, care of, 232. 

raw meat for, 223, 235. 

rearing of, 233. 

short-faced, recognising of, 192. 

weaning of, 233, 234. 

worms in, dosing for, 235. 
signs of, 236. 
Pyrame Brcvipilis, 61. 
Pyrame, English, 67. 
Pyrame Spaniel, 17. 

Quality in Toy Spaniels, 112, 150. 
Quarantine regulations of imported 
dogs in America, 242. 
in England, 196. 
" Queenie," 194. 

Race in Spaniels, 112. 
Raw meat, 223. 

for puppies, 223, 235. 
" Ready Money," 168. 
Rearing of puppies, 233. 
Rectal feeding, 221. 
" Red Admiral," 8. 
" Red Clover," Champion, 132, 157, 

" Red Ranee," Champion, 168. 
" Red Rival," Champion, 164. 

Red-and-white Toy Spaniels, 45, 47. 
See also Blenheims and Marl- 
borough Spaniels, 
breeding with, 187. 
short nose of, 87. 
Reed, Mrs., 172. 
Rees on the Comforter, 34. 
on the King Charles, ^2. 
Reporting on dogs for the newspa- 
pers, 274. 
impartial, 292. 
Respiration of dogs, normal, 220. 
Rheumatism, treatmt-nt of, J23. 
Rich people as fanciers, experiences 

of, 297. 
Richardson, H. D., on the King 
Charles, 70. 
of 1851, 89. 
" Ripo," 162. 
" Rococo," 191. 

Rollo," Champion, 8, 174. 
" Roscoe," 132, 165, 167, 168. 
Royal Clyde," Cliampion, 165, 167, 
" Royal Rip," Cliampion, 165, i()7, 
170, 191. 
Royal Yama Ilit(j," Champion, 
Rubens, Toy Spaniels of, 15. 
Ruby, 40, 41. 
colour of, 96. 

author's standard for, 153. 
present, colour of, 96. 

poor specimens of their class, 
163, 164. 
scale of iioints for, author's, 
of A. T. S. C, 119. 
of T. S. C, 118. 
short-nosed, 100. 
" Ruby King," 176. 
" Ruby Prince," 176. 
" Ruby Princess," 176. 

■' Sal)le Mite, The," Champion, 171, 




'■ St. Anthony's Featherweight," 
Champion, 167. 

"St. Anthony's Marvel," 89, iii. 

Saint-George, Gnillet dc, on the 
dogs of Laconia, 272. 

Savage. Mr.. 172. 

Scott, John, on tlie .Marll)orongli 
Spaniels, 21. 

Scratching of dogs, causes of, 217. 

" Seetsu Prince," 8, 165, 167. 

Senn, Mrs., 242. 

" Seraph, The," Champion, 131. 166. 
169, 170. 
Seraphina," 166. 

Serena, Miss, on Japanese Span- 
iels, 244. 

" Sergeant Dick," 167. 

Shaftesbury, Earl of, quoted, 52. 

Shape of Toy Spaniels, no, 131, 

143. 144- 
breeding for, 188. 
standard for, author's, 150. 
of Stonehenge, 136. 
Shaw, Vero, on crossing Toy Span- 
iel with Japanese, 94. 
on King Charles, 66. 
on points of Blenheim, 115. 
of Toy Spaniel, 118, 119. 
" Shelton Mercury," 171. 
Shelton Sable Atom," Champion, 
Shen Chen Lin, Pekingese of, 241, 

Shen Cheng, Toy Pekingese of, 246. 
Shen Li, 246. 

" Shepperl," 134, 164, 176. 
Shock dog, 6, 14. 
Short-nosed Toy Spaniel, breeding 

of best type of, 177. 
Shoulder in Toy Spaniels, 130. 

Show, to," conjugated, 205. 
Showing of dogs, 198 ct scq. 
advice for, 318, 319. 
decoration of pens for, 200. 
exhibitors in, relations among, 
200, 201. 

Showing of dogs, fascination of, 
of exhibit in the ring, 199. 
preparation of dog for, 199, 200. 
preparation of pen for, 198. 
washing of dogs for, 201. 
Sicilian dogs, 262. 
Size of Japanese Spaniels, 241. 
of Toy Spaniels, 116, 121, 127. 
small, practises of Japanese to 

obtain, 92. 
standard for, author's, 151. 
Stonehenge's, 138. 
Skin diseases, 216. 
admission of dogs with, in shows, 

contagiousness of, 217. 

shown by appearance of fore- 
head and eyebrows, 219, 220. 
curly coated dogs free from, 135. 
dampness a cause of, 218. 
treatment of, 217-219. 
Small dogs, breeding of, from large, 

187, 192. 
" Smashed noses," 88. 
Smellie, " King Charles " of, in 

translation of Bufifon, 64. 
Smith, Lieutenant H., on the Blen- 
heim, 71. 
on the King Charles and Cocker, 

Snowshower," 8. 
Spaniel Gentle or the Comforter, 26 

et scq. 
Special prizes, 284, 314. 
Specialist clubs, 279. 
Spitalsfield Weavers, Toy Spaniels 

of, 19. 
Spofforth, Miss, 172. 
Sporting Spaniels, 14. 
" Spot," 13Q, 140, 166. 
in the King Charles, 93. 
in Toy Spaniels, 19, 139. 
" Spotted Lily," 89. 
Springer, 19, 20, yy. See also 
Cocker Spaniel. 



Springer and King Charles, "/"j. 

English, i8. 
Standard. 87 ct scq. See also Type, 
for Blenheim, of Meyrick (1842), 
of Vero Shaw, 115. 
of Webb (1872). 122. 
for disposition of Toy Spaniels, 

author's, 154. 
for Japanese Spaniels, 242. 
for King Charles, of Meyrick 

(1842), 127. 
for Miniature Toy Trawler, 159. 
for Toy Spaniel, author's, 148 ct 
of Stonehenge in 1887, 136. 
of Vero Shaw, 118, iig. 
present, reforms in, 58. 
for Tricolours, of 1872, 121. 
Steen, Toy Spaniels of, 15. 
Stephanus of Byzantium, 265. 
Stewart. Mrs. R., 172. 
Stirling, Admiral, 94. 
Stonehenge on Black-and-tan " King 
Charles" of 1867. 80. 
on carriage of tail, 90. 
on King Charles, 76, 86. 
on short-nosed King Charles, 95. 
on short noses (1867), go. 
on Spaniels, 25. 
on standard for Toy Spaniel 

(1887), 136. 
on Tricolour Spaniel of 1837, So- 
on type, 155. 

scale of points of, for Spaniels 
in 1867, 120. 
in 1876, 123. 
in 1887, 125. 
standard of, for Tricolours, 
Blenheims, and 
tans (1867), 121. 
" Stop," 114. 

of Toy Spaniel, standard of 
Stonehenge for, 137. 
" Storm King," 8. 
Strabo on Maltese dogs, 28, 34. 

Strychnine poisoning, treatment of, 

" Stuart King," 8, 167. 
Stud dogs, cheating regarding, 321. 
Suckling fits, 237. 
Superstitions of the dog show, 311. 
" Susette." 162. 
Sussex Spaniels, 18. 

Duke of Norfolk's, 62, "jt,. 
Sybarites, and Maltese dogs, 269. 

dogs of, 255. 
Symonds. Rev. W., on Field Span- 
iel, 66. 

on King Charles Spaniel, 74, 83. 

Tail, docked, 91. 

docking of, in puppies, 236. 

of Toy Spaniels, 90. 
" Tamerlane," 175. 
Teers, Mr., 172. 
Teeth, care of, 215. 
Tcmpel, Toy Spaniel of, 15. 
Temperature of dogs, 220. 
Terrier, \'()rkshire, 6. 
Theophrastus on the Maltese dog, 

Thermometers, clinical, 220. 
Thomas, B., on the Springer, 2>7- 
Timidity in Spaniels, 128. 
'■ Tiny Tots," Champion, 174. 
Titian's pictures. Toy Spaniels in, 

" Toki of Toddington." 171. 
Topsell, E., on Melitaein dogs, 28. 

on small dogs, 260. 
" Tora of Braywick," Champion, 

Toy dogs of classical times, 53 et seq. 
Toy Spaniel Club, present scale of 
points of, 1 17. 
for Blenheims, 118. 
for King Charles, Ruby and 
Tricolours, I18. 
rules of, regarding judging ap- 
pointments in open shows, 



Toy Poodle, 6. 
Toy Spaniels, 6. 

beauty and soundness in, 107. 

black, 17, 41. 

black-and-tan. 41. 

black-and-white, 17, 42. 

Chinese, longer nosed, 15. 

history of, 13. 

deductions from, 39. 
summarized, 57. 

importation of, into luigland, 

of Palma Veccliis, 14. 
of Paul Veronese, 14. 
of the past, 173. 
of Titian, 14. 
of to-day, 163. 

of 1770, measurements of, 43. 
origin of, 13. 
original, 45, 46. 
present standards of, reforms in, 

pure white, 49. 
red-and-white, 14, 40. 
tail of, 90. 

Veronese, short-nosed, 14. 
whole red, 40. 
Toy Trawler, Miniature. Sec un- 
der Miniature. 
Toyokumi, Pekingese of, 250. 
Tricolour, 47, 80, 86. See also 
Prince Charles, 
breeding of, 189. 190. 

trueness in, igo. 
colour of, 139, 141. 

author's standard for, 152. 
original, 45. 

scale of points for, author's, 126. 
of A. T. S. C, 119. 
of T. S. C, 117. 118. 
standard of Stonelienge for 
(1867), 121. 
of 1872 for, 121. 
true, 48. 
varieties o/, 48.' 
weight of, 43. 

" Troubadour, The," Champion, 

165, i6y, 170. 
Trutifle Dog, 17, 61. 
" Trumpeters," professional, 275, 

Tweed, Mr., 172. 
Tymneus on the Maltese dog, 266. 
Type of Blenheims, proper, 1 14. 
of Pomeranians, proper, 114. 
of Toy Spaniels, 87. See also 
under Standard and Points, 
author's standard for, 148. 
breeding of liest, 177. 
exaggerations in. III. 
in breeding, 185. 
of special i)oints in, 116. 
ideal, 178. 

and present types, 178, 186. 
large, in breeding, 184. 
long-nosed, 112. 
noseless, in. 
perfect, 185. 
poor, 154 ct scq. 
present, unsatisfactory, no. 
quality in, 112. 
race in, 112. 

right, nonuniformity of judges 
regarding, 157. 

Unsoundness, 126. 

in Toy Spaniels, 104. 
" Up-face," 133. 
" Usher, The," 167. 

Van Dyck, Toy Spaniels of, 7,y. 

in picture of the children of 
Charles I, 18, 19. 

Van Mieris Ter B(M-ch, Toy Span- 
iels of, 15. 

X'arieties of the present Toy Span- 
iels, 96. 

\'eccbio, Palma, Toj- Spaniels of, 

Velascpiez, Toy Spaniel of, 15. 
" Venus of Offley," Champion, 




Veronese, Paul, Toy Spaniels of, 

Vicentino Francesco on skin dis- 
eases of Spaniels, 217. 

" Vicky," 167. 

" Vida," Champion, 168. 

•■ Violet," 8. 

Vomiting, persistent, remedy for, 

" Walkley Mac," 164, 167. 

Washing of dogs, 201. 

Water Spaniel, 18, 46. 

Watson, Mr., on Japanese Spaniels, 


Watteau, Toy Spaniels of, 17. 
WeSii^ing of puppies, 2t,t„ 234. 
Webb, Henry, scale of points of, 
for Blenheim (1872), 123. 
for King Charles (1872), 123. 
standard of, for Blenheims, 122. 
for Tricolours (1872), 121. 
Webbed feet in Toy Spaniels, 62, 

73, 78, 79. 102. 
Webster, Mrs., 172. 
" Wee Dot," 132, 185, 335. 
" Wee Radium," 167. 
Wegener, Frau Olga, collection of 

Chinese paintings of, 247. 
Weight of Japanese Spaniels, 242. 
Welsh Springers, 20, 24. 

Whelp, bitch in, washing of, 235. 

signs of, 235. 
Whelping, 230 ct scq. 

dosage for, 222, 230. 

troubles of, 103. 
" White Queen," 171. 
" Wild," 1-91. 
" Wind Fairy," 335. 
" Windfall," Champion, 19, 169, 204. 

characteristics of, 324, 331, i2>i, 
334. 335, 336. 

record of, 339. 
Witt, Miss, 191. 
Worms, 235. 

in dogs, 218. 

in puppies, dosing for, 235. 
signs of, 236. 
Wright, John, on the Pyrame, 68. 

on the Springer and King 
Charles, yy. 

Yates, Mrs., 172. 
Yorkshire Terrier, 6. 
Youatt on the Blenheim Spaniel, 
2i. 72. 

on the King Charles, 68, 84. 

on the Pomeranian (hare Indian 
dog), 261. 

on the short-nosed type, 89. 
Young, Miss, 172. 
Young dogs, judging of, 132. 






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